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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Research in Plant Disease
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Augmenting Plant Immune Responses and Biological Control by Microbial Determinants
Lee, Sang Moo ; Chung, Joon-hui ; Ryu, Choong-Min ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 161~179
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.161
Plant have developed sophisticated defence mechanisms against microbial pathogens. The recent accumulated information allow us to understand the nature of plant immune responses followed by recognition of microbial factors/determinants through cutting-edge genomics and multi-omics techniques. However, the practical approaches to sustain plant health using enhancement of plant immunity is yet to be fully appreciated. Here, we overviewed the general concept and representative examples on the plant immunity. The fungal, bacterial, and viral determinants that was previously reported as the triggers of plant immune responses are introduced and described as the potential protocol of biological control. Specifically, the role of chitin, glucan, lipopolysaccharides/extracellular polysaccharides, microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antibiotics, mimic-phytohormones, N-acyl homoserine lactone, harpin, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds are considered. We hope that this review stimulates scientific community and farmers to broaden their knowledge on the microbial determinant-based biological control and to apply the technology on the integrated pest management program.
A Simple and Reliable Molecular Detection Method for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Solanum lycopersicum without DNA Extraction
Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Kim, Su ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Choi, Seung-Kook ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 180~185
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.180
In the present work, a pair of primers specific to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was designed to allow specific amplification of DNA fragments from any TYLCV isolates using an extensive alignment of the complete genome sequences of TYLCV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. A pair of primers which allows the specific amplification of tomato
-tubulin gene was also analyzed as an internal PCR control. A duplex PCR method with the developed primer sets showed that TYLCV could be directly detected from the leaf crude sap of infected tomato plants. In addition, our developed duplex PCR method could determine PCR errors for TYLCV diagnosis, suggesting that this duplex PCR method with the primer sets is a good tool for specific and sensitive TYLCV diagnosis. The developed duplex PCR method was further verified from tomato samples collected from some farms in Korea, suggesting that this developed PCR method is a simple and reliable tool for rapid and large-scale TYLCV detections in tomato plants.
Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Nicotiana benthamiana Expressing Cucumber mosaic virus 2b gene
Sohn, Seong-Han ; Kim, Yoon-Hee ; Ahn, Yul-Kyun ; Kim, Do-Sun ; Won, So-Yoon ; Kim, Jung-Sun ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 186~192
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.186
Cucumber mosaic virus possesses 2b gene known as a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). To investigate its function and effect in plant, transgenic Nicotiana benethamiana expressing 2b gene was developed and analyzed in phenotypic characteristics and differential gene expression (DEG) comparing with wild-type. Eight lines of transgenic plants (
) were obtained with difficulty and showed severe deformed phenotypes in leaves, flowers, petioles and etc. Moreover, transgenic plants were hardly able to set seeds, but small amounts of seeds were barely produced in some of transgene-hemizygous plants. DEG analysis showed that transgenic plant ectopically accumulated diverse RNA transcripts at higher levels than wild-type probably due to the disturbance in RNA metabolism, especially of RNA decay, caused by 2b-mediated inhibition of PTGS. These ectopic accumulations of RNAs disrupt protein and RNA homeostasis and then subsequently lead to abnormal phenotypes of transgenic plants.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold and Cut Chrysanthemum Flowers
Chu, Eun-Hee ; Shin, Eun-Jung ; Park, Hae-Jun ; Jeong, Rae-Dong ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 193~200
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.193
Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest fungal pathogens of cut flowers. Here, gamma irradiation, an alternative for phytosanitary purposes, and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) were used to control B. cinerea in a cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivar, 'Baekma', one of the cultivars susceptible to B. cinerea. Spore germination and mycelium growth of B. cinerea were inhibited by gamma irradiation in an inversely dose-dependent manner. A dose of 4 kGy completely inhibited the mycelium growth of B. cinerea. A significant change in flower quality (physical properties) on chrysanthemum was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.2 kGy (p<0.05). Therefore, in this study, the integration of gamma ray (below 0.2 kGy) and NaDCC, an eco-friendly form of chlorine, was investigated to control the disease with low dose of gamma irradiation dose. Interestingly, the gamma irradiated flowers showed more disease severity than the non-irradiated flowers. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC does not affect the severity of the fungal disease, whereas only 70 ppm of NaDCC treatment showed a significantly reduced severity. These results suggest that only chlorination treatment can be applied to control B. cinerea in cut chrysanthemum flowers.
Development of an Efficient Simple Mass-Screening Method for Resistant Melon to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis
Lee, Won Jeong ; Jang, Kyoung Soo ; Choi, Yong Ho ; Kim, Heung Tae ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Choi, Gyung Ja ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 201~207
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.201
This study was conducted to establish a simple mass-screening method for resistant melon to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). Root-dipping inoculation method has been used to investigate resistance of melon plants to Fusarium wilt. However, the inoculation method requires a lot of labor and time because of complicate procedure. To develop a simple screening method on melon Fusarium wilt, occurrence of Fusarium wilt on susceptible and resistant cultivars of melon according to inoculation method including root-dipping, soil-drenching, tip, and scalpel methods was investigated. Scalpel and tip methods showed more clear resistant and susceptible responses in the melon cultivars than root-dipping inoculation method, but tip method represented slightly variable disease severity. In contrast, in the case of soil-drenching inoculation method, disease severity of the susceptible cultivars was very low. Thus we selected scalpel method as inoculation method of a simple screening method for melon Fusarium wilt. By using the scalpel inoculation method, resistance degrees of the cultivars according to incubation temperature after inoculation (25 and
) and inoculum concentration (
) were measured. The resistance or susceptibility of the cultivars was hardly affected by all the tested conditions. To look into the effectiveness of scalpel inoculation methods, resistance of 22 commercial melon cultivars to FOM was compare with root-dipping inoculation method. When the melon cultivars were inoculated by scalpel method, resistance responses of all the tested cultivars were clearly distinguished as by root-dipping method. Taken together, we suggest that an efficient simple mass-screening method for resistant melon plant to Fusarium wilt is to sow the seeds of melon in a pot (70 ml of soil) and to grow the seedlings in a greenhouse (
) for 7 days, to cut the root of seedlings with a scalpel and then pour a 10 ml-aliquot of the spore suspension of
on soil. The infected plants were cultivated in a growth room at 25 to
for about 3 weeks with 12-hr light a day.
Development of Biofungicide Using Bacillus sp. KBC1004 for the Control of Anthracnose of Red Pepper
Kang, Hoon-Serg ; Kang, Jae-Gon ; Park, Jeong-Chan ; Lee, Young-Ui ; Jeong, Yoon-Woo ; Kim, Jeong-Jun ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 208~214
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.208
To develop an effective biopesticide to control pepper anthracnose disease, an isolate which showed strong inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of Colletotrichum acutatum was selected among the antagonistic bacterial isolates collected from pepper grown soil. The bacterial isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. KBC1004 using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The liquid culture of KBC1004 was freeze-dried and formulated as a wettable powder(WP). The wettable powder form of KBC1004 required at least 24 hours to activate and to inhibit the conidial germination of C. acutatum. In vitro bioassay using the detached green pepper fruits, biocontrol activity of the WP was not recognizable in simultaneous inoculation, but significant disease suppression was observed pre-treatment (24 hr) of the WP before pathogen inoculation. In field experiment, 4 times foliar applications of the 1/500 diluted wettable powder from the end of June showed great control efficacy similar to that of the chemical fungicide application. These results suggest that the formulated WP product could be an alternative mean to control of pepper anthracnose disease in environmentally friendly farming practices.
Suppression of Rhizome Rot in Organically Cultivated Ginger Using Integrated Pest Management
Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Suk-Chul ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.215
This study was conducted to control ginger rhizome rot treated with the combined treatment, the hairy vetch, carbonized rice husk and eggshell calcium in organic ginger farm. Early symptoms of leaf yellowing and plant wilt began in the chemical fertilizer treatment on July 1. Ginger rhizome rot was more progressed on October 2, and stem browning and dead plant showed a high disease incidence with from 36.7% to 43.0%. On the other hand, the combined treatment did not occur at all until July 1 and delayed the disease incidence to October 2. It showed a low disease incidence of 1.3% to 1.7%. In the combined treatment, the content of soil Na, Fe, Cu was decreased and organic matter was increased twice with 31.6% than previous. Population density of Pythium sp. is lower in the combined treatment (
than the chemical fertilizer treatments (
). The combined treatment, hairy vetch, carbonized rice husk and the eggshell calcium is able to control the ginger rhizome rot in organically cultivated ginger field.
Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1
Park, Seur Kee ; Kim, Young Cheol ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 222~226
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.222
The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in this study. The bacterial C-1 strain was identified as a novel Serratia sp. by a phylogenic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The Serratia sp. C-1 bacterial cultures showed strong in planta biocontrol efficacies against some major phytopathogenic fungal diseases. The draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. C-1 indicated that the C-1 strain is a novel strain harboring a subset of genes that may be involved in its biocontrol activities.
Resistance of Fusarium fujikuroi Isolates to Hydrogen Peroxide and Its Application for Fungal Isolation
Youn, Kihoon ; Choi, Hyo-Won ; Shin, Dong Bum ; Jung, Boknam ; Lee, Jungkwan ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 227~230
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.227
The ascomycete fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes bakanae disease in rice and this disease has been reemerging in Korea. Other fungal species including F. graminearum and Magnaporthe oryzae are often associated with F. fujikuroi, hampering pure isolation of F. fujikuroi from rice. In this study, we modified a selective medium for F. fujikuroi as supplementing both pentachloronitrobenzene and hydrogen peroxide into minimal medium. This medium efficiently suppressed the vegetative growth of F. graminearum and M. oryzae, but did not significantly reduce F. fujikuroi growth, providing an efficient tool for isolating F. fujikuroi.
Improved Method to Increase Conidia Production from Isolates of Different Pathotypes of Citrus Scab Pathogen Elsinoe spp.
Hyun, Jae-Wook ; Paudyal, Dilli Prasad ; Hwang, Rok-Yeon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 231~234
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.231
Elsinoe fawcettii and E. australis are two currently recognized scab pathogens of citrus. E. fawcettii has at least six pathotypes while E. australis has at least two pathotypes. Colonies of E. fawcettii and E. australis do not sporulate in artificial media including potato dextrose agar (PDA). Whiteside's method has been widely used for preparing conidial inoculum in vitro. This study was carried out to develop efficient method for conidia production from artificial media. We developed a shaking method which included the following steps: 1) Colony grown on PDA was mashed with a steel spatula; 2) Mycelia fragments were cultured in 50 ml sterilized rain water in a rotary shaker-incubator (180 rpm) at
for 24 h: 3) The conidia suspension was filtered through two layers of cheesecloth. Average conidia production of all isolates tested using this shaking method was approximately 13.1 times higher than that from Whiteside's method in this study.
Survey of Viruses Present in Radish Fields in 2014
Chung, Jinsoo ; Han, Jae-Yeong ; Kim, Jungkyu ; Ju, Hyekyoung ; Gong, Junsu ; Seo, Eun-Young ; Hammond, John ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 235~242
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.235
A 2014 nationwide survey in radish fields investigated the distribution of common viruses and possible emerging viruses. Radish leaves with virus-like symptoms were collected and 108 samples assayed by RT-PCR using specific primers for Radish mosaic virus (RaMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV); 47 samples were TuMV positive, and RaMV and CMV were detected in 3 and 2 samples, respectively. No samples showed double infection of TuMV/RaMV, or RaMV/CMV, but two double infections of TuMV/CMV were detected. TuMV isolates were sorted by symptom severity, and three isolates (R007-mild; R041 and R065-severe) selected for BLAST and phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that the coat protein (CP) of these isolates (R007, R041, and R065) have approx. 98-99% homology to a previously reported TuMV isolate. RaMV CP showed approx. 99% homology to a previously reported isolate, and the CMV CP is identical to a previously reported Korean isolate (GenBank : GU327368). Three isolates of TuMV showing different pathogenicity (degree of symptom severity) will be valuable to study determinants of pathogenicity.
Assessing Frogeye Leaf Spot Resistance on Recommended Soybean Cultivars
Kang, In Jeong ; Shim, Hyeong Kwon ; Shin, Dong Bum ; Roh, Jae Hwan ; Goh, Jaeduk ; Heu, Sunggi ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 243~249
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.243
Soybean frogeye leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina Hara, has known to lead a severe reduction of crop yield. Since frogeye leaf spot on soybean has recently become a serious problem in Korea, the susceptibility of recent recommended cultivars against C. sojina had been tested. To standardize the disease severity of soybean, the optimum sporulation condition of C. sojina and the disease index were established in this study. Sporulation was maximized on the 10% V8 juice agar with 12 h light and 12 h dark at
. Spore suspension (
) was sprayed on the leaves of soybean (V6 stage), and the disease responses to each isolate were evaluated on 28 days after inoculation. As a result, Daepung, Shinpaldal2ho, Yeonpung and Cheonga showed the resistance reaction to 8, 7, 6, 6 isolates of C. sojina, respectively, whereas Cheongja, Hwangkeum, Taekwang, Daewon, Cheonsang and Sinhwa showed the susceptible reaction to 8 isolates of C. sojina. Breeding the resistant soybean cultivars against C. sojina requires a uniform resistance for screening technique. The disease index of frogeye leaf spot on soybean developed in this study can be effectively used for the accurate field assay to select the frogeye leaf spot resistant soybean.
First report of Gymnosporangium clavipes Cooke & Peck affecting Crataegus mexicana var. Chapeado and C. gracilior in Mexico
Alvarado-Rosales, D. ; Nieto-Lopez, E.H. ; Teliz-Ortiz, D. ; Ayala-Escobar, V. ; Silva-Rojas, H.V. ; Nieto-Angel, R. ; Leyva-Mir, S.G. ; Jimenez-Nieto, A. ; Mendez-Inocencio, C. ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 3, 2015, Pages 250~252
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.3.250
The tejocote (Crataegus spp.) is a tree considered to be native to Mexico. The aim of this study was to identify the causal agent of tejocote rust in the State of Puebla. Tejocote fruits were sampled in 2012 and 2013. The fungus was studied morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy and molecularly using phylogenetic analysis of 18S and 28S rDNA genes. The fungus was identified as Gymnosporangium clavipes on tejocote fruits. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of Gymnosporangium clavipes Cooke & Peck affecting Crataegus mexicana var. Chapeado and C. gracilior in Puebla Mexico.