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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Research in Plant Disease
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Dec 2006
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Aug 2006
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Apr 2006
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Plant Diseases Occurring on Rose Stem
Han Kyung-Sook ; Park Jong-Han ; Lee Jung-Sup ; Seo Sang-Tae ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 65~68
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.065
The rose is one of the most important commercial cut flowers in the world. Recently stem blight symptoms have often found in hydroponics and soil cultured roses. These symptoms are appeared by four diseases; gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea, common canker by Coniothyrium fuckelii, anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Pythium root rot by Pythium sp. Each symptom and its causal pathogen is described.
Occurrence of Freesia Basal Rot Caused by Sclerotium sp.
Lee Sang-Yeob ; Ryu Jae-Gee ; Kim Yong-Ki ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 69~74
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.069
Basal rot of freesia caused by a Sclerotium sp. occurred at Incheon areas. Incidence of the disease reached up to 45% and averaged 17.0% in the fields. Typical symptoms consisted of sheath dry and leaf blight due to rots on basal leaves. The causal fungus was identified as Sclerotium sp. based on following mycological characteristics. The fungus formed sclerotia on cultural media and plant tissues, but did not produce asexual spores. On cultural medium, aerial mycelia of the fungus changed color from white to clay with cultural age and smelled musty odor. Numerous irregular and elliptical black microsclerotia of the fungus were formed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) after 5 days of incubation at
. The fungus grew at
. However, the optimal temperature and pH for mycelial growth of the fungus were
and 5.5 respectively. The isolate showed present pathogenicity to not only freesia but gladiolus in the pathogenicity test, and the symptoms were similar to those observed in the fields. Basal rot of freesia caused by Sclerotium sp. is firstly reported in Korea.
Occurrence of Crown Gall of Rose and Rose Cultivar-specific Resistance
Han Kyung-Sook ; Kim Won-Hee ; Park Jong-Han ; Lee Jung-Sup ; Seo Sang-Tae ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 75~80
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.075
Crown gall on rose was observed in greenhouse during year 2003-2005. The disease incidence was up to 28.3% and the disease was the severer in hydrophonics culture than that in soil. The typical gall symptom occurred mainly on the root and crown resulting in poor foliage, stunting, and fewer blossoms. Sixty-three rose cultivars were inoculated with Agrobacterium. tumefaciens isolated from rose crown gall, to evaluate rose cultivar-specific resistance. The size of galls from inoculated rose stems was measured in a greenhouse test. Tumors formed in almost varieties of rose inoculated. Based on the frequency of tumor occurrence and weight of galls formed on the stem of rose, it was shown that `Little Marble`, `Golden Gate` and `Rosa Rox-ette` were extremely susceptible to crown gall. Some varieties such as `Little Silver` appeared to be resistant to the crown gall.
Biological Control of Garlic White Rot Accused by Sclereotium cepivorum and Sclereotium sp. Using Bacillus subtilis 122 and Trichoderma harzianum 23
Lee Sang-Yeob ; Lee Sang-Bum ; Kim Yong-Ki ; Hwang Soon-Jin ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 81~84
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.081
Trichoderma harzianum 23 WP and Bacillus subtilis 122 WP were formulated as antagonists of Sclerotium cepivorum and Sclerotium sp. of garlic white rot. In the field test, applications of Trichoderma harzianum WP and Bacillus subtilis WP reduced garlic white rot by Sclerotium cepivrum from 10.9% in the control to 4.1% and 6.2%, respectively at Taean. Also at Seosan, applications of Trichoderma harzianum 23 WP and Bacillus subtilis 122 WP reduced garlic white rot by Sclerotium sp. from 17.8% in the control to 1.2% and 2.6%, respectively. Treatment of Trichoderma harzianum 23 WP and Bacillus subtilis 122 WP increased garlic yield in two area. Therefore, Trichoderma harzianum 23 WP and Bacillus subtilis 122 WP have shown potential as biofungicides of garlic white rot in the two different pathogens.
Optimum Cultivation Conditions for Mass Production of an Antagonistic Bacterium Bacillus subtilis BD0310 for Development of a Microbial Agent Controlling Gray Blight of Tea Plants
Kim Gyoung-Hee ; Oh Soon-Ok ; Hur Jae-Seoun ; Yum Kue-Jin ; Koh Young-Jin ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.085
Bacillus subtilis BD0310 isolated from tea leaves was used for the development of a biofungicide against Pestalotiopsis longiseta causing gray blight of tea plants. The optimum growth conditions were investigated for the mass cultivation of the microbial agent. The optimum temperature and cultivation time were determined as
and the optimum initial pH was pH 7.0 in nutrient broth. Among the tested carbon sources of fructose, galactose, glucose, glycerol, inositol, lactose, maltose, sorbitol and starch, maltose and inositol were found to highly increase antifungal activity of the microbial agent against P. longiseta. Yeast extract and tryptone apparently increased antifungal activity of the microbial agent among the tested nitrogen sources of casein, tryptone, malt extract, yeast extract and
. The results will make a contribution to mass production of the antagonistic bacterium Bacillus subtilis BD0310 for development of a microbial agent controlling gray blight of tea plants.
Inhibitory Effect on Infection of Plant Viruses by Filtrate Powder from Culture Broth of Acinetobacter sp. and Its Mode of Action
Kim Mi-Soon ; Jung Min-Young ; Kim Yun-Sung ; Jang Cheol ; Hwang In-Cheon ; Ryu Ki-Hyun ; Choi Jang-Kyung ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 91~98
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.091
A filtrate powder, designated as KNF2022, produced from culture broth of Acinetobacter sp. KTB3 was tested for their inhibitory effects on Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) infection to Nicotiana glutinosa or N. tabacum cv. Xanthi nc. When 1/100 dilution with distilled water was treated to the plants and PMMoV was inoculated, the inhibition was estimated to be 94.3 and 95.6%, respectively. The same concentrations of KNF2022 inhibited infections of Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on Chenopodium amaranticolor by 97.1 and 92.5%, respectively. Duration of inhibitory activity of the filtrate powder from Acinetobacter sp. culture broth against PMMoV infection on N. glutinosa was maintained for 2 days at 80% inhibition level, however, the inhibitory effect was diminished from 4 days after treatment to 50% levels. To evaluate inhibitory effects on systemic host plants of the antiviral agent, symptom developments of PMMoV, PepMoV and CMV on KNF2022-treated pepper plants were investigated. Delayed symptom developments until 10 days after inoculation (DAI) were observed for all the three viruses when the viruses were inoculated individually, and these delayed symptom development effects were maintained until 30 DAI in case of PepMoV. Moreover, PepMoV was not detected by RT-PCR and ELISA until 30 DAI. These delayed symptom development effects were diminished in all combinations of three virus co-inoculations due to synergism of three viruses on symptom developments. Inhibitory effect of KNF2022 was verified under electron microscopic examinations using purified virus preparations. Particles of PMMoV and PepMoV were observed on specimens from 5 min after KNF2022 treatment, and the particle sizes were reached in the range of 200-250 nm and 400-600 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the viral particles were destructed and particle sizes were reached in the range of 100-150 nm and 300-500 nm, respectively, on 60 min after treatments. Reduction of local lesion numbers on N. tabacum cv. Xanthi nc and C. amaranticolor were accompanied with reduction of virus particle sizes. In the case of CMV destructed particle numbers were also increased according to incubation period after KNF2022 treatment and local lesions on C. amaranticolor were reduced.
Response of Several Fungicides of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolates Obtained from Persimmons in Sangju
Lim Tae-Heon ; Choi Yong-Hwa ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 99~102
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.099
In 2005, 90 isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing persimmons tree anthracnose were obtained from infected twigs and fruits of persimmon trees. Their responses to nine fungicides, consisting of two benzimidazoles (thiophanate-methyl, carbendazim), three ergosterol-biosynthesis inhibitors (difenoconazole, myclobutanil, tebuconazole), and four protective fungicides (propineb, mancozeb, chlothalonil, and dithianon), were investigated with relative mycelial growth index to untreated control on PDA treated with field application rate of each fungicide. At response to carbendazim (
) and thiophanate-methyl (
), 82% and 78% of isolates showed relative mycelial growth index under 0.1 to untreated control, respectively. All of them did not grow on PDA incorporated with myclobutanil (
) and tebuconazole (
). Only one isolate (PER 36) grew on PDA amended with difenoconazole (
), but its relative mycelial growth index to untreated control was very low with a values of 0.03. They were most sensitive to propineb (
) among four protective fungicides.
Current Pesticide Usage by Kyeongbuk Farmers and Applicability of Plant Protection Certificate
Yi Young-Keun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 103~107
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.103
An array of surveys was designed to improve current Pesticide Management Law and Acts by investigating farmers` usage of pesticides and by assessing applicability of Plant Protection Certificate to register local pesticide markets or related businesses. This study indicates that most farmers choose pesticide recommended by local pesticide market dealers. This survey also indicates serious misuse or overuse of pesticides by farmers probably due to inappropriate recommendations. To guarantee rational use of pesticides by the end users, most experts in the plant protection areas have realized the importance of the Certificate as a license to register the local pesticide markets. To the end, current Pesticide Management Laws and Acts need to be revised to ask pesticide-dealing workers to take the Plant Protection Certificate.
Soil Microflora and Microfauna in 29 Years of N-P-K Fertilizer Omission Plot
Jo Chae-Hee ; Yu Sun-Nam ; Kim Dong-Geun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 108~114
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.108
This study was conducted to elucidate the interactions among soil microorganisms in a special field where one, two or three of N, P, K fertilizers were continuously not applied for 29 years. Crop yield (barley, soybean), soil chemical properties and microflora and microfauna including nematodes, nematophagous fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria, and fungi were examined for two years. Tylenchorhynchus sp. was the most important plant-parasitic nematode (range
soil) followed by Pratylenchus sp. and Helicotylenchus sp. Among nematophagous fungi, Monacrosporium spp. was the most frequently found followed by Harposporium sp. and Cystopage sp. In general, plots treated with phosphate fertilizer yielded more, had more nematodes, bacteria and actinomycetes. In contrast, total fungal population densities including nematophagous fungi, Cystopage sp. and Harposporium sp. were in reverse; they were more abundant in the plots with lower phosphate contents. Phosphate and pH are positively correlated and two most important determining factors for the population density of soil organisms under investigation. According to correlation analysis, Ca, Mg, and
contents in soil and population densities of Tylenchorhynchus sp., saprophitic nematodes, actinomycetes, and bacteria were positively correlated with pH, but were negatively correlated with fungal population densities. We hope that the study will add an additional knowledges to understand our mysterious underworld.
Gray Mold of Nephrolepis Caused by Botrytis cinerea
Jeon Yong-Ho ; Kim Jung-Ho ; Kim Young-Ho ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 115~118
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.115
In February of 2000-2001, the gray mold disease occurred on nephrolepis (Nephrolepis sp.) grown in a flower nursery farm in Suwen, Korea. Typical symptoms were water-soaked brown or blackish lesions on terminal leaf blades. Severely infected leaves were entirely blighted with grayish fungal mycelia formed on the surface. Conidia of the fungus in mass were hyaline or gray, 1-celled, mostly ellipsoid or ovoid and
in size. Conidiophores were formed on PDA with
in width. The sclerotia were readily formed within 2 or 3 days on PDA. In addition, the Biolog database gave the causal fungus a high similarity to Botrytis cinerea (78%) with a match probability of 100%. Pathogenicity of the causal organism was proved according to Koch`s postulate. The causal organism was identified as Eotrytis cinerea based on its mycological characteristics and utilization of carbon sources with Biolog system as supporting data. This is the first report of gray mold of nephrolepis caused by Botrytis cinerea in Korea.
Anthracnose of Pomegranate Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in Korea
Kwon Jin-Hyeuk ; Nam Myeong-Hyeon ; Park Chang-Seuk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 119~121
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.119
Anthracnose of pomegranate (Punica granatum) caused by Colletotrichum acutatum was observed in the exhibition field at Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, and in farmer`s orchard at Gaheo-myon, Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongnam province, Korea. The pathogen generally attacks on the fruits and induces dark lesion and rotting. The infected fruits were mostly dropped or mummified. The color of colonies of the pathogenic fungus grown on potato dextrose agar was pinkish gray. Conidia were fusiform in shape and was
in size. Appressoria were pale to dark brown in color, clavate in shape and was
in size. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was
. Pathogenicity of the causal organism was proved according to Koch`s postulate. On the basis of mycological characteristics and pathogenicity test on fruit, the fungus was identified as Colletotrichum acutatum. This is the first report on the anthracnose of pomegranate caused by C. acutatum in Korea.
Sclerotinia Rot of Fatsia japonica Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Kwon Jin-Hyeuk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 122~124
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.122
Sclerotinia rot was occurred on the leaf and stem of Fatsia japonica in Geoje city, Gyeongnam province in Korea from 2004 to 2005. The typical symptom of the disease was water-soaked infected leaves and stems. The colony of the isolated fungus was white to faintly gray in color. Apothecia were cup-shaped with numerous asci and
in size. Asci were cylindrical in shape and
in size. Ascospores were aseptate, hyaline, ellipsoid in shape, and
in size. Sclerotia formed on the plants and PDA medium were globose to cylindrical or irregular in shape, black in color. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was
. This is the first report on the Sclerotinia rot of Fatsia japonica caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea.
Occurrence of Downy Mildew on Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis on Seedling Nursery in Korea
Kwon Jin-Hyeuk ; Park Chang-Seuk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 125~128
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.125
Downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berkeley & Curtis) occurred on the cotyledon of gourd (Lagenaria leucantha cv. Sambokkkul) and scion of watermelon (cv. FR couple) in commercial nursery around Jinju city, Gyeongnam province in Korea in 2005 and 2006. The disease symptoms usually started with water-soaking lesions on cotyledon and then the infected leaves became withered and eventually died. The sporangia of the pathogen were one-celled, ovoid to ellipsoid in shape, pale grayish in color, and
in size. Sporangiophores were errect, branched, and
in size. Pathogenicity of the causal organism was proved according to artificial inoculations. Although the virulence of the causal fungus on the host plants was not strong, it produced typical symptoms. The causal organism was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berkeley & Curtis) based on the mycological characteristics of the fungus and pathogenicity. This is the first report on downy mildew of watermelon caused by P. cubensis in Korea.
Bacterial Common Blight and Fuscous Blight of Small Red Bean caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli var. fuscans
Lee Seung-Don ; Lee Jung-Hee ; Moon Jung-Kyung ; Heu Sung-Gi ; Ra Dong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 129~133
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.129
A bacterial disease of small red bean (Phaseolus angularis) was observed on field-grown plants in Suwon in year 2003. Leaf symptoms initially appeared as water-soaked spots that gradually enlarged, became flaccid and necrotic and were often bordered by a small zone of lemon yellow tissue. In the case of severe infection, dead leaves were defoliated. Pod symptoms consisted of the lesions that were generally circular, slightly sunken and dark reddish brown. Isolation made from diseased leaves on yeast extract dextrose calcium carbonate agar yielded nearly pure cultures of a yellow-pigmented bacterium typical of a xanthomonad. Three bacterial strains were purified and used for further tests. Pathogenicity of strains was confirmed on 3-week-old small red bean plants sprayed with bacterial suspensions containing
of phosphate buffered saline. The representative Xanthomonas strains isolated from small red bean were compared with X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli and X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli var. fuscans type strains for fatty acid profiles, biochemical tests and metabolic fingerprints using Biolog GN2 microplate, showing that all outcomes were indistinguishable between our isolates and reference strains. Two of three strains produced a melanin-like brown pigment extracellularly on King`s medium B agar. These results suggest that this new small red bean disease observed in Suwon is bacterial fuscous blight caused by X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli and X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli var. fuscans.
Black Rot of Broccoli Caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris
Lee Seung-Don ; Lee Jung-Hee ; Kim Sun-Yee ; Kim Yong-Ki ; Lee Yong-Hoon ; Heu Sung-Gi ; Ra Dong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 134~138
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.134
A new bacterial disease of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was observed on field-grown plants in Pyungchang during 2003 and 2004. Seedling infections first appeared as a blackening along the margins of the cotyledon. Cotyledon shriveled and dropped off. Infected seedlings were stunted and yellowed and eventually died. The disease was easily recognized by the presence of yellow, V-shaped, or U-shaped areas extending inward from margin of the leaf. As the disease progressed, the yellow lesions turned brown and the tissues died. Isolations made from diseased leaves on yeast extract dextrose calcium carbonate agar yielded nearly pure cultures of a yellow-pigmented bacterium typical of a xanthomonad. Two bacterial strains were purified and used for further tests. Pathogenicity of strains was confirmed on 3-week-old crucifer (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, kale, radish and broccoli) plants cut by scissors with bacterial suspensions containing
of phosphate buffered saline. The Biolog and fatty acid analyses and 16S rDNA sequencing of two strains (SL4797 and SL4800) from broccoli black rot showed that they could be identified as X. campestris pv. campestris because of their high similarity to the tester strain (X. campestris pv. campestris NCPPB528) with a match probability of 100%. This is the first report of black rot of broccoli in Korea.
Convenient Nucleic Acid Detection for Tomato spotted wilt virus: Virion Captured/RT-PCR (VC/RT-PCR)
Cho Jeom-Deog ; Kim Jeong-Soo ; Kim Hyun-Ran ; Chung Bong-Nam ; Ryu Ki-Hyun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 139~143
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.139
Virion captured reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (VC/RT-PCR) could detect plant virus quickly and accurately. In the VC/RT-PCR, no antibody is needed unlike immuno-captured RT-PCR (IC/RT-PCR) which had been improved method of RT-PCR for plant viruses, and virus nucleic acids can be obtained easily within 30minutes by property of polypropylene PCR tube which is hold and immobilized viral particles on its surface. For the virion capture of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the extraction buffer was tested. The optimum macerating buffer for TSWV was 0.01M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.5% sodium sulfite. The viral crude sap was incubated for 30 min at
. The virions in the PCR tubes were washed two times with 0.01M PBS containing 0.05% Tween-20. The washed virions were treated at
immediately for 1 min containing RNase free water and chilled quickly in the ice. Disclosed virions` RNAs by heat treatment were used for RT-PCR. Dilution end point of
from plant`s crude sap infected with TSWV showed relatively higher detection sensitivity for VC/RT-PCR. During multiple detection using two or more primers, interference was arisen by interactions between primer-primer and plant species. The result of multiplex RT-PCR was influenced by combinations of primers and the kind of plant, and the optimum extraction buffer for the multiplex detection by VC/RT-PCR should be developed.
Production of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin and Its Application for Pepper mild mottle virus in Serological Tests
Han Jung-Heon ; Lee Cheol-Ho ; Kim Young-Ho ; La Yong-Joon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 144~147
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.144
Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is much widely used in medical fields, but its use in serology of plant viruses is much limited. We produced an IgY against pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and applied it to several serological tests. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained from the egg yolk of chicken immunized with a total of 2mg of purified PMMoV over 2 months. The titers of antibodies were measured with the ring-test over six months after the first injection. The highest.titers of IgY was 1/2,560 at 2 months after the first injection. Approximately 60-80 mg of IgY were obtained from one egg yolk. Using the IgY, 1ng/ml of purified PMMoV was detected with the indirect ELISA. Gelrite gel double diffusion test, ELISA and tissue immuno-binding assay employing IgY gave similar sensitivity and specificity to those of IgG developed in rabbit. Therefore, the IgY which can be obtained in large quantities from a chicken, might be useful for the antibody production and the serology of plant viruses.
Occurrence and Symptoms of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus on Ornamental Plants in Korea
Kim Jeong-Soo ; Cho Jeom-Deog ; Kim Jin-Young ; Lee Sin-Ho ; Chung Bong-Nam ; Kim Jae-Hyun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 12, issue 2, 2006, Pages 148~151
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2006.12.2.148
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was occurred newly on the 4 ornamental plants of Impatiens balsamina (Balsam), Dahlia variabilis (Dahlia), Callistephus chinensis (Aster) and Zinnia elegans (Indian lilac) at Anyang area in Korea. TSWV produced the typical symptoms of single or double ring spots on the leaves and induced usually necrosis, wilt and/or severe mosaic.