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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Research in Plant Disease
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Dec 2005
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jun 2005
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Occurrence and Distribution of Crop Diseases Caused by Invasive Alien Pathogens in Korea
Cho, Weon-Dae ; Hong, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Lee, Young-Kee ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Chung*Hoe ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.001
Occurrence and distribution of crop diseases caused by invasive alien pathogens were surveyed in Korea from 2001 to 2003. Of 22 species of invasive alien pathogens surveyed, 18 species were found on their host plants but 4 species were not. Scientific names of the alien plant pathogens introduced into Korea in the past were reviewed. Revised scientific names of 10 species including anthracnose pathogens were amended in the list. Host ranges of invasive alien pathogens were investigated. Eight species of the invasive alien pathogens were found on new host plants as well as their host plants recorded in the past.
Aspect of Occurrence of Melanose (Diaporthe citri Wolf) on Yuzu Trees (Citrus junos Sieb) in Jeonnam Area, in Korea
Hur, Kil-Hyun ; Park, Seur-Kee ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 10~15
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.010
The occurrence of melanose was investigated on yuzu at Goheung and Boseong in Jeonnam province in 1997 and 1998 seasons. The disease occurrence on leaf was initiated from late May in 1997 and early May in 1998, severest in late of June on leaf, and in case of fruit, initiated from early July in 1997 and late June in 1998 with a peak in early August. The disease was occurred in twenty days more earlier in 1998 season than 1997 season. We think this was caused by temperatures during April and May. And it was supposed that the disease severity on the severest late of June was closely related to the rainfall and relative humidity during June. The disease severity was severer in old tree than the young.
Sporulation and Dissemination of Pycnidiospores of Diaporthe citri in Yuzu Tree (Citrus junos Sieb) in Jeonnam Area
Hur, Kil-Hyun ; Park, Seur-Kee ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 16~20
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.016
Several time-course experiments were carried out to understand seasonal development of melanose on yuzu trees at koehung area, Jeonnam province, during May to October. The occurrence of dead twigs, known as a source of infection, was much more in older trees, and from June to August, mostly in July. In the experiment of pycnidia development on dead twigs seasonally collected, the number of developed pycnidia was highest on July-collected dead twigs especially with the diameter of 1.1~1.5 cm. In the collection survey of disseminated pycnidiospores, although the collected number of pycnidiospores was affected with amount of precipitation, the number of observed pycnidiospores in rainwater was relatively high from June to August, with highest in early August in 1997 and late July in 1998. In the inoculation tests on 3-year-old trees and fruits in natural condition, disease occurrences were mostly affected on twigs by inocula treatment in June, and on fruits by inocula treatment in July, respectively.
Semi-selective Medium for Monitoring Colletotrichum acutatum Causing Pepper Anthracnose in the Field
Kang, Beum-Kwan ; Min, Ji-Young ; Kim, Yun-Sik ; Park, Sung-Woo ; Nguyen, Van-Bach ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 21~27
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.021
It was confirmed that anthracnose pathogen, Colletotrichum acutatum, could specifically grow on PDA amended with
/ml of ampicillin and tetracycline, and 100
/ml of mixture with carbendazim and diethofencarb. There was a positive correlation between the number of colony enumerated on semi-selective media and the disease severity on pepper fruits caused by C. acutatum. Using semi-selective media for C. acutatum, the number of pathogen on soil and plant debris infected by anthracnose pathogen was investigated. In plant debris, the colony number of C. acutatum was more than in soil. For the identification of colony appeared on semi-selective media, 10 isolates were selected randomly. They were identified as C. acutatum through PCR using C. acutatum-specific primer.
Various Cultural Factors Associated with Disease Development of Garlic White Rot Caused by Two Species of Sclerotium
Kim, Yong-Ki ; Kwon, Mi-Kyung ; Shim, Hong-Sik ; Kim, Tack-Soo ; Yeh, Wan-Hae ; Cho, Weon-Dae ; Choi, In-Hu ; Lee, Seong-Chan ; Ko, Sug-Ju ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Lee, Chan-Jung ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 28~34
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.028
This study was conducted to investigate the control possibility of garlic white rot causing severe yield losses of Allium species and cultivars using cultural practices such as optimal sowing date and burial depth, and lime application. Inoculum density in infested field soil was investigated at different soil depth, and that on the diseased plant debris was done. Inoculum density and recovery ratio of white rot pathogen of garlic was highly different between two species of Sclerotium cepivorum forming comparatively small sclerotia and Sclerotium sp. forming comparatively large ones. It was confirmed that S. cepivorum formed more sclerotia on bulbs of garlic than S. sp., and sclerotial recovery of S. cepivorum was higher than that of S. sp. Inoculum density of white rot pathogen in the infested field at garlic seeding period ranged from one to thirteen sclerotia per 30 g soil. Inoculum density of white rot pathogen decreased remarkably with increasing soil depth and above 95% of sclerotia were distributed within 5 cm of soil depth. Disease severity of white rot was higher on slightly planted garlics than deeply-planted ones. Garlic seed bulbs infected by white rot pathogens were confirmed to be one of main inoculum sources of white rot in the field and the disease incidences caused by garlic seed transmission showed big differences among garlic varieties. When nine garlic varieties harvested from infested plots were sown in the field, highly susceptible varieties, ‘Wando’, ‘Daeseo’, ‘Namdo’ and ‘Kodang’ showed high disease incidences, whereas other five varieties were not infected at all. It was confirmed that white rot occurred higher on early-sown garlics, before middle October, than on late-sown ones, after late October. Meanwhile, increasing application rate of lime ranged from 100 to 300 g reduced disease severity of white rot.
Resistance Analysis of Cultivars and Occurrence Survey of Fusarium Wilt on Strawberry
Nam, Myeong-Hyeon ; Jung, Suck-Kee ; Kim, Nam-Gyu ; Yoo, Sung-Joon ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 35~38
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.035
The occurrence of Fusarium wilt in strawberry fields in Korea was assessed from 2001 to 2003. Fusarium wilt was found from June to August in nursery beds, from September to October after planting in production beds, and from January to March during harvesting period. The symptoms were root rots, discolored vascular tissue in the crown and deformation and yellowing of central leaflets. The disease occurred in up to 30% of plants in 37 of 214 fields surveyed. Fusarium wilt occurred from cvs. ‘Dochiodome’, ‘Maehyang’, ‘Redpearl’, ‘Samaberry ’ and ‘Akihime’ and more severe from cvs. ‘Samaberry’, ‘Maehyang’ and ‘Dochiodome’. Infested soils had high salt concentrations, high nitrogen, phosphate concentrations and low pH. The results of pathogenicity test showed that Fo47 and Fo79 isolated from cvs. ‘Dochiodome’ and ‘Samaberry’ were strong pathogenic to all of four cultivars, and ‘Dochiodome’, ‘Redpearl’, ‘Maehyang’ were relatively susceptible to the all isolates.
Efficacy by Application Schedule of Fungicides before Harvest Stage for Control of Strawberry Powdery Mildew
Nam, Myeong-Hyeon ; Jung, Suck-Kee ; Jang, Chang-Soon ; Song, Jeong-Young ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 39~42
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.039
Powdery mildew, caused by Sphaerotheca aphanis var. aphanis, is an economically significant disease of strawberry in Korea. When powdery mildew is not controlled adequately, it often spreads rapidly through strawberry plants and damage is associated with reduced yields. Proper timing of fungicide applications is, therefore, essential for effective disease control. This study evaluated the efficacy by application schedule of fungicides before harvest stage for preventing powdery mildew in 2001-2003. The systemic fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, and cupper fungicide DBEDC were applied preventively during the first part of the cultivating season. Preventative applications of DBEDC by dipping treatment before transplanting and kresoxim-methyl by foliar spray before blooming stage were one of the most effective control schedule tested to prevent and manage this disease. This research demonstrated the significance of application time to control of powdery mildew, particularly provided elimination unnecessary sprays of agrochemicals and reduction costs for strawberry growers.
Control Efficacy of Flusulfamide GR on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot Caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae
Zhang, Xuan-Zhe ; Lee, Sun-Uk ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Yoon, Yeo-Sun ; Choi, Geun-Suk ; Kim, Hak-Ki ; Kim, Byung-Sup ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 43~47
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.043
To investigate control efficacy of flusulfamide GR (granule) on Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, experiment was accomplished in field located in Gangneungshi alpine area contaminated by P. brassicae. Flusulfamide GR provided control value of 84.6% and that was statistically significant difference from standard fungicides containing untreated control. To investigate ratio of reduction of resting spore according to fungicide treatment, soil of Chinese cabbage field before and after fungicide treatment were sampled and investigated density of resting spore. Resting spore density was not uniform in soil before fungicide treatment. Therefore, to investigate control efficacy of fungicide against clubroot, investigation on resting spore density was conducted before experiment and reflected in experimental design. Flusulfamide GR and DP (dust powder) provided 64.2% and 63.7% of reduction of resting spore on field soil after fungicide treatments. This result indicated that control efficacy of the fungicides was correlated with reduction of resting spore of P. brassicae. The increasing rate in fresh weight of above-ground part of Chinese cabbage by flusulfamide DP and GR, fluazinam DP and trifloxystrobin SC (suspension concentrate) was 14.3%, 13.0%, 13.8% and 3.8%, respectively. From above result, flusulmide GR have outstanding control efficacy against clubroot of Chinese cabbage and is effectively decreasing of resting spore density in soil.
Specific Detection of Root Rot Pathogen, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Using Nested PCR from Ginseng Seedlings
Jang, Chang-Soon ; Lee, Jung-Ju ; Kim, Sun-Ick ; Song, Jeong-Young ; Yoo, Sung-Joon ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 48~55
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.048
Cylindrocarpon destructans is a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus causing root rot on ginseng and trees. Rapid and exact detection of this pathogen was practiced on ginseng seedlings by nested PCR using speciesspecific primer set. The second round of PCR amplification by Dest 1 and Dest 4 primer set formed 400 bp of species-specific fragment of C. destructans from the product of first round of amplification by ITS 1 and ITS 4 primer set. In the PCR sensitivity test based on DNA density, nested PCR detected to the limit of one fg and it meant the nested PCR could detect up to a few spores of C. destructans. Also, nested PCR made it possible to detect the pathogen from ginseng seedlings infected by replantation on artificial infested soil. Our nested PCR results using species-specific primer set could be utilized for diagnosis of root rot disease in ginseng cultivation.
Molecular Characterization of Small-Spored Alternaria Species
Kim, Byung-Ryun ; Park, Myung-Soo ; Cho, Hye-Sun ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 56~65
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.056
To establish taxonomic system of morphologically similar species of small-spored Alternaria, phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1, ITS 2 and 5.8S rDNA) and mitochondrial small subunit (mt SSU) rDNA sequences and URP-PCR fingerprinting analysis from 11 species ofAlternaria were performed. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS and mt SSU rDNA sequences revealed that 10 out of 11 species of the smallspored Alternaria were phylogenetically identical with a bootstrap value of 100%. A. infectoria only was phylogenetically differentiated from the other species. The results suggest that the 10 small-spored Alternaria species are very closely related evolutionally and the markers can not be used for differentiation of the smallspored Alternaria species. URP-PCR fingerprinting analysis from eleven species of smallspored Alternaria using 10 URP primers showed that it was possible to differentiate the species, although genetic similarities were found among the species. The Alternaria sp. from common pokeweed could be distinguished from other species by URP-PCR analysis, and it was considered as a new species. A. infectoria could be easily distinguished from the other 10 species by phylogenetic analysis of ITS and mt SSU rDNA sequences and the URPPCR fingerprinting analysis.
Study on Medium Ingredient Composition for Enhancing Biomass Productionand Anti-potato Common Scab Activity of Streptomyces sp. A020645 as a BCA Candidate
Lee, Hyang-Burm ; Roh, Hyo-Young ; Park, Dong-Jin ; Lee, So-Keum ; Ko, Young-wan ; Koh, Jeong-Sam ; Kim, Chang-Jin ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 66~71
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.066
The effect of medium components such as wheat bran, rice bran, oat meal, and soybean meal as basic ingredients and KH2PO4, glucose, and molasses as additives on mass production and anti-potato common scab activ ity of a streptomycete A020645 strain as a biocontrol agent (BCA) candidate was investigated. Of basicingredients, oat meal was the best one for mass poduction and enhancement of anti-potato common scabactivity. The biomass production of the active strain was more enhanced when 0.1-0.01.% glucose or molassesas additive were added into the basic medium. These information may have important implications in applying for effective formulation of BCA.
Phytophthora Blight on Daphne odora Caused by Phytophthora nicotianae
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 72~76
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.072
In 2002 and 2003, Phytophthora blight on Daphne odora occurred in fields at Waryong Mountain, Sacheon city, Korea. The disease usually initiated on the root and crown of the plant. Crown lesions began with light brown as water-soaking. Infection rate of the disease reached up to 60% in a heavily infested fields. The causal fungus was identified as Phytophthora nicotianae based on following mycological characteristics. Sporangium: readily formed in water, papillate, noncaducous, ovoid to spherical, 23~
in size. Oogonium: spherical, smooth walled, 18~26
in size. Oospore: aplerotic, globose, 16~24
in size. Antheridium: amphigynous, unicellula, spherical. Chlamydospore: abundant, spherical, 16~32
in size. Sexuality: heterothallic. Optimum growth temperature was about 25~
. Pathogenicity of the isolate was confirmed on host plant and the fungus was identified as Phytophthora nicotianae. This is the first report of Phytophthora blight of Daphne odora in Korea.
Leaf Blight of Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani
Kim, Hyung-Moo ; Song, Wan-Yeob ; Seo, Byung-Soo ; Ko, Jeong-Ae ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 77~79
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.077
Leaf blight of kudzu was found in Jeonbuk province in 2002. Water-soaked lesion appeared on leaves, and young stems and gray green blight sypmtom expanded from margin to main vine of leaves. As the disease became severe, blighted leaves and shoots turned dark brown and then collapsed. The causal pathgen showed initially white aerial mycelium and turned brown to gray. Mycelia were branched at 90o angles and multinucleate in one cell. It formed sclerotia on PDA. Slerotia were irregular, globose and 0.5~3.0 mm in diameter. The causal fungus of leaf blight was identified as Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn based on the cultural and morphological characteristics. This is the first report on leaf blight of kudzu caused by R. solani in Korea.
Bacterial Canker of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum
Kim, Gyoung-Hee ; Nou, Ill-Sup ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Lee, Seung-Don ; Koh, Young-Jin ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 80~84
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.080
Bacterial canker of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) was observed in farmers\' orchards in Goesan, Chungbuk in 2003. Typical canker symptoms occurred on the branches or twigs of sweet cherry in early spring and bacterial exudates oozed out of the cracked barks of diseased trees. Watersoaked brown symptoms appeared on the leaves and severe infection caused thorough defoliation on the branches or twigs of sweet cherry. When severely infected branches or twigs were cut, irregular and rusty-colored symptoms in sapwood and heartwood were clearly found, indicating that they can serve as specific symptoms of bacterial canker of sweet cherry. The causal bacterium responsible for the symptoms was isolated purely from the infected sapwood of sweet cherry. Based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the causal bacterium was identified as Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum. The bacterium was pathogenic on sweet cherry and Japanese apricot, but not on peach, cherry, and kiwifruit. It is proposed that the disease be named as bacterial canker of sweet cherry.
Occurrence of Stem Rot of Aster glehni Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Lee, Chang-Jung ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 11, issue 1, 2005, Pages 85~87
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2005.11.1.085
In July 2003, a destructive stem rot occurred sporadically in an exhibition farm on Aster glehni of Hamyanggun, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Korea. The typical symptoms of the disease were water-soaking, stem rot, wilt or blight. The infected plants were mostly died. White mycelial mats were spread over lesions and sclerotia were formed on stems and near soil line. The sclerotia were globoid or irregular in shape, 1~3 mm in size, and white to brown in color. The optimum temperature for fungal growth was about 30oC. Clamp connections were observed in the hyphae of the fungus grown on potato dextrose agar, and hyphal diameter was 3~8
. On the basis of mycological characteristics and test of pathogenicity to host plants, the fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. This is the first report on the stem rot of Aster glehni caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.