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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Research in Plant Disease
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Apr 2012
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Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxin and Fungi in Korean Rice
Lee, Theresa ; Lee, Soohyung ; Lee, Jeong-Hwa ; Yun, Jong-Chul ; Oh, Kyeong-Suk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.261
Inspection of deteriorated rices in Korea for fungal occurrence revealed that Aspergillus was the most frequently observed genus and some isolates of the Aspergillus spp. turned out to produce aflatoxin. Diverse fungal genera including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, or Alternaria spp. were observed in most of the rice samples. Aflatoxin occurred infrequently and the levels of aflatoxin present in the rice samples were lower than regulatory limit but Fusarium toxins such as deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisin occurred frequently. In rice processing complexes, fungal and mycotoxin contamination of rice decreased by milling process, resulting in the lowest level of mycotoxin and fungi in polished rice. Currently, it appears that Korean rice and milled by-products need a safety control for Fusarium toxins rather than aflatoxin.
Transient Expression of Homologous Hairpin RNA Interferes with Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infection in Nicotiana benthamiana
Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Ryu, Ki Hyun ; Choi, Seung-Kook ; Choi, Gug Sun ; Kwon, Soon Bae ; Park, Jin Woo ; Palukaitis, Peter ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 268~276
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.268
Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), genus Fabavirus, subfamily Comovirinae, family Secoviridae, causes damage in many economically important horticultural and ornamental crops. Sequence alignments showed several conserved sequences in 5' non-coding regions (5' NCRs) of RNA 1 and RNA 2 in all BBWV2 strains characterized so far. Based on this observation, we generated a hpRNA construct (pIR-BBWV2) harboring an inverted repeat containing a 210 bp cDNA fragment homologous to 5' NCR portion of BBWV2 RNA 1 to investigate the silencing potential for its ability to interfere with a rapidly replicating BBWV2. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of the IR-BBWV2 had a detrimental effect on BBWV2 infection, showing no distinct symptoms in non-inoculated leaves of the agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana plants. BBWV2 genomic RNAs were not detected by RT-PCR from tissues of both the inoculated leaves and upper leaves of the agroinfiltrated plants. Accumulation of virus-derived small interfering RNAs was detected in the inoculated leaf tissues of N. benthamiana plants elicited by transient expression of IR-BBWV2 indicating that RNA silencing is responsible for the resistance to BBWV2.
2007-2011 Characteristics of Plant Virus Infections on Crop Samples Submitted from Agricultural Places
Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Kim, Jeong-Sun ; Nam, Moon ; Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Cho, In-Sook ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 277~289
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.277
The total number of requests and associated specimens for the diagnosis of virus infection were 573 and 2,992, respectively, on crops from agricultural places of farmers, Agricultural extension services and so forth for 5 years from 2007. The total number of virus tests was 13,325. The number of species of viruses infected on the submitted crops was 21 in 2007, 15 in 2008, 23 in 2009, 21 in 2010 and 17 in 2011. The newly recorded viruses were Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV) in 2007, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in 2008, Impatience necrotic spot virus (INSV) and Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) in 2009, and Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) in 2010. Forty virus species including Alfalfa mosaic virus were detected over 5 years. The ten most frequently detected virus species were Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tomato leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV). The types of crops submitted from agricultural places were 51 in total and the ten most frequently submitted crops were red pepper, tomato, paprika, watermelon, melon, rice, cucumber, corn, radish and gourd. The total request rate for the top 10 crops and top 20 crops was 81.6% and 94.2%, respectively. Eight pepper infecting virus species included CMV, and the average infection rate was 24.6% for CMV, 18.9% for PMMoV and 14.7% for TSWV. Seven kinds of double infection were detected in pepper including BBWV2+CMV at 14.7% on average, and four types of triple infection including BBWV2+CMV+PepMoV at 0.9% on average. Six virus species detected on tomato including TYLCV, and the average infection rate was 50.6% for TYLCV, 14.5% for TSWV and 10.9% for Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV). The mixed infection of CMV+TSWV on tomato was 3.9% on average and of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)+TYLCV was 0.4% on average. Five viruses detected on watermelon included MNSV and the average infection rate was 37.0% for MNSV, 20.4% for CGMMV, 18.1% for ZYMV and 17.8% for WMV. The mixed infection rate on watermelon was CMV+MNSV and WMV+ZYMV having an average infection rate of 0.7% and 5.0%, respectively. The average infection rates on melon were 77.6% for MNSV, 5.6% for CMV and 3.3% for WMV. Mixed infections of CMV+MNSV occurred on melon with an average infection rate of 13.5%.
Evaluation of Resistance in Pepper Germplasm to Cucumber mosaic virus by High Resolution Melting Analysis
Ro, Na Young ; Hur, On Sook ; Ko, Ho Cheol ; Kim, Sang Gyu ; Rhee, Ju Hee ; Gwag, Jae-Gyun ; Kwon, Jin-Kyung ; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 290~297
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.290
In this study, total number of 1941 Capsicum accessions conserved at RDA Genebank was evaluated for their response to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). These accessions were composed with 9 species originated from 89 countries, included 839 Capsicum annuum, 277 C. baccatum, 395 C. chinense, 343 C. frutescens, 49 C. pubescens, and other 38 wild pepper species (C. chacoense, C. galapagoense, etc.). Resistant to CMV was screened with the 240H02SP6 SNP marker related to the Cmr1 (Cucumber mosaic resistance 1). Eighty nine accessions of pepper germplasm were resistant to CMV based on the marker. One hundred sixty two accessions showed heterozygosity. One thousand two hundred seventy accessions were susceptible to CMV. Four hundred twenty accessions did not show distinction by 240H02SP6 marker. These 89 resistant pepper germplasm can be used in a pepper breeding program against CMV.
Ultra-rapid Real-time PCR for the Detection of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus
Kim, Tack-Soo ; Choi, Seung-Kook ; Ko, Min-Jung ; Lee, Minho ; Choi, Hyung Seok ; Lee, Se-Weon ; Park, Kyungseok ; Park, Jin-Woo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 298~303
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.298
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), transmitted exclusively by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in a circulative manner is one of the most important virus in tomato. Since the first report of TYLCV incidence in Korea in 2008, the virus has rapidly spread nationwide. TYLCV currently causes serious economic losses in tomato production in Korea. Early detection of TYLCV is one of the most important methods to allow rouging of infected tomato plants to minimize the spread of TYLCV disease. We have developed an ultra-rapid and sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a new designed real-time PCR system, GenSpectorTM TMC-1000 that is a small and portable real-time PCR machine requiring only a
reaction volume on microchips. The new system provides ultra-high speed reaction (30 cycles in less than 15 minutes) and melting curve analysis for amplified TYLCV products. These results suggest that the short reaction time and ultra sensitivity of the GenSpector
-based real-time PCR technique is suitable for monitoring epidemics and pre-pandemic TYLCV disease. This is the first report for plant virus detection using an ultra-rapid real-time PCR system.
Screening for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Race 3 Using Molecular Marker in Tomato Germplasm
Hur, On Sook ; Ro, Na Young ; Ko, Ho Cheol ; Kim, Sang Gyu ; Rhee, Ju Hee ; Gwag, Jae Gyun ; Oh, Se Jong ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 304~309
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.304
Fusarium wilt, caused by three races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is one of the most important disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. A total of 1,906 tomato accessions were screened for the resistance to Fusarium wilt using I-3 SNP marker and high resolution melting analysis. Results showed that 97 accessions were homozygous resistant, 8 accessions were heterozygous resistant and 1,801 were homozygous susceptible. Accessions containing resistance were identified in 65 accessions of S. lycopersicum var. lycopersicum, 13 accessions of S. lycopericum var. cerasiform, 8 accessions of S. pimpinellifolium, 3 accessions of S. habrochaites, 3 accessions of S. corneliomulleri, 1 accession of S. galapagense, 3 accessions of S. peruvianum, 1 accession of S. chilense. For accurate evaluation of the Fusarium wilt resistance, however, screening to race 1 and race 2 and bio-assay still remain to be evaluated.
Fumonisin Production by Field Isolates of the Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex and Fusarium commune Obtained from Rice and Corn in Korea
Lee, Soo-Hyung ; Kim, Ji-Hye ; Son, Seung-Wan ; Lee, Theresa ; Yun, Sung-Hwan ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 310~316
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.310
Gibberellea fujikuroi species (Gf) complex comprises at least 15 species, most of which not only causes serious plant diseases, but also produces mycotoxins including fumonisins. Here, we focused on the abilities of the field isolates belonging to the Gf complex associated with rice and corn, respectively in Korea to produce fumonisin, all of which were confirmed to carry FUM1, the polyketide synthase gene essential for fumonisin biosynthesis. A total of 88 Gf complex isolates (55 F. fujikuroi, 10 F. verticillioides, 20 F. proliferatum, 2 F. subglutinans, and 1 F. concentricum), and 4 isolates of F. commune, which is a non-member of Gf complex, were grown on rice substrate and determined for their production levels of fumonisins by a HPLC method. Most isolates of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, regardless of host origins, produced fumonisin
at diverse ranges of levels (
, respectively). In contrast, all the isolates of F. fujikuroi and other Fusarium species examined produced no fumonisins or only trace amounts (
) of fumonisins. Interestingly, the frequencies of relatively high fumonisin-producers among the F. proliferatum and F. fujikuroi isolates derived from corn were higher than those among the fungal isolates from rice. In addition, it is a first report demonstrating the ability of the FUM1-carrying F. commune isolates from rice to produce fumonisins.
Inheritance of Resistance to Phytophthora capsici by Inoculums in Korean Hot Pepper
Soh, Jaewoo ; Han, Kyung-Sook ; Lee, Sung-Chan ; Lee, Jung-Sup ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 317~323
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.317
The study aims to identify the pathogenicity of Phytophthora. capsici isolates in major pepper-producing areas in Korea and the inherit genetic pattern of phytophthora blight resistance by inocula. With five kinds of testing materials including 'Kataguma (Sakata Korea)' peppers, a disease-susceptible material, '#308', a phytophthora blight resistance material, 'CM334', and their
, respective isolates of P. capsici obtained from Icheon, Eumseong, Buan, Imsil and Yeongyang regions together with six kinds of peppers' inoculum including PA-159 (KACC No.40482) received from Korean Agricultural Culture Collection were used for inoculation. The disease-susceptible material '#308', the resistant material 'CM334' and the non-segregating generation of
represented 4.94-5.00, 1.00-1.07, and 1.01-1.08 phytophthora blight incidence respectively in the group comparison by isolate. This result means that the phytophthora blight resistance was clearly distinguished among testing materials in the group comparison by P. capsici isolate. Moreover,
segregating generation showed 1.79-2.31 phytophthora blight incidence which turned out to be identical in the group comparison by the six isolates of P. capsici isolate and with similarity between both the resistant and susceptible materials. Thus, the result proved that using the six isolates of P. capsici tested as inocula was suitable to investigate the phytophthora blight resistance. When it comes to group comparison of
segregation generation, however, isolates were divided with PA-159 isolate being the center: a group consisting of isolates from Icheon, Buan, and Imsil and a group consisting of Yeongyang and Eumseong isolates with higher pathogenicity. The expected segregation ratio of the phytophthora blight resistance in
generation by isolate was analyzed. PA-159 isolate showed 3:1 or 9:3:3:1, indicating that one to two genes were involved. On the other hand, results also proved that there is an interaction of genes since both Eumseong and Yeongyang isolates showed a segregation ratio of 11:5 while the Icheon isolate represented 12:3:1.
Pathogenic Races of Pyricularia oryzae Isolated from Various Rice Cultivars on the Blast Nursery and Paddy Field in Different Locations
Shim, Hongsik ; Yeh, Wan-Hae ; Yoo, Boung-Joo ; Myung, Inn-Shik ; Hong, Sung-Kee ; Lee, Seungdon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 324~330
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.324
This study was conducted to investigate the association of race distribution of Pyricularia oryzae with rice cultivar and location. Races present in a given location were different in cultivars, and the races from a given cultivars were different by location. For precise study of race distribution, it needs to identify isolates by considering cultivation ratio and collection area. There are great differences between the resistant degree in the upland blast nursery and on the resistant degree of the leaf blast and panical blast in the paddy field. The number of virulent races in a rice cultivar was not related with the resistant degree in blast nursery or in paddy field.
Suppression of Citrus Melanose on the Leaves Treated with Rhizobacterial Strains after Inoculation with Diaporthe citri
Ko, Yun Jung ; Kang, So Young ; Jeun, Yong Chull ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 331~337
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.331
Citrus melanose is one of important disease in citrus cultivation, reducing quality of citrus fruits and resulting in economic loss. Like other diseases in citrus, melanose was mainly protected by chemical fungicide in the field. Recently, alternative method of disease control is highly required due to the side effect of the chemicals. In this study four rhizobacterial strains TRH423-3, MRL408-3, THJ609-3, and TRH415-2 are selected by dual-culture testing its antifungal activity against Diaporthe citri causing citrus melanose. To investigate the protection efficacy of the selected rhizobacterial strains to citrus melanose, the bacteria were pre-treated on citrus leaves following inoculation with melanose pathogen. Pre-treatment with all selected rhizobacterial strains showed disease suppression in which the levels of protection rates were different by the rhizobacterial strains. Additional treatment with the rhizobacterial strains after the pathogen inoculation enhanced protection rates in all cases. The strain MRL408-3 and TRH423-3 were identified as Burkholderia gladioli, TRH415-2 as Pseudomons fluorescens and THJ609-3 as Pseudomonas pudia as a result of analyzing the internal transcript spaces of the rhizobacterial strains rDNA. The selected rhizobacterial strains may be valuable as biological control agents in the environment-friendly citrus farm in which chemical application is limited.
Application of Chitosan Preparations for Eco-friendly Control of Potato Late Blight
Chang, Taehyun ; Kim, Byung Sup ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 338~348
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.338
Potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans Cooke is one of the major diseases in the cultivation of potatoes in Korea. Effect of chitosan preparations (SH-1 and SH-2) was evaluated on the inhibition of mycelial growth of P. infestans, and protective activity using detached potato leaf assay both in vivo and in the field test. SH-1 and SH-2 were showed protective activity of young plant with control values more than 95% potato late blight by inoculation with pathogens under growth chamber conditions. Mycelial growth was inhibited the radial growth over 74% at a concentration of
of both SH-1 and SH-2. Spraying with SH-1 and SH-2 on the leaves for detached leaf assay reduced disease development. The content of total polyphenol in stem was significantly increased by SH-1 and SH-2 application in the field. In field experiments, foliar application with both SH-1 and SH-2 were significantly reduced the development of late blight on potato plants. Control of late blight disease was obtained with control values of 72% and 53% by application of 1% SH-1 and SH-2, respectively, with 4 times at 7 days interval, and reduced with similar disease control values by application with 3 times at 14 days interval compared with untreated control. SH-1 and SH-2 applications increased the fresh weight of potato, and higher grade potatoes were also increased. The results showed that SH-1 and SH-2 applications can be used as eco-friendly natural fungicide for organic farming for the increase of yields and control of late blight.
Control Efficacy of Different Types of Chemicals with Different Spraying Schedules on Plum Bacterial Black Spot
Ryu, Young Hyun ; Lee, Joong Hwan ; Kwon, Tae Young ; Kim, Seung Han ; Kim, Dong Geun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 349~353
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.349
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni causes black spot symptom on fruit of plum, resulting in yield loss by reduction of marketable fruit production. To develop an effective control program, some chemicals were sprayed in various scheme during dormant season and growing season after blooming period. Copper-based chemicals were sprayed during dormant season and antibiotic-based chemicals were sprayed during fruit growing season. Sprays of antibiotic-based chemicals in growing season was more effective than copper-based chemicals sprays in dormant season. Three applications of antibiotic-based chemicals in 10 days interval starting 10 days after full blooming controlled disease incidence as much as 93%, whereas applications of copper-based chemicals in dormant season controlled 26-42%. Antibiotic-based chemicals application starting 10 days after full blooming was more effective than starting 20 or 30 days after full blooming.
Practical Application of Dioscorea quinqueloba Extract for the Control of Citrus Green Mold
Lee, Ji Hyun ; Kang, Sung Woo ; Song, Jeong Young ; Kim, Hong Gi ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 354~360
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.354
This study tested the antifungal compound obtained from a medicinal plant, Dioscorea quinqueloba Thunb., in order to search the possibility of practical application of this product in agriculture through evaluating its activity using the citrus fruits. The extract of D. quinqueloba Thunb., which has the strongest antifungal activity, was selected as a candidate among 101 plant extracts. Based on this examination concerning antifungal activity of the product on Penicillium digitatum in vitro, it was confirmed its effect of mycelial growth inhibition showed over 87% at 0.5 mg/ml concentration. This natural product showed the stability of the substance, as it was not significantly influenced by pH, temperature, or ultraviolet radiation. While citrus fruits were stored at room temperature, P. digitatum was inoculated into them in order to prepare a similar environmental conditions with epidemic occurrence of the mold. As the result of our investigation, the disease preventive effects of the active antifungal substance evidenced a 100% at 0.5 mg/ml. When the phytotoxicity of the selected natural product on citrus at 2 mg/ml was assessed, we noted no toxic effects. Based on the superior preventive effects from this natural product extracted from the plant, it is presumed to be very useful in agricultural applications for the control of green mold, P. digitatum, which has been occurred often the biggest problem in the storage of citrus fruits.
Development of a Forecasting Model for Bacterial Wilt in Hot Pepper
Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Kim, Sung-Taek ; Yun, Sung-Chul ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 361~369
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.361
A population density model for bacterial wilt, which is caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, in hot pepper was developed to estimate the primary infection date after overwintering in the field. We developed the model mechansitically to predict reproduction of the pathogen and pathogensis on seedlings of the host. The model estimates the pathogen's populations both in the soil and in the host. In order to quantify environmental infection factors, various temperatures and initial population densities were determined for wilt symptoms on the seedlings of hot pepper in a chamber. Once, the pathogens living in soil multiply up to 400 cells/g of soil, they can infect successfully in the host. Primary infection in a host was supposed to be started when the population of the pathogen were over
cells/g of root tissue. The estimated primary infection dates of bacterial wilt in 2011 in Korea were mostly mid-July or late-July which were 10-15 days earlier than those in 2010. Two kinds of meterological data, synoptic observation and field measurements from paddy field and orchard in Kyunggi, were operated the model for comparing the result dates. About 1-3 days were earlier from field data than from synoptic observation.
Resistance of Commercial Pepper Cultivars to Root-knot Nematodes
Kim, Donggeun ; Kwon, Taeyoung ; Ryu, Younghyun ; Yeon, Ilkwon ; Huh, Changseok ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 370~375
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.370
Ninety two pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars were screened for resistance to two common species of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. All 92 pepper cultivars were resistant to M. arenaria (0-3 eggmass/plant) but were susceptible to M. incognita (76-678 eggmass/plant). Susceptibility to M. incognita were slightly differed; 'Geomok' and 'Shintaepung' had relatively less eggmass (<100 eggmass/plant) when compared to those 29 very susceptible culivars such as 'Bulggotcheoreum' (>300 eggmass/plant). Therefore, pepper is highly recommended as a high-valued rotation crop to only those greenhouses infested with M. arenaria, but should restrict for M. incognita.
Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Pine Wood Nematodes in Korea
Seo, Sang-Tae ; Moon, Yil-Seong ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 376~380
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.376
A survey of bacterial species associated with Korean isolates of pine wood nematode (PWN) was performed. A total of 110 bacterial isolates were obtained from the PWN isolates that were previously isolated from Pinus densiflora and P. koraiensis. Among the bacterial isolates, Cedecea neteri was most frequent (64 isolates) followed by Ewingella americana (21 isolates), Pseudomonas sp. (15 isolates), Flavobacterium sp. (8 isolates) and Rahnella aquatilis (2 isolates). Both E. americana and Pseudomonas sp. which are assumed to be closely associated with PWN were examined for their phytotoxicity to P. thunbergii seedlings. Ethyl acetate extracts of Psuedomonas sp. (Ba2 strain) cultures were found to induce wilting and mortality in the tested seedlings. The three bacterial species, Pseudomonas sp. (Ba2 strain), E. ameircana (Ba4 strain) and C. neteri (Ba10 strain) were examined in vitro for their sensitivity to 21 kinds of antibiotics. All of the strains were highly susceptible to carbenicillin, doxcycline and tetracycline.
Soil Nematode Fauna in Dokdo Island of Korea
Kim, Dong-Geun ; Park, Byung-Yong ; Ryu, Young-Hyun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 381~386
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.381
Nematode fauna in Dokdo island was investigated for two years between 2008 and 2009. Population density and biomass were
(3.0-388.6), respectively. Total of 31 species of nematodes were identified : Acrobeloides is the most important genus with prominence value (PV) of 117.8, followed by Rhabditidae (PV = 81.9), Prismatolaimus (PV = 39.0), and Aphelenchoides (PV = 31.4). Among feeding group, bacteriovorus nematode composed 77% of density and 62% of biomass followed by plant-parasitic and fungivorus nematodes. A species of Pratylenchus having distinctive tail terminus is under study as a new species. Biological indices, Shannon and Wiener index (2.46), Simpson's diversity index (0.86), Species evenness (0.73), Species richness (1.30) indicate that nematode fauna in Dokdo island is diverse and unique. This study may give a general idea of nematode fauna at the Dokdo island.
Sequence Analysis of Segments 8 and 10 of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus from Maize Plants
Lee, Bong Choon ; Cho, Sang-Yun ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Kang, In Jeong ; Kwak, Do Yeon ; Shin, Dong Bum ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 387~390
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.387
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) was reported to occur on maize plants in Gochang-gun of Jeonllabuk-do region in 2011. The symptoms typically include stunted and deformed leaves. Virus infected plants usually produce poor or no head. RT-PCR analysis of genomic dsRNA extracted from the plant confirmed the infection. Specific primers for full length genome of segments 8 and 10 were used for RNA amplification. Full-length genomes of S8 and S10 were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the S8 and S10 sequences of the maize isolate were same with rice isolate in size, 1,936 nt and 1,801 nt, respectively. In comparison with rice RBSDV, S8 and S10 showed 94.9-99.6% and 94.1-98.4% sequence identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RBSDV S8 and S10 of maize plants are categorized into the same group as RBSDV of rice plant.
Occurrence of Stone Fruit Viruses on Peach Trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) in Korea
Cho, In Sook ; Cho, Jeom Doeg ; Choi, Seung Kook ; Choi, Gug Seoun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 391~395
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.391
To investigate the occurrence of viruses in peach, leaf samples were collected from peach trees in commercial orchard of six areas in Korea. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to identify the presence of the following stone fruit viruses: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Plum pox virus (PPV). About 65.0% of the 515 samples were infected with ACLSV and PNRSV. Virus-like symptoms showing mosaic on leaves was observed in ACLSV infected peach trees. However, PNRSV infected peach trees showed no symptoms. These viral DNAs by sequence analysis were confirmed 4 ACLSV isolates and 3 PNRSV isolates. The Korean peach isolates of ACLSV and PNRSV showed 70-99% and 88-99% amino acid sequence identities, respectively, with those reported previously and their amino acid sequence identities with each other were approximately 95% and 88%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean ACLSV isolates belong to the A group of ACLSV. The Korean PNRSV isolates reported in this study were grouped into I (PV32), II (PV96) and III (PE5) groups.
First Report of Pink Mold Rot on Tomato Fruit Caused by Trichothecium roseum in Korea
Han, Kyung-Sook ; Lee, Seong-Chan ; Lee, Jung-Sup ; Soh, Jae-Woo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 396~398
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.396
Pink mold rot of tomato occurred very severly on tomato farm in Paju, Gyounggi Province, Korea, in July 2005. The infected fruits were dropped and abandoned and the symptoms were similar to calcium deficient tomatoes. But symptom was a slight water-soaked area on or near the blossom end of the fruit and firm greyish-brown lesions were most found at the blossom-end of affected fruits. lesions caused by the pink mold fungus possess a water soaked margin and rise to characteristic orange-pink spores. Also when the diseased tomato was cut, the inside of tomatoes showed completely rotted with pink mold. The causal fungus was identified as Trichothecium roseum based on mycological characteristics. This is the first report of T. roseum infecting greenhouse tomatoes in Korea.
Investigation on Disease Incidence and Yield of Rice Cultivars for Use in Processing of Eco-friendly-grown Germinated Brown Rice
Oh, Sea-Kwan ; Cheon, Geum Su ; Lee, Jeong Heui ; Lee, Dong-Hyun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 399~401
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.399
In order to select the optimum rice cultivars for the use in processing of eco-friendly-grown germinated brown rice (GBR), disease incidences and yields in rice cultivars bred in National Institute of Crop Science were investigated in eco-friendly paddy fields (Gokseong, Jeonnam Province, Korea) during the years 2009-2011. The incidences of rice sheath blight and blast on the cultivar Samgwang were higher than those on one reference cultivar Chucheong, but much lower than those on the other reference cultivar Gosihikkali. The cultivars Keunnun and Haiami selected as special rices showed disease incidences and yields similar to the reference rice cultivars Chucheong and Gosihikkali. These results indicated that the cultivars Samkwang, Keunnun, and Haiami can be selected as rice cultivars for the use of in processing of eco-friendly grown GBR because their disease incidences and yields in Gokseong may be similar to the reference cultivars.
Change in Occurrence of Rice stripe virus Disease
Lee, Bong Choon ; Cho, Sang-Yun ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Kang, In Jeong ; Lee, Jong Hee ; Kwak, Do Yeon ; Shin, Dong Bum ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 18, issue 4, 2012, Pages 402~405
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2012.18.4.402
We surveyed the occurrence of Rice stripe virus (RSV) disease in 672 fields from 29 rice representative area in July 2012 as nationwide survey for RSV occurrence since 2008. We confirmed occurrence of virus disease in 18 areas, in west coast region including Secheon, Taean, Buwan and Cheorwon. RSV incidence rates of plant in Sacheon and Buan were less than 0.01% and 0.15%, respectively, showing similar rate with the nationwide survey carried out in 2008, whereas incidence rate of field declined from 19.9% in 2008 to 4.9% in 2012. Earlier, RSV occurred largely across the southern region of Korea. In 2001, RSV disease was found in Gangwha and Gyeonggi-do, the northern region of Korea. In 2007, RSV appeared in west coast; Buan in Jeollabuk-do and Seocheon in Choongnam-do. After migration of the vector, small brown plant hopper, from China in 2009, RSV is becoming a pandemic.