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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Research in Plant Disease
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 3 - Sep 1985
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Apr 1985
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Jan 1985
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Studies on Mild Mutants of Tabacco Mosaic Virus I. Induction of Mild Mutants and Their Characteristics
Choi Jang Kyung ; Son Kyung Ok ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 3~3
Three mild mutant strains of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were isolated from Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun incubated at
for 10 days after inoculation with a wild type of TMV-OM strain. They were designated into Tg 5272, Tw 227 and Tw 333. All mild strains could be distinguished from TMV-OM by their reactions on different indicator plants. The mild strains induced the mild mottling without distinct symptoms, whereas the wild strain produced severe mosaic, rugose and stunting on tobacco and red pepper plants. Tw 227 and Tw 333 produced smaller necrotic spots than those of Tg 5272 and TMV-OM on N. glutinosa and Datura stramonium. The former two strains also produced ring spots and mosaic on Gomphrena globosa compared with necrotic spots by the latter strains. Three mild strains were serologically identical to TMV-OM. Their physical properties were thermal inactivation point
, dilution end point between
, and longevity in vitro 7days or longer. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of purified preparations of the mild strains and TMV-OM were identical, with a minimum at 247nm, a maximum at 260nm, and a slight shoulder at 290nm. Electrophoresis of the strains in polyacrylamide-agarose gel showed that all the strains formed one major band and two minor bands, except for one minor band of Tw 333. However, when sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the purified viruses before electrophoresis, each strain formed only one major band.
Fluorescence Microscopic Diagnosis of Mycoplasma Infections in Jujube, Mulberry and Periwinckle Plants
Bak Won Chull ; La Yong Joon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 12~12
Attempts were made to evaluate the efficacy of three fluorochromes, i.e., DAPI (4''-6-diamidino-2-phenylin-dole-2HCl), aniline blue and quinacrine(quinacrine mustard dihydrochloride) for the detection of mycoplasma infections in jujube (Zizyphus jujuba), mulberry (Mows alba) trees and periwinckle (Catharanthus roseus) plant by fluorescence microscopy. Stem sections from these plants infected with mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) produced distinct fluorescence in the phloem when stained with DAPI, aniline blue or quinacrine, while fluorescence was absent in the healthy plants. The use of these fluorochromes provided simple and efficient techniques for the diagnosis of MLO infections. IOf the three fluorochromes tested, DAPI was found to be most efficient.
Protection of Tobacco Plants from Bacterial Wilt with an Avirulent Isolate of Pseudomonas solanacearum
Yi Y. K. ; Kim J. H. ; Park W. M. ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 17~17
Microbial antagonism between virulent and avirulent isolates of Pseudomonas solanacearum was studied in relation to the control of bacterial wilt of tobacco. In nutrient broth media or in soil, the avirulent isolate of P. solanacearum grew faster than did the virulent one. Inhibitory effect of avirulent isolate against growth of virulent one was negligible in mixed culture of the two isolates. The disease severity of bacterial wilt was significantly reduced when the roots of cultivar BY 4 susceptible to bacterial wilt was dipped in suspension of an avirulent isolate for 6 hours prior to transplanting to the soil infested with virulent bacteria. When the seedlings of tobacco were poured with the suspension of an avirulent isolate onto the soil in pre-planting pots 24 hours before ransplanting, there was a significant reduction in disease severity in the field. However, the reduction was noticed until early July, but after middle of July, no difference between the avirulent isolate-treated and non-treated plants was found in severity of the bacterial wilt.
Localized Induced Resistance to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei in Near-Isogenic Barley Lines.
Cho Baik Ho ; Peterson V. Smedegaard ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 22~22
Localized resistance against a virulent race of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei by prior inoculation of a virulent or an avirulent race of the same fungus was induced on the near-isogenic barley leaves. Induced resistance could be detected within one hour following challenge inoculation with a virulent or an avirulent inducer race, hut the resistance increased greatly as the interval between the two inoculations was increased, showing the highest level by 6-9 hours of exposure to the inducer race. The level of the induced resistance was proportional to the amount of inducer inoculum applied. The resistances elicited by virulent or avirulent inducer races were similar with respect to the level of resistance and the time needed for its induction.
Chemical Control of Fusarium Wilt of Strawberry Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae
Cho Chong Taik ; Moon Byung Ju ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 28~28
The experiments were carried out to investigate a practical method for controlling wilt of strawberry by fungicides in vitro and in field. Captafol and benomyl were the most effective in inhibiting chlamydos-pore germination and mycelial growth of the fungi. In field tests, captafol, benomyl and thiophanate-methyl showed some control effect against the disease. The propagule number of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in soil was greatly reduced by soil drenches of captabol, whereas that of Trichoderma sp. was increased.
Identification of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus from Soybean
Lee S. H. ; Choi Y. M. ; Kim J. S. ; Chung B. J. ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 33~33
A yellow stripe and bud benting disease of soybean was commonly observed on the field at Suweon area. The causal agent was identified as alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by indicator plant reactions, physical properties, serological test and electron microscopy. AMV produced vein clearing, top necrosis, top bent and mottling on the parts of soybean plants. Local lesions were produced on the inoculated leaves of Vigna sesquipedialis, Vicia faba and Tetragonia expansa, while Chenopodium am, anticolor, C. quinoa, Pisum satvium, Petunia hybrida and Nicotiana tabacum ''Bright yellow'' were systemically infected. The thermal inactivation point was
, dilution end point was
, and longevity in vitro was 2 days at room temperature. AMV from soybean was reacted with AMV - antiserum in agar gel diffusion test. Electron microscopy of AMV from soybean exhibited bacilliform particles of 60nm in length.
Pseudomonas avenae Causing Bacterial Brown Stripe Disease of Rice in Korea
Shakya D.D. ; Chung Hoo Sup ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 38~38
A bacterial brown stripe disease new to Korea was noted for the first time on rice seedlings grown in the nursery pots and in a field nursery. Artificial hypodermic injection and pricking inoculation with isolates obtained from lesions of naturally infected plants produced symptoms similar to those occurring under natural condition. Among eleven species of ten genera of gramineous plants Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Setaria viridis were the new hosts for the pathogen. On the basis of bacteriological and biochemical tests of isolates from infected rice seedlings, the causal bacterium is considered to be Pseudomonas avenae Manns.
Effect of Nitrogen Sources on Mycelial Growth and Sclerotial Formation of Rhizoctonia solani Causing Rice Sheath Blight
Park Kyung Seok ; Chung Bong Koo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 44~44
Effect of nitrogen sources on mycelial growth and sclerotial formation of Rhizoctonia solani causing rice sheath blight was studied by using sixty isolates from diseased samples of different localities in Chungbuk area. Based on the cultural characters, pathogenicity and sclerotial formation, three isolates of the fungus were selected. The virulence of the three isolates varied based on the percent of seeds germination, seedling blights and length and lesion number of lesions. As nitrogen sources, arginine, alanine, urea, ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate were more effective for mycelial growth and sclerotial formation, than were cystine, methionine, lysine, histidine, tryptophan and thyrosine. The mycelium of R. so/ani grew well in a lower concentration of urea, sodium nitrate, arginine, ammonium sulfate and lysine, but in a higher concentration of proline, histidine, and alanine. In all nitrogen sources tested, high concentration of nitrogen nutrients greatly stimulated sclerotial formation of the fungus. Arginine, urea, and ammonium sulfate increased virulence of the fungus. All the isolates grown on the basic medium plus proline produced large sclerotia. Mycelial growth of the fungus was not well in the tryptophan-added medium, showing brown discoloration of medium.
Effect of Seed Treatment and Observation of Seeds Infested with Fusarium moniforme by Scanning Electron Microscope
Sung Jae Mo ; Lee Soon Hyung ; Yu Seung Hun ; Shin Gwan Chull ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 51~51
This study was carried out to observe the propagule of Fusarium moniliforme on the surface of rice seed and in the vascular bundle of rice stem by scanning electron microscope. Spore and mycelium of F. moniliforme were observed on the surface of rice seed and in the vascular bundle of rice stem. After seed treatment with Benlate T and Busan 3D, F. moniliforme was not isolated from chaffs, but frequently from brown rice, irrespective of disinfection period.
Nitrogen and carbon Sources for Mycelial Growath of Cercospora kikuchii and Inhibition of Bacterial Growth by the Fungus
Park Won Mok ; Lee Min Jae ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 56~56
The present researches were carried out to examine the favorable nutritional conditions for mycelial growth of Cercospora kikuchii, and inhibition of bacterial growth by the fungus at various cultural conditions. As the nitrogen source, the fungus grew better on yeast-extract than the other sources of nitrogen tested. Sucrose, glucose, maltose and fructose were good sources of carbon for mycelial growth of the fungus. Two isolates of C. kikuchii, wild types A and D, inhibited the growth of bacteria on the medium containing yeast-extract or peptone as the nitrogen source, and sucrose, glucose, maltose or fructose as the carbon source, at pH 5.0. However, the albino mutant showed very little inhibitory effect under the same conditions.
Serovars of Xanthomonas campetris pv. oryzae Collected from Korea and Serological Diagnosis of Bacterial leaf Blight
Choi J. E. ; Lee D. K. ; Seo J. H. ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 61~61
Seventy-one strains collected from Korea were classified into three serovars (designated A, B-I and B-II) by using agar gel diffusion test with the antisera produced against Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae isolates Q7472 and Q7502. Of 71 isolates tested, 65 isolates belonged to serovar A, 5 isolates were serovar B-I, and one isolate was serovar B-II. The isolates of serovar B-I and B-II could be distinguished clearly from those of serovar A showing marked autoagglutination. Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae was serologically diagnosed in rice leaves by agar gel diffusion tests, possibly being distinguished from Xanthomonas campestris pv. olyzicola and E. herbicola. The pathogen could be also serologically detected from the extracts of diseased leaves, squeezed immediately, heated at
or incubated in PSA. Serological detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae is a more reliable and less time-comsuming method.
A Black Mold of Pepper Fruites Caused by Alternaria alternata
Kim Wan Gyu ; Yu Seung Hun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 67~67
A severe infection on pepper fruits by a black mold fungus was observed in the fields, Suweon. Conidia of Alternaria sp. were isolated from the infected fruits. Based on the morphological characters and size of the conidia, the fungus was identified as Alrernaria alternata (Fries) Keissler. The single spore isolates of A. alternata were weakly or not pathogenic on non-wounded pepper fruits, but highly virulent on fruits wounded with sandpaper or heated-glass rod. The infection on the wounded fruits were more severe on red fruits than on immature green ones. No visible infection was found on leaves and stems when 60-day-old plants of pepper were inoculated with the fungus. In July of 1984, the field losses of pepper fruits caused by black mold were
Growth Factors of Hyphal Anastomosis Groups of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn I. Effects of Temperature, pH, Carbon and Nitrogen Sources
Kim Hyung Moo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 72~72
The effects of temperature. pH, carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani were studied by using five hyphal anastomosis groups(four cultural types, 7 isolates) of the fungus. The ranges of optimum temperature were
in the AG 2-1, AG 2-2 and AG 4, and
in the AG 1-IA, AG 1-IB, AG 3, AG 5. The optimum pH for the mycelial growth was 6-7 in the fungus. Glucose in the AG 1-lA, AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 3 and AG 5, sucrose in the AG 2-1 and fructose in the AG 4 were the most effective for the mycelial growth, but glycerine, cellulose and lactose were not effectively utilized as nutrients.
in the AG 1-IA, AG 1-IB and AG 4, asparagine in the AG 2-1,
in the AG 2-2 and
in the AG 5 were the best nitrogen sources for the mycelial growth, but
was not easily utilized by the fungus. Nitrate and organic nitrogens for the fungal growth were utilized better than ammonium nitrogen.
Characteristics of Induced Resistance to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei in Near-Isogenic Barley Lines.
Cho Baik Ho ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 1, issue 1, 1985, Pages 79~79
Some characteristics of the resistance induced by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei on near-isogenic barley leaves were evaluated. Inoculation of heat-killed incompatible inducer conidia did not protect barley leaves against compatible challenger race when the inducer inoculum was removed prior to inoculation of challenger. However, the colony formation of challenger race was greatly reduced by 87.1 to
when the heat-killed inducer inoculum was not removed from the leaves. Although incompatible inducer conidia were removed before they penetrate the host cell, colony formation of challenger was markedly decreased without change in its infection type. After penetrating the host cell by inducer, however, a change in infection types occurred on the challenged leaves. Irrespective of compatibility of previously inoculated inducer on middle part of leaves, there was no reduction in colony formation of challenger race both on the adjacent acropetal and basipetal parts of the same leaves free of inducer inoculation. The colonies formed on the basipetal part by challenger race showed normal 4 type, whereas the infection type of colonies formed on the acropetal part was somewhat changed, thereby sporulation being reduced. The possibility of translocation of resistance-inducing factors was discussed.