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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Research in Plant Disease
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Selection of Representative Magnaporthe oryzae Isolates and Rice Resistant Gene Types for Screening of Blast-resistant Rice Cultivars
Goh, Jaeduk ; Kim, Byung-Ryun ; Lee, Se-Won ; Roh, Jae-Hwan ; Shin, Dong-Bum ; Jeung, Ji-Ung ; Cho, Young-Chan ; Han, Seong-Sook ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 243~253
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.243
Rice blast is one of the most serious disease threatening stable production of rice. Breeding of resistant cultivars has been used as the most effective and useful method to controll rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. To collect rice blast isolates in fields and test their pathogenicity on new cultivars are important for establishment of new resistant cultivars breeding program of rice. Pathotypes of Korean rice blast isolates have been categorized to Korean differential race system developed in 1985. However, it is little known about genetic background of Korean differential cultivars, so that it is hard to understand for relationship between each pathogen and each host plant at genetic level. In this study, we suggested necessity of a new differential system by analyzing pathogenic responses between 24 monogenic rice lines and 200 Korean rice blast isolates. In addition, we determined the nine representative resistant genes based on the resistance responses of the monogenic lines to rice blast isolates, indexed resistant responses of the monogenic lines to ten representative rice blast isolates and selected 30 Korean representative rice blast isolates proper to Korean system. We think the newly developed differential race system can be broadly used to select resistant cultivars to rice blast in Korea.
Fusaric Acid Production in Fusarium oxysporum Transformants Generated by Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration Procedure
Lee, Theresa ; Shin, Jean Young ; Son, Seung Wan ; Lee, Soohyung ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 254~258
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.254
Fusaric acid (FA) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. Its toxicity is relatively low but often associated with other mycotoxins, thus enhancing total toxicity. To date, biosynthetic genes or enzymes for FA have not been identified in F. oxysporum. In order to explore the genetic element(s) for FA biosynthesis, restriction enzyme mediated integration (REMI) procedure as an insertional mutagenesis was employed using FA producing-F. oxysporum strains. Genetic transformation of two F. oxysporum strains by REMI yielded more than 7,100 transformants with efficiency of average 3.2 transformants/
DNA. To develop a screening system using phytotoxicity of FA, eleven various grains and vegetable seeds were tested for germination in cultures containing FA: Kimchi cabbage seed was selected as the most sensitive host. Screening for FA non-producer of F. oxysporum was done by growing each fungal REMI transformant in Czapek-Dox broth for 3 weeks at
then observing if the Kimchi cabbage seeds germinated in the culture filtrate. Of more than 5,000 REMI transformants screened, fifty-three made the seeds germinated, indicating that they produced little or fewer FA. Among them, twenty-six were analyzed for FA production by HPLC and two turned out to produce less than 1% of FA produced by a wild type strain. Sequencing of genomic DNA regions (252 bp) flanking the vector insertion site revealed an uncharacterized genomic region homologous (93%) to the F. fujikuroi genome. Further study is necessary to determine if the vector insertion sites in FA-deficient mutants are associated with FA production.
Survey on Contamination of Fusarium Mycotoxins in 2011-harvested Rice and Its By-products from Rice Processing Complexes in Korea
Lee, Soohyung ; Lee, Theresa ; Kim, Mija ; Yu, Ohsuk ; Im, Hyunjin ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 259~264
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.259
To investigate Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in rice samples from rice processing complexes (RPCs), paddy rice and rice-milling products such as husks, brown rice, blue-tinged rice, broken rice, rice bran, discolored rice, and polished rice were collected from nationwide in 2012. Three hundred seventy one samples of rice and its by-products were analyzed for three trichothethenes including nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEA) by LC/MS. Discolored rice samples were found to have the highest contamination of DON, NIV or ZEA, followed by broken rice. Polished rice samples were largely free from mycotoxins, except three samples which were contaminated with NIV or DON at safety level. The rice byproduct samples were contaminated at higher level and frequencies than polished rice samples.
Physiological, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Isolated from Pepper Plants in Korea
Lee, Young Kee ; Kang, Hee Wan ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 265~272
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.265
Totally sixty three bacteria were isolated from lower stems showing symptoms of bacterial wilt on pepper plants in 14 counties of 7 provinces, Korea. The isolates showed strong pathogenicity on red pepper (cv. Daewang) and tomato (cv. Seogwang) seedlings. All virulent bacteria were identified as Ralstonia solanacearum based on colony types, physiological and biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All R. solanacearum isolates from peppers were race 1. The bacterial isolates consisted of biovar 3 (27%) and biovar 4 (73%). Based on polymorphic PCR bands generated by repetitive sequence (rep-PCR), the 63 R. solanacearum isolates were divided into 12 groups at 70% similarity level. These results will be used as basic materials for resistant breeding program and efficient control against bacterial wilt disease of pepper.
Pattern of the Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Jeonnam Province
Ko, Sug-Ju ; Kang, Beom-Ryong ; Choi, Duck-Soo ; Kim, Do-Ik ; Lee, Gwan-Seok ; Kim, Chang-Seok ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 273~280
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.273
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was occurred at 8 areas including Naju, Suncheon, Younggwang, Youngam, and Shinan in Jeonnam province and the crops of Younggwang were severely damaged by TSWV. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum v ar. angulosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) in greenhouse and hot pepper in open field were infected by TSWV. Especially, hot pepper was severely damaged by TSWV infection. The survey data indicated that 1.1-30% in the nursery field at Naju, Suncheon, and Jangheung were infected by TSWV. Plants were infected by TSWV from early June to August. However, TSWV-infected seedlings from nursery fields showed the disease symptoms from May after transplanting. In pepper greenhouses, Frankliniella occidentalis was more dominant insect vector than Frankliniella intonsa. But in open field, the population of insect vector was opposed to greenhouse. In addition, the removal of weeds was able to delay the incidence of TSWV via side-window of greenhouse in Winter. Taken together, the control of weed and insect vector nearby side-window of greenhouse is important to prevent TSWV infection of plants.
Natural Hosts and Disease Cycle of Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus
Lee, Su-Heon ; Kim, Chang-Suk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 281~287
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.281
In surveys of weed occurrence undertaken from 2006 to 2007, near to the Daegu experimental fields of the National Institute of Crop Science, plants belonging to 31 families, 74 genera and 96 species were found. For the investigation of the natural or alternative hosts of Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV), 495 plant samples belonging to 26 families 84 species were subjected to RT-PCR. SYMMV was detected only from legume plants such as Glycine soja, Vigna angularis var. nipponensis, Trifolium repens, and Lespedeza cuneata. Among legume plants tested, more than a third of G. soja (wild soybean) contained SYMMV, indicating that the wild soybean played an important role as a reservoir of SYMMV. Wild soybeans may be infected with SYMMV as early as mid-July. Considering the results of early infection and the high infection rate of seed and seed transmission of SYMMV in G. soja, wild soybeans may have played an important role in the completion of disease cycle of the virus.
Production System of Virus-free Apple Plants Using Heat Treatment and Shoot Tip Culture
Lee, Gunsup ; Kim, Jeong Hee ; Kim, Hyun Ran ; Shin, Il Sheob ; Cho, Kang Hee ; Kim, Se Hee ; Shin, Juhee ; Kim, Dae Hyun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 288~293
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.288
In worldwide, viral diseases of apple plants has caused the serious problems like reduced production and malformation of fruits. Also, the damages of apple plants by virus and/or viroid infection (Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem grooving virus, Apple mosaic virus, and Apple scar skin viroid) were reported in Korea. However there is few report about the protection approach against the infection by apple viruses. Therefore, this paper introduced the experimental protocol for the development of virus-free apple cultivars (Danhong, Hongan, Saenara, Summerdream). Apple plants were treated at
for 4 weeks and shoot tips were cultured in vitro. After heat treatment, the detection of apple viruses was performed by RT-PCR using virusspecific detection primers in new apple cultivars. With the heat treatments followed by in vitro shoot tip culture, the proportion of virus-free stocks of 'Danhong', 'Hongan', 'Saenara', and 'Summerdream' was 28%, 16%, 12%, and 12%, respectively. Taken together, this approach can be a good tool for production of virus-free apple stocks.
Resistance of Newly Introduced Vegetables to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita in Korea
Kim, Donggeun ; Ryu, Younghyun ; Huh, Changseok ; Lee, Younsu ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 294~299
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.294
To select resistant vegetables against two species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 39 vegetables belongs to 7 families, 13 genera, 25 species were screened in greenhouse pot test. Susceptible vegetables to both nematodes were amarath and leaf beet in Amaranthaceae, Malabar spinach in Basellaceae, Moroheiya in Tiliaceae, and Water-convolvulus in Convolvulaceae, Pak-choi in Brassica campestris var. chinensis, Tah tasai in B. campestris var. narinosa, B. campestris var. chinensis x narinosa, Leaf mustard, Mustard green in B. juncea, Kyona in B. juncea var. laciniate, Choy sum in B. rapa subsp. arachinenesis, Kairan in B. oleracea var. alboglabra, Arugula in Eruca sativa, Garland chrysanthemum in Chrysanthemum coronarium, Endive in Cichorium endivia, Artichoke in Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus, Lettuce in Lactuca sativa. Resistant to M. arenaria but susceptible to M. incognita were B. oleracea cv. Matjjang kale, B. oleracea var. gongyloides cv. Jeok kohlrabi, and C. intybus cv. Radicchio. Resistant vegetables to both nematodes were C. intybus cv. Sugar loaf, Grumoro, Radichio treviso, B. oleracea cv. Manchu collard, Super matjjang, B. oleracea italica, B. oleracea var. botrytis italiana, and Perilla in Lamiaceae. Vegetables resistant to both species of root-knot nematodes could be used as high-valued rotation crops in greenhouses where root-knot nematodes are problem.
Leaf Rot and Leaf Ring Spot Caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Chinese Cabbage
Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Yun, Jong-Chul ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 300~307
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.300
This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of leaf rot and leaf ring spot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Chinese cabbage under seedling nursery and cultivation greenhouses. Symptoms of leaf rot and leaf ring spot were found in three Chinese cabbage cultivars, Brassica campestris subsp. pekinensis, 'Ryeokgwang', 'Daetong', and 'CR mat'. In Hwacheon, the disease incidence was 73.8% in the seedling stage of the Chinese cabbage. In Icheon, the symptoms were observed on the upper leaves of the Chinese cabbage cultivar, 'Norangmini' with 20.5% of disease incidence. The symptoms appeared as primary lesions consisting of small, circular necrotic ring spots with gray color, 1.4-3.0 mm in diameter, accompanied by secondary rot lesions with large irregular borders of leaves. The color of mycelial mat of 20 isolates was dark brown and light brown. The average hyphal diameter of all the isolates was within 5.01-11.12
. Among the 20 strains isolated from Chinese cabbage, 16 isolates and four isolates anastomosed with the AG-1 (IB) and AG-1 (IC), respectively. Twenty isolates tested were only virulent on foliage parts of Chinese cabbage leaves but were avirulent on stem parts of the plants. Based on the mycological characteristics and pathogenicity test on host plants, the fungus was identified as Rhizoctonia solani.
Identification of Ciboria carunculoides RS103V, a Fungus Causing Popcorn Disease on Mulberry Fruits in Korea
Sultana, Razia ; Ju, Ho-Jong ; Chae, Jong-Chan ; Kim, Kangmin ; Lee, Kui-Jae ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 308~312
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.308
The popcorn disease caused by sclerotia forming fungi reduces the productivity of mulberry fruits in world wide. In Korea, only two species (Ciboria shiraiana and Scleromitrula shiraiana) have been reported as the major causal organisms and their morphological features are also largely unknown. Hereby, we report the first identification of another species (i.e. Ciboria carunculoides) in Korea and detailed features of their anamorphic stage. Fungi dominantly associated with sclerotia were purely isolated from infected mulberry fruits under the microscope. PCR-amplified DNA encoding 5.8S rRNA displayed 100% similarity to Ciboria carunculoides. The anamorphic features exhibited the absence of true mycelia. Instead, very short, aseptated, branched conidiophores were directly emerged from sclerotia. Phialides were usually three in number from each conidiophore, ampuliform to navicular in shape, slightly curved and tapering towards the apex. Conidia were produced from phialides and mostly found as one celled, pear shaped, not hyaline with smooth to uneven surface walled. Diversely modified features in phialides formed pseudo-mycelial structures around the host tissue. Combined all, current study is the first report of C. carunculoides isolated in Korea and the foremost detailed description of its anamorph stage.
First Report of Freesia sneak virus in Freesia spp. in Korea
Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Choi, Youn-Jung ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Choi, Seung-Kook ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 313~318
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.313
In March, 2013, twenty symptomatic freesia plants (10 plants of cultivar Shiny Lemon and 10 plants of cultivar Shiny Gold), with striking virus-like symptoms were collected in Cheongju, Korea. The plants showed chlorotic, coalescing, interveinal, whitish, necrotic, mosaic, mottling or dark brown-to-purple necrotic spots on leaves. Freesia crude sap was directly analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, which potyvirus particles as well as long virus-like particles were detected. Total RNA extracts were analyzed for the infection of Freesia sneak virus (FreSV) by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers specific to FreSV coat protein (CP) gene based on the sequences of FreSV isolates (GenBank No. GU071089, FJ807730 and DQ885455), showing 9 of 20 plants were infected. All 1305bp RT-PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Comparisons of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences using BLAST and bioinformatics tools resulted in 99 to 100% sequence identity with FreSV isolates FOV, Virginia, and Italy, confirming FreSV in 9 symptomatic freesia plants. Of 9 determined cDNAs of FreSV isolates, sequences of 5 cDNA clones were identical (GenBank No. AB811437) and sequences of 4 cDNA clones were identical (GenBank No. AB811792). To our knowledge, this is the first report of FreSV from Freesia spp. in Korea.
Occurrence of Three Major Soybean Viruses, Soybean mosaic virus, Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus Revealed by a Nationwide Survey of Subsistence Farming Soybean Fields
Cho, Seunghee ; Kim, Jungkyu ; Li, Meijia ; Seo, Eunyoung ; Lim, Seungmo ; Hong, Seok Myeong ; Moon, Jae Sun ; Hammond, John ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 319~325
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.319
Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it has not been reported how two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed nationwide survey in subsistence soybean farming. Suspicious virus-infected infected leave were collected from the field and a total of 682 soybean tissue samples were assayed by RT-PCR using triplex primers detecting SYMMV, SYCMV, and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV). On hundred two samples showed SMV positive, and SYMMV and SYCMV were detected in 116 and 17 tissue samples, respectively. No sample showed double infection of SYMMV and SYCMV, but there were double infection tissues indicating two viruses positive of SMV plus SYMMV (5 tissue samples) and SMV plus SYCMV (1 tissue sample). Through this first subsistence soybean farming field survey, we assumed soybean viruses were originated from home seed production managed by farmer. Thus, in order to prevent possible seed transmission and further damage caused by virus transmission, virus-free commercial soybean seeds are recommended to be planted.
Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea
Cho, In-Sook ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Choi, Seung-Kook ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 326~330
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.326
During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV). PCR products of the expected size (807 bp) were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1-6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV), Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV), Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV), Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV), Cherry virus A (CVA), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1), Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.
Novel Pathogenic Strain of Watermelon mosaic virus Occurred on Insam (Panax ginseng)
Jung, Won-Kwon ; Nam, Moon ; Lee, Joo Hee ; Park, Chung Youl ; Kim, Byoung Hoon ; Park, Eun Hye ; Lee, Min-A ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Jun Seong ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Choi, Jin Kook ; Kwon, Tae Ryong ; Lee, Key-Woon ; Lee, Su-Heon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 19, issue 4, 2013, Pages 331~337
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2013.19.4.331
A disease, supposedly caused by a virus, was observed from Insam (Panax ginseng) fields of Punggi in year 2006. It has long believed to be a physiological disorder. However, the incidence of the disease has increased every year. When several samples were observed under electron microscope, filamentous virus-like particles were observed. The nucleotide sequences of the virus were analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primer sets derived from the results of DNA chip. The results indicated that the disease was caused by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV). It revealed that the result of the biological assay by the virus was different from that of WMV previously found in other crops. Therefore, this is the first report that WMV causes the disease in P. ginseng and the virus is named to be WMV-Insam.