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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Research in Plant Disease
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Dec 2008
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Aug 2008
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Apr 2008
Selecting the target year
Rice Blast Control and Race Diversity by Mixed-Planting of Two Cultivars ('Hopyeongbyeo'/'Nampyeongbyeo') with Different Susceptibility to Magnaporthe oryzae
Oh, In-Seok ; Min, Ji-Young ; Cho, Myung-Gil ; Roh, Jae-Hwan ; Shin, Dong-Bum ; Song, Jin ; Kim, Myeong-Ki ; Cho, Young-Chan ; Kim, Byung-Ryun ; Han, Seong-Sook ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 143~152
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.143
Mixed-planting of two rice cultivars, HP ('Hopyeongbyeo') and NP ('Nampyeongbyeo'), having a dissimilar susceptibility to rice blast was practiced for chemical-free control of rice blast in the field. The HP/NP combination was selected for applying under mechanized agricultural conditions. Because they have similar genetic characteristics such as seed germination and heading time, culm length, rice quality and size of rice grains except susceptibility to blast. Incidence of panicle blast was reduced 50.4 % compare with supposed blast incidence by HP/NP mixed-planting when the seeds of two cultivars were combined 1 to 1 as weight. Supposed blast incidence was estimated from reduction of rice blast caused by addition of a resistant cultivar NP. Race diversity of Magnaporthe oryzae was examined for correlation with control effect of HP/NP mixed-planting on rice blast. The population of dominant race KJ-101 was diminished and replaced with various co-existing races and eleven new races were appeared in mixed-planting plot. Total number of race isolated from mixed-planting plot was not largely different from mono-culture. However, detection frequency of the new race was increased and variation of the population size of each race was decreased in mixed-planting plots. It was shown that a biased community with a dominant race (KJ-101 or KI-181) was altered to a balanced one of coexisting races. From these results, it was supposed that the balanced diversity among co-existing races within a community might be correlated to control effect by HP/NP mixed-planting on rice blast. Further more, it should be studied that genetic characteristics of the individual race including a virulence on cv. HP and NP was examined for verifying a correlation of mixed-planting effect and race diversity.
An Easy Seedling Method to Screen Resistance of Powdery Mildew of Barley and Wheat
Park, Jong-Chul ; Park, Chul-Soo ; Kim, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Yang-Kil ; Lee, Mi-Ja ; Park, Ki-Hoon ; Noh, Tae-Hwan ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 153~158
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.153
This study was conducted to develop a easy seedling method to test large amounts of barley and wheat cultivars for resistance of powdery mildew. In addition, we also examined the resistance of genetic resources that have been used in barley and wheat breeding programs in Korea. This seedling test used paper bag with seeds can be completed within three weeks. to-day seedlings were available to inoculation and 8 days was needed for result reading. This method can test at least 180 collections at one time. we can identify the two resistant types by leave symptoms showed non infection and necrotic spots. Among the 79 Korean barley cultivars, only two cultivar, 'Sangrokbori' and 'Dajinbori' were resistant and 'Jejubori' showed moderate resistant. There was no resistant in hulless barley and wheat cultivars. It was same results in comparison of earlier resistant reports in field test. We confirm that this method could using in test of powdery mildew resistance in barley and wheat. Among the 1,401 genetic resources using in Korean breeding program, malting barley has more resistant collections comparing to 796 hulled and hulless barley and 273 wheat germplasms.
Influence of Crown Gall Infection on Growth and Flowering of Rose
Han, Kyung-Sook ; Kim, Won-Hee ; Park, Jong-Han ; Han, You-Kyoung ; Cheong, Seung-Rong ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 159~164
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.159
Crown gall of rose (Rosa hybrida) was observed in greenhouse during 2003-2007. The average disease incidence was up to 38.1 % and was more severe in hydroponic culture as compared to soil culture. The typical gall symptom occurred mainly on the root, crown, or both, and resulted on poor rooting, growth retardation and yield loss. The reduction rate of rooting influenced by crown gall was 57.5% as compared to healthy plants on nursery stock. The location of gall formation in the plant influenced growth vigor resulting in symptoms such as poor shooting. Healthy plants produced 19.1 flowers/
, while diseased plants produced 9.5 flowers/
during the same cultivation period. Moreover, the number of days to flowering was longer for the diseased plants than for healthy plants - 51.2 days and 39.8 days for first harvest, and 60.6 days and 52.1 days for the second harvest, respectively. Conclusively, infection on the basal stem caused serious loss of the number of shoot formation; yield loss of cut flower was 38.7% due to crown gall infection and delay of harvesting time about 8-10 days.
Race Classification of the Bacterial Blight Pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, by Rice NILs with Single Resistance Genes
Choi, Jae-Eul ; Kim, Bo-Ra ; Han, Jin-Soo ; Kang, Hee-Kyoung ; Hur, Seung-Gi ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 165~170
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.165
One hundred and three isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Korea were evaluated for their virulence on four near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing a single resistance gene, and Korean differential varieties. The resistant gene backgrounds of Cheongcheongbyeo, Pungsanbyeo, Hangangchalbyeo, Milyang42 were not completely understood and they were not suited for the classification of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Four NILs, IRBB101, IRBB103, IRBB105, and IRBB107 were difference for characterizing races of X. oryzae pv. oryzae because they have a single resistance gene. These NILs may be useful differential set in examining pathogenic races of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in Korea. Based on the virulence of 103 isolates to new differential varieties, they were classified into 3 races.
Disease Incidence, Yield and Quality Comparisons among Rice Varieties with Different Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Blight
Noh, Tae-Hwan ; Kim, Ki-Young ; Lee, Du-Ku ; Shim, Hyeong-Kwon ; Kang, Mi-Hyung ; Park, Jong-Chul ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 171~175
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.171
The influence of rice bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease incidence on yield and quality of Nampyung, Gang-baek and Iksan493 was investigated in three areas, Gimje, Yeongam and Jangheung, frequently found BLB infested rice. The infection rate of Nampyung, susceptible to BLB disease, was higher (
) than Gang-baek (
) and Iksan493 (
), have resistant gene Xa7 and xa5, respectively. BLB disease incidence was severely found in Gimj and then yield of Nampyung was reduced 65% (352 kg/10a) compared to Iksan493 (540 kg/10a) due to the decrease in the ripen grain filling, brown/rough ratio and 1,000 grain weight. There was no difference of rice yield among Nampyung, Gangbaek and Iksan493 in Yeongam and Jangheung. The occurrence time of disease in Yeongam and Jangheung was later than Gimje and BLB disease was less infected in these areas. BLB infected rice grain showed inferior grain appearance and taste index to sound grain. independent of rice with resistant gene. In Yeongam and Jangheung, Gangbaek and Iksan493 cultivated showed lower ratio of white color to belly than Nampyung. Iksan493 showed better grain appearance and lower ratio of white core to belly than Gangbaek. In protein content of rice grain, the range of Gangbaek and Iksan493 was
, but Nampyung showed unstable ranged from undetermined to 9.0%.
Electron Microscopic Study for the Influence of Soaking in Hot Water and Prochloraz Solution on Spore and Mycelium of Fusarium fujikuroi Infected in Rice Seed
Park, Woo-Sik ; Yeh, Wan-Hae ; Lee, Se-Weon ; Han, Seong-Suk ; Lee, Jun-Seong ; Lim, Chun-Keun ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 176~181
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.176
This experiment was conducted to find the causes of ineffective seed disinfection methods such as rice seeds soaking in hot water and prochloraz EC solution when the rice seeds were severely infected by Bakanae disease. In case of rice seeds collected from severely diseased field by Bakanae disease, the pathogen as the forms of spores and mycelium were infected in plumule and inner and outer integument of embryo, aleurone layer, and pericarp layer. When the rice seeds were soaked in hot water, the appearances of spores and hypha on the outer pericarp layer were severely disordered, however those of inner region of outer integument and aleurone layer were shown normal. The membrane of hypha on the outer pericarp layer was destroyed within 24 hours, while some spores were healthy and germinated 7 days after soaking, when the rice seeds soaked 24 hours in 125 ppm prochloraz solution at
. These results indicated that the seed disinfection methods were ineffective on the Bakanae disease severely infected rice seed because the hot water did not transmit the pericarp layer of rice seed and also prochloraz solution did not effectively destroy the spore of pathogen.
Effect of Bordeaux Mixture on Control of Rice Leaf Blast
Kang, Beom-Ryong ; Kim, Seon-Gon ; Kim, Do-Ik ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Choi, Kyong-Ju ; Choi, Yong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 182~186
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.182
Recently organic farming practice of rice has been emerged in Korea, but one of the major limiting factor is the no effective environmental-friendly agro-materials to control major plant diseases. Bordeaux mixture has been used effectively as a preventive agro-chemical. The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy of Bordeanux mixture on control of rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea which is one of the disruptive rice diseases in world-wide. In greenhouse experiment, pre-treatment of 6-6 type of Bordeaux mixture before inoculation of spore suspension of M. grasea showed 71 % of control value. In field experiment, preventive applications of 4-8 and 6-6 types of Bordeaux mixture showed over 71 % of the control value. Chemical injury on rice leaves were not found in the application concentrations of all types of Bordeaux mixture, but observed in applications of Bordeaux mixtures between 30 and 100 diluted concentrations. This results indicate Bordeaux mixture can be used as an effective environmental-friendly agro-chemical to control rice blast disease in the field.
Growth Inhibition Effect of Environment-friendly Farm Materials on Fungal Pathogens of Grape
Kim, Geon-Ju ; Choi, Min-Kyung ; Park, Jong-Han ; Cha, Jae-Soon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 187~192
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.187
Five environment-friendly farm materials including
were examined for their growth inhibition effect of the 7 fungal pathogens of grape in vitro.
, being composed of natural ingredients which are extracted from a plant, was the most effective in suppression of mycelial growth of the fungi.
inhibited the mycelial growth of all of fungi over 75% at
on potato dextrose agar(PDA) except Colletotrichum gloeosporioides 04-159. Growth inhibition effect of
, being composed of the chitosan, varied depending on the fungal pathogens on PDA. It inhibited the mycelial growth of the Botrytis cinerea 06-063 at the rate of 75.8% at
on PDA while it inhibited the mycelial growth of the C. gloeosporioides 04-159 at the rate of 6.5%. IC-
are two different formula of the Bordeaux mixture, showed different control effects on mycelial growth inhibition. Except of Acremonium sp. the growth inhibition of IC-
was a little higher than Gold
, a chlorine formula, showed the strongest growth inhibition on C. gloeosporioides 04-159 among the farm materials used. Inhibition of spore germination of
was higher than mycelial growth inhibition for Pseudocercospora vitis 04-152. The results suggest that the different types of environment-friendly farm materials are needed for different disease control in organic grape farm.
Effects of Eggshell Powder on Clubroot Disease Control and the Growth of Chinese Cabbage
Kim, Byeong-Kwan ; Lim, Tae-Heon ; Kim, Youn-Hee ; Park, Seok-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Hwa ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 193~200
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.193
Blending of eggshell powder into soil as ratio of 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, and 1:25 did not affect seed germination rates of several crops including Chinese cabbage. The blending increased pH of distilled water and decreased the viability of resting spores of Plasmodiophora hrassicae. The ratio of non-viable resting spores in eggshell-blending water was over five times higher than in distilled water of the same pH. Chinese cabbage (cv. 'Norangbom') grew more in eggshell-blended soil than in non-treated soil, but other crops grew less. Leaf numbers and above ground growth of Norangbom increased to around 150% and 470%, respectively, in soil blended with
of eggshell powder. Even though the optimum sizes of eggshell powder were
for growth and smaller than 0.4 mm for inhibition of clubroot disease of Chinese cabbage, there was no statistical difference among the sizes. Soil pH was above 8.0 in all eggshell treatments without any statistical difference among them. Eggshell powder blending to 1:20 showed lower control efficacy, 58.5%, than registered fungicide 'Hokanna (flusulfamide)', 78.5%. However, Chinese cabbage of that blending ratio recorded the highest growth among the treatments. Therefore, blending of eggshell powder into clubroot-contaminated soil may make culture of Chinese cabbage possible by growth-increasing, even though eggshell powder could not inhibit clubroot disease entirely.
Control of Agrimony (Agrimonia pilosa) Powdery Mildew Using Cooking Oil and Yolk Mixture
Han, Ki-Soo ; Lee, Jung-Han ; Kwon, Young-Sang ; Bae, Dong-Won ; Kim, Dong-Kil ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 201~204
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.201
We've been involved in collection and domestication of Agrimonia pilosa from 2005 to 2007. We observed agrimony powdery mildew caused by Sphaerotheca aphanis. The powdery mildew developed twice a year, in May to June and mid August to September on whole plants of A. pilosa plants, that is, leaves, stem and floral part. We sprayed the Cooking Oil & Yolk mixture (COY) to control the agrimony powdery mildew. When COY was single-sprayed to control agrimony powdery mildew, its control value was 26.9%. However when it was double-sprayed and triple-sprayed at seven days interval, its control value increased up to 80.8 and 82.7%, respectively. Upon the first spray, symptoms of powdery mildew disappeared within three days and suppressive effect of COY was persisted for only seven days. Thereafter, powdery mildew was relapsed to develop. However, on double to triple sprays, powdery mildew was suppressed more than 28 days after final treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that double spray of COY at seven days interval can control effectively agrimony powdery mildew.
Occurrence of Skin Browning by Mechanical Injuries on the Fruits of 'Mansu' Pear
Lee, Jung-Sup ; Seo, Hyung-Ho ; Yun, Ik-Gu ; Choi, Jang-Jeon ; Choi, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Jeom-Kuk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 205~209
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.205
This research was carried out to elucidate the causes of fruit skin browning in 'Mansu' pear for the last 2 years. It was observed that skin browning was induced even by the small mechanical injury produced during grading and packing for the market supplies after harvest on the fruits of 'Mansu' pear. The incidences of fruit skin browning in pears treated with artificial mechanical injuries were investigated between 'Niitaka' and 'Mansu' pears. The results showed that fruits of 'Mansu' are more susceptible to skin browning than those of 'Niitaka', We also found that the epidermis of fruits in 'Mansu' pear was thinner than that of 'Niitaka', and that there was lower incidence of fruit browning in epidermis of pears with high chlorophyll content than those with low chlorophyll content. The skin browning in fruits could be considerably reduced by sorting and grading them wrapped with paper bags for the fruits of 'Mansu' pear.
Analysis on the Occurrence of Rice stripe virus
Lee, Bong-Choon ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Kwak, Do-Yeon ; Lee, Jong-Hee ; Yae, Un-Sang ; Kang, Hwang-Won ; Hwang, Hung-Goo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 210~213
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.210
The occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV) has been confirmed in some parts of South Korea. In the current year, this was observed to be limited in the double cropping zones of the southern region. Earlier, RSV occurred largely in the west coast regions of the country, particularly in Gangwha, Gyeonggi-do in 2001; and Buan, Jeollabuk-do and Seocheon, Chungcheongnam-do in 2007. This study was carried out to determine the nationwide extent of RSV occurrence by investigating RSV infestations in different latitudes and altitudes. Result revealed a recent reported occurrence of RSV in the southern region (Milyang, latitude
), a reported occurrence in the northern region (Cheolwon, latitude
) in 2005, and in the middle northern region of the east coast (Goseon, latitude
) as newly confirmed from this investigation. Results also confirmed the occurrence of RSV in a wide range of altitude from the plains (Milyang, 17 m altitude) to the alpine regions (Jinbu, 576 m) including the middle mountains (Sangju, altitude 285 m). The RSV occurrence in Jinbu in the alpine region and at Goseong and most of the northern end regions were confirmed only this year. The results of the present study confirmed that RSV is a fast-spreading disease in rice plant cultivation regions of the entire country.
A New Needle Rust Fungus Coleosporium neocacaliae on the Needles of Pinus koraiensis in Korea
Lee, Seung-Kyu ; Kim, Dong-Won ; Moon, Yil-Seong ; Kim, Jong-Jin ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 214~218
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.214
Coleosporium neocacaliae, a needle rust fungus, was described and illustrated for the first time on the needles of Pinus koraiensis (Korean pine) in Korea. Detailed descriptions of the species were verified based on symptoms and signs, and light and scanning electron microscopic observations on aecia, aeciospores and peridial cells. The present needle rust fungus was apparently different from C. eupatorii, a solely recorded Coleosporium species on P. Koraiensis in Korea until this time, in having comparatively large sized aeciospores as
than those of latter species (size of aeciospores
). Verrucose surface structure of aeciospores in light microscopy was revealed to be annulated with three to four rings and root-like base in scanning electron microscopy. Aecial stage of C. neocacaliae were formed on the middle days of April to the early days of June and collected around the central parts of Korean peninsula, including high mountains of about 1,000 m above sea level.
Detection of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides by Real Time PCR
Kim, Seung-Han ; Kwon, Oh-Hun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 219~222
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.219
Real time PCR was used to discriminate Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides for analysis of population density. Two primers, caInt2 and cgint, used for conventional PCR to discriminate two species were modified with fluorescent dye to make probe for real time PCR. Fluorescence signals were successfully detected by fCaInt2 and vCgint probe coupled with primer pair Unicon and Unicor1 resulting in discrimination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides by comparison of delta Rn value.
Characterization of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in Maize
Lee, Bong-Choon ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Hwang, Jae-Bok ; Song, Sek-Bo ; Kang, Hwang-Won ; Lee, Key-Woon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 223~225
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.223
This study was carried out to identify the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus that infected maize plants collected from Gochang-gun in Jeollabukdo in 2005. The genomic dsRNA from infected plants was extracted and the genome pattern was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results of the electrophoresis revealed the already known to-segment genome and the difference of mobility was confirmed in isolates by collected areas. The RBSDV was identified from the result of RT-PCR using the template of extracted dsRNA and specific primer. The results of S10 cloned to pGEM-T vector and the conducted in sequence analysis consisted of 1,801nt and 559aa. This was of the same size as the RBSDV S10 identified in rice, and the change was confirmed in 18 base and displayed homology of 99%.
Viruliferous Rate of the Small Brown Planthopper in the Maize Field Infected with Rice black-streaked dwarf virus
Lee, Bong-Choon ; Jung, Ji-Hun ; Kim, Jung-In ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Kwak, Do-Yeon ; Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Kang, Hwang-Won ; Lee, Key-Woon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 226~228
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.226
The Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) infected 99-100% of a
-maize field in Mungyeong City in 2007. Adjacent to the area is a Persimmon orchard where barley crops were grown under the trees as green manure crops and for soil amendments. The barley acted as winter host to the small brown plant hoppers (SBPH) enabling the insects to survive and pass the winter season. The existence of RBSDV was detected and confirmed by RT-PCR using S9 specific primer. Samples of the insect vector SBPH were collected in the area on May 3, June 7 and, August 4 and the results of the RT-PCR analysis revealed viruliferous insect rates of 2.9, 4.8, and 4.4%, respectively. These observed viruliferous insect rates were similar with those detected in RBSDV infected rice fields.
Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Chinese aster (Callistephus chinensis)
Oh, Sun-Mi ; Kim, Sung-Ryul ; Hong, Jin-Sung ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ; Lee, Gung-Pyo ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 229~232
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.229
An isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), designated as Cas-CMV, was isolated from Chinese aster (Callistephus chinensis) showing severe mosaic symptom, and its properties was compared to the well-characterized Fny-CMV (subgroup IA) and As-CMV (subgroup IB) by host reaction in several indicator plants, dsRNA analysis, RT-PCR analysis, and restriction enzyme profile of the PCR products. Cas-CMV differed markedly in their host reaction to Fny-CMV or As-CMV in Cucurbita pepo cv. Black beauty. In the zucchini squash, all strains induced chlorotic spot on inoculated leaves and mosaic symptoms on upper leaves. However, symptoms induced by Cas-CMV were developed lethal necrosis on the young plants 15 to 20 days after inoculation. In experiments of dsRNA analysis and RT-PCR analysis, properties of Cas-CMV was come within subgroup I CMV. Moreover, restriction enzyme analysis using HindIII of the RT-PCR products showed that Cas-CMV belong to a member of CMV subgroup IA.
Convenient Virion Capture (VC)/PCR for Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus Occurring on Tomato in Korea
Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Kim, Tae-Seong ; Kim, Ju-Hee ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Chung, Bong-Nam ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 14, issue 3, 2008, Pages 233~237
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2008.14.3.233
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a newly reported Geminivirus from tomato, generated recently large economic losses in Korea. Development of a fast and precise genetic diagnosis technique for detecting TYLCV which Agricultural research and extension services can utilize easy and handy is very important to prevent yield losses. Virion Capture (VC)/PCR is a simple, accurate and economical genetic detection method without any works or commercial kits for the extraction of the nucleic acid from the infected plants. Primers of twenty two for detection of TYLCV were designed and tested with extracted total DNA or crude sap from tomato leaf infected with TYLCV and healthy plant. Nine primers for total DNA using conventional PCR and another 9 primers for VC/PCR were selected eventually. Primers of six having same specificity were selected from the two methods and tested with other Geminivirus, Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV) by VC/PCR. Finally specific primers of four were selected for detection of TYLCV using VC/PCR, and Deng (540, 541), a degenerate primer for Geminivirus reported in 1996, was also developed for VC/PCR.