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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Research in Plant Disease
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Apr 2012
Selecting the target year
Current Status of Botanical Pesticides for Crop Protection
Dang, Quang Le ; Lim, Chi-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 175~185
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.175
The problems caused by synthetic pesticides have led the need for effective biodegradable pesticides with greater selectivity. Botanical pesticides are generally recognized as safe in agriculture systems. Thus, they have been regarded as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical pesticides for the pest management. Both lower efficacy and higher costs of production make botanicals more expensive to use than conventional pesticides. Moreover, only a small portion of plant-derived metabolites among a number of bioactive metabolites are in use because commercialization of botanicals is inhibited by several problems such as toxicity, or high production cost. However, with the growing acceptance of botanical pesticides as an efficient crop protection alternative resulting in increasing demand, plant-based pesticides will play a significant role in achieving sustainable agriculture in future.
Biotransformation of Pregnane Glycosides from Cynanchum wilfordii Roots by β-Glucosidase
Yoon, Mi-Young ; Cuong, Mai Nguyen ; Choi, Gyung-Ja ; Choi, Yong-Ho ; Jang, Kyoung-Soo ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 186~193
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.186
Biotransformation is an eco-friendly and efficient method for enhancing the bioavailability of biopesticide. To increase the antifungal activity of the crude extract of Cynanchum wilfordii roots against barely powdery mildew, we performed biotransformation of wilfoside C1G using
-glucosidase (cellobiase from Aspergillus niger). The mixture (G sample) of partially purified wilfoside C1G and cynauricuoside A (K1G) was treated with
-glucosidase to remove a glucopyranosyl moiety. The enzyme completely converted C1G to C1N and K1G to K1N. Optimal conditions for enzymatic biotransformation of G sample were determined to be 10% ethanol, 1,555
-glucosidase/ml, pH 5, and
. In in vivo experiment, the G sample transformed by
-glucosidase showed stronger antifungal activity against barley powdery mildew than the non-treated G sample. These results suggest that
-glucosidase biotransformation can be applied to increase the antifungal activity of the crude extract of C. wilfordii roots against powdery mildews.
Fungicide Effects in Vitro and in Field Trials on Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat
Park, Jung-Mi ; Shin, Sang-Hyun ; Kang, Chun-Sik ; Kim, Kyung-Hoon ; Cho, Kwang-Min ; Choi, Jae-Seong ; Kim, Hyung-Moo ; Park, Jong-Chul ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 194~200
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.194
The objective of this research was to select effective fungicides for the control of Fusarium head bight (FHB) of wheat. We tested fourteen commercial fungicides against FHB in the laboratory and under field. Fludioxonil FS, Fludioxonil SC, and Benomyl + Thiram WP highly inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium graminearum on the medium while Oxine-copper WP, Thiophanate-methyl WP, and Copper hydroxide WP were not effective against FHB. To verify the disease control in field condition, we selected four fungicides such as Fludioxonil SC, Captan WP, Difenoconazole + propiconazole EC, and Metconazole SC. Their control efficacy on FHB disease severity of wheat was examined after the fungicide treatment twice (30th April and 10th May, 2012) in the two field locations (Iksan and Gimje). With no treatment, FHB severity was 45% and 33.7% in Gimje and Iksan, respectively. FHB disease incidence after fungicide treatment was between 0.3% and 2.2% in Gimje, showing over 95% FHB disease control. FHB disease incidence of fungicide-treated sector in Iksan showed slightly higher than Gimje but the control value of fungicides exhibited 87-90%. No side effect of the chemicals was observed in fungicide treatment. These results showed that four fungicides were effective in the FHB disease control in wheat.
Functional Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Isolates and Biological Control of Red Pepper Powdery Mildew Using Bacillus subtilis R2-1
Kim, Yong-Ki ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Choi, Eun-Jung ; Lee, Min-Ho ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; An, Nan-Hee ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 201~209
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.201
The multi-function of 18 Bacillus subtilis isolates collected from agricultural extension centers of local government and National Academy of Agricultural Science was investigated by measuring their antifungal activities against five plant pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae and Phytophthora capsici, phosphorus solubilization ability, production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore, and nitrogen fixation. The B. subtilis isolates showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens and nitrogen fixation activity, and produced siderophore and IAA. They could control pepper powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica), but there was no difference in control efficacy among the B. subtilis isolates. In fields, the control efficacy of B. subtilis R2-1 (
cells/ml) was compared with two microbial fungicides, Q-pect and Topsid. In 2009, the control efficacy of B. subtilis R2-1 (37.7%) was lower than that of Topsid (47.6%), but higher than that of Q-pect (25.7%). In 2010, the control efficacy of B. subtilis R2-1 (83.3%) was higher than that of Topsid (67.9%). In order to elucidate mode of action of B. subtilis R2-1 for controlling pepper powdery mildew, spore germination rates of pepper powdery mildew pathogen collected on treated leaves was investigated when suspensions of B. subtilis R2-1 and two microbial fungicides (Q-pect and Topsid) were foliar-sprayed. They highly suppressed spore germination of the pathogen with inhibition values of 84.2% for B. subtilis R2-1, 97.9% for Q-pect and 94.7% for Topsid. Further study on the mass-culturing method and formulation is needed for development of a microbial fungicide.
Biocontrol Efficacy of Endophytic Bacteria Flavobacterium hercynim EPB-C313 for Control of Chinese Cabbage Clubroot
Hahm, Soo-Sang ; Kim, Jong-Tae ; Han, Kwang-Seop ; Kim, Byung-Ryun ; Kim, Hong-Kyu ; Nam, Yun-Kyu ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 210~216
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.210
Clubroot of Chinese cabbage by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was found to be high virulent to the Chinese cabbage, turnips and cabbage. It this study, the endophytic bacteria Flavobacterium hercynium EPB-C313, which was isolated from tissues of Chinese cabbage, was investigated the antimicrobial activity on the inactivation of resting spores and its control effect on clubroot disease by bioassay. The bacterial cells, culture solutions, and culture filtrates of F. hercynium EPB-C313 inactivate the resting spores of P. brassicae with 90.4, 36.8, and 26.0%, respectively. The clubroot was inhibited with 100% by dipping the seedlings of Chinese cabbage in culture solutions of F. hercynium EPB-C313 before planting, however the chemmical 'fluazinam' was 91.7% in pot tests. Complex treatment were highly enhanced control efficacy with 63.7% at field of 50% diseased plants by soil incorporation with the pellet contains organic matter and F. hercynium EPB-C313, seedling drench of culture solution of F. hercynium EPB-C313 and soil drench with 10 days after planting. These results imply that the F. hercynium EPB-C313 is a very useful biological control agent of clubroot disease of Chinese cabbage.
Identification of Pathogens Causing Grape Rot on 'Red Glove' Variety Imported from Chile
Song, Min-Ji ; Lee, Hyok-In ; Yea, Mi-Chi ; Kim, Dae-Ho ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Cha, Jae-Soon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 217~224
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.217
Post-harvest rot of grape causes a severe economic loss and lower of the grape quality. It is also one of the important limiting factors for grape export. Grape rots and their casual agents on 'Red Globe' variety imported from Chile were identified. Grapes shown rotting symptom were collected from the storages near the import harbor. The 3 different rots were identified on the imported 'Red Globe'; melting decay, gray mold, and blue mold. A bacterium that isolated from a typical melting decay symptom was identified as Gluconobacter cerinus on basis of its nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA and fatty acid profile. By inoculation on grape, it caused cracking and dissolution of epidermis of grape which were the characteristics of melting decay. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were isolated from grapes showing gray mold and blue mold. The 2 fungal isolates were identified on basis of their morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of their beta-tubulin genes. They showed strong pathogenicity on 'Campbell Early' variety that is a major table grape in Korea.
Isolation of Bacteriophages Which Can Infect Pectobacteirum carotovorum subsp. carotovorum
Jee, Sam-Nyu ; Malhotra, Shweta ; Roh, Eun-Jung ; Jung, Kyu-Suk ; Lee, Dong-Whan ; Choi, Jae-Hyuk ; Yoon, Jong-Chul ; Heu, Sung-Gi ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 225~230
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.225
Bacteriophages of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum which causes soft rot on diverse vegetables had been isolated from 6 major Chinese cabbage cultivation areas in Korea. In order to isolate bacteriophages, total 15 different strains of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum isolated from nation-wide of Korea had been used as a host. When we tested 30 different soil samples individually from Pyeongchang and Taebaek with 15 different strains as a host, Taebek soil samples showed bacteriophage plaques with almost all different indicator strains but Pyeongchang soil samples showed plaques only with P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc2 and Pcc3 strains. Especially, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc3 strain was able to produce plaques with almost all soil samples. Thus, this strain can be used as an indicator strain for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacteriophage screening. Electron microscope observation revealed P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum bacteriophages isolated in Korea were belonged to three different families, Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae in order Caudovirales.
Construction of ELISA System for the Detection of Indian citrus ringspot virus
Shin, Myeung-Ju ; Kwon, Young-Chul ; Ro, Hyeon-Su ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 231~235
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.231
Indian citrus ring spot virus (ICRSV) is known to cause a serious disease to citrus, especially to Kinnow mandarin, the popular cultivated citrus species in India. In this study, we developed diagnostic systems based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to generate antibodies against ICRSV coat protein, we overexpressed the coat protein in Escherichia coli using the pET15b expression vector containing an optimized ICRSV coat protein gene. The recombinant ICRSV coat protein was overexpressed as soluble form at
upon IPTG induction. The protein was purified to 95% in purity by Ni-NTA column chromatography. The purified protein was immunized to rabbit for the generation of polyclonal antibody (PAb). The PAb showed a specific immunoreaction to recombinant ICRSV coat protein in western blot analysis and ELISA. Diluted rabbit antisera (10,000 fold) could detect less than 10 ng and 5 ng of the target protein in western blot and ELISA analysis, respectively.
Bacterial Stripe of Proso Millet Caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Korea
Yoon, Young-Nam ; Jung, Ji-Hun ; Lee, Yeong-Hoon ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Bae, Soon-Do ; Choi, Byeong-Ryeol ; Nam, Min-Hee ; Lee, Young-Kee ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 236~239
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.236
In July, 2009, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), which showing the bacterial brown stripes on leaf sheaths, was collected in Miryang in Korea. Symptoms were systemic brown necrotic stripe lesions on the leaf sheaths and stems, and these symptoms were found in the entire field. The causal agent isolated from symptomatic plants was identified as an Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, based on its biochemical and physiological characteristics and also confirmed by the Biolog data and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Also it caused hypersensitive response (HR) when it was inoculated onto the tobacco and tomato. It caused similar symptoms when inoculated onto proso millet. This is the first report of A. avenae subsp. avenae, the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe of the proso millet in Korea.
Phytopathogenicity of Burkholderia gladioli pv. alliicola CH1 and Production of PGase Isozymes
Lee, Chan-Jung ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Kim, Yeong-Tae ; Jhune, Chang-Sung ; Cheong, Jong-Chun ; Park, Wan ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 240~244
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.240
Burkholderia gladioli pv. alliicola CH1 showed typical soft rot symptoms at higher than
but very weak soft rot symptoms at temperature under
. Among the nine agro-chemicals, oxolinic acid WP, streptomycin + copper hydroxide WP and streptomycin WP were found to be effective for the inhibition of the pathogen in vitro. The results of scanning electron microscopic investigation showed that onion bulbs was macerated by infection of B. gladioli pv. alliicola CH1. B. gladioli pv. alliicola CH1 was able to produce polygalacturonase but did not produce pectin lyase and carboxymethylcellulase. In analysis of the polygalacturonase activity of the isolated pectin-degradation enzymes from B. gladioli pv. alliicola CH1 total protein, three activity bands 45 kDa, 35 kDa, and 29 kDa were detected by the direct (or in-gel) activity staining on SDS-PAGE.
Evaluation of Pesticide Treatment for Control of Rice stripe virus after Mass Migration of Small Brown Planthoppers
Jeong, Tae-Woo ; Kim, Byung-Ryun ; Han, Gwang-Seop ; Kang, Dong-Woo ; Jeong, Iim-Young ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 245~249
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.245
The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) is one of the most important rice pests in Republic of Korea because it damages rice plants not only by sap-sucking but also by transmitting Rice stripe virus (RSV). Outbreaks of RSV are closely related to outbreaks of the small brown planthopper (SBPH). Therefore, it is very important to control SBPH for the management of RSV. Mass-migrating SBPH collected by aerial net traps in June 2011 at Taeanup, Geunheungmyon and Gonammyon in Taeangun were examined for virus carrier status and effects of the pesticide, 'Myungtaja', on the control of RSV. Among 1,217 SBPH trapped, about 7.7% were detected as RSV positive and 4.4% were positive for Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) by RT-PCR. After the mass migration, pesticide 'Myungtaja' was sprayed once or twice on rice fields and compared to untreated fields. The incidence of RSV was not affected by the frequency of spraying 'Myungtaja' but was influenced by the time of pesticide treatment. Myungtaja' treatment within 5-7 days after mass migration resulted in the most efficient RSV control, resulting in RSV incidence decreased by 87.6% compared to the control. Therefore, we conclude that pesticide spraying for RSV control was most effective when it was done within 5-7 days after mass migration.
Occurrence of White Smut Caused by Entyloma cosmi on Cosmos bipinnatus in Korea
Park, Ji-Hyun ; Cho, Sung-Eun ; Park, Mi-Jeong ; Hong, Sun-Hee ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 250~254
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.250
In July 2011, hundreds of garden cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) were found to be infected with a white smut in Namyangju. Further surveys in central Korea showed that the disease occurred in all the nine localities visited, with disease incidence rate of >50%. Symptoms manifested as pale-green to chlorotic areas on the leaves, followed by white mildew development on lesions. The lesions usually coalesced and became necrotic, considerably reducing the aesthetic value. Caespituli were initially hypophyllous but later epiphyllous as well. Conidiophores were 10-40 in moderately dense fascicles, hyaline throughout, mostly guttulate,
, obtuse at the apex, and had inconspicuous conidial scars. Conidia were solitary, botuliform, hyaline, aseptate, mostly guttulate, apex rounded, base rounded to truncate,
, hilum inconspicuous, unthickened, and not darkened. Sori were rounded to elongated, resulting in first white and later brown leaf spots. Teliospores embedded in the leaf tissue were subglobose to ellipsoidal, subhyaline to pale yellowish-brown,
. These morphological characteristics corresponded with those of Entyloma cosmi V
nky, Horita & Jage. This is the first report of white smut disease of garden cosmos due to infection of E. cosmi in Korea.
Black Leaf Mold of Tomato Caused by Pseudocercospora fuligena in Korea
Lee, Mun-Haeng ; Lee, Suk-Soo ; Kim, Hong-Gi ; Lee, Youn-Su ; Lee, Ji-Hye ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 3, 2012, Pages 255~258
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.3.255
In September 2011, black leaf mold caused by Pseudocercospora fuligena occurred on tomato plants growing in protected cultivation conditions in Boryong and Buyeo, Chungnam Province, Korea. Symptoms of the disease initially appeared as foliar chlorotic spots on upper leaf surfaces, turned light brown and then black on lower leaf surfaces as the fungus sporulates profusely. The causal fungus was isolated from the diseased plants and identified as P. fuligena based on morphological characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was proved by artificial inoculation in the green house. This is the first report of the occurrence of black leaf mold of tomato caused by P. fuligena in Korea.