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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Research in Plant Disease
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Influence of Commercial Antibiotics on Biocontrol of Soft Rot and Plant Growth Promotion in Chinese Cabbages by Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 and BS07M
Sang, Mee Kyung ; Dutta, Swarnalee ; Park, Kyungseok ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 255~260
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.255
We investigated influence of three commercial antibiotics viz., oxolinic acid, streptomycin, and validamycin A, on biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities of Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 and BS07M in Chinese cabbage. Plants were pre-drenched with these strains followed by antibiotics application at recommended and ten-fold diluted concentration to test the effect on biocontrol ability against soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum SCC1. The viability of the two biocontrol strains and bacterial pathogen SCC1 was significantly reduced by oxolinic acid and streptomycin in vitro assay, but not by validamycin A. In plant trials, strains EXTN-1 and BS07M controlled soft rot in Chinese cabbage, and there was a significant difference in disease severity when the antibiotics were applied to the plants drenched with the two biocontrol agents. Additional foliar applications of oxolinic acid and streptomycin reduced the disease irrespective of pre-drench treatment of the PGPRs. However, when the plants were pre-drenched with EXTN-1 followed by spray of validamycin A at recommended concentration, soft rot significantly reduced compared to untreated control. Similarly, strains EXTN-1 and BS07M significantly enhanced plant growth, but it did not show synergistic effect with additional spray of antibiotics. Populations of the EXTN-1 or BS07M in the rhizosphere of plants sprayed with antibiotics were significantly affected as compared to control. Taken together, our results suggest that the three antibiotics used for soft rot control in Chinese cabbage could affect bacterial mediated biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities. Therefore, combined treatment of the PGPRs and the commercial antibiotics should be carefully applied to sustain environmental friendly disease management.
Survey of Major Diseases Occurred on Apple in Northern Gyeongbuk from 2013 to 2014
Cheon, Wonsu ; Jeon, Yongho ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.261
During the period from 2013 to 2014, disease occurrences by various pathogens in apple cultivars have been investigated in northern Gyeongbuk province of Korea. Anthracnose, white rot, Alternaria leaf spot, Marssonina blotch, and bacterial shoot blight as major diseases have been observed. Pathogens isolated from the symptomatic plants were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides for anthracnose, Botryosphaeria dothidea for white rot, Alternaria alternata for Alternaria leaf spot, Marssonina mali for Marssonina blotch, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae for bacterial shoot blight. Of all diseases, the bacterial shoot blight has been severely increased in chronically infested fields in Gyeongbuk province.
Development of Sequential Sampling Plan for Bacterial Leaf Blight of Garlic by Cluster Sampling
Song, Jeong Heub ; Yang, Cheol Joon ; Yang, Young Taek ; Shim, Hong Sik ; Jwa, Chang Sook ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 268~272
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.268
Bacterial leaf blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri is one of the major bacterial diseases of garlic (Allium sativum). In South Korea, the disease has only been observed in garlic-growing regions of Jeju island. The spatial distribution pattern of the disease was analyzed by binary power law, in which the natural logarithm of the observed variance is regressed on the natural logarithm of the binomial variance. The estimated slope (b=1.361) of the regression was greater than 1 which meant that the diseased plants were aggregated. The sequential sampling plans were developed for estimating the mean incidence rate (
) and classifying the mean incidence as being below or above the critical incidence rate (
). These results could be used on more efficient and higher precisive sampling for bacterial blight of garlic compared to fixed sample sized sampling.
Comparison of Environmental-Friendly and Chemical Spray Calendar for Controlling Diseases and Insect Pests of Strawberry during Nursery Seasons
Nam, Myeong Hyeon ; Kim, Hyun Sook ; Kim, Tae Il ; Lee, Eun Mo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 273~279
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.273
Major diseases and insect pests in nursery season of strawberry were anthracnose, powdery mildew, Fusarium wilt, two-spotted spider mite, and aphids. Environmental-friendly and chemical application schedules can improve diseases and insect pests control with relatively fewer organic and chemical materials inputs compared with spray programs when it's occurred. Field experiments were performed in 2012 to 2013 according to calendar-based spray programs with environmental-friendly spray calendar (EFSC) and conventional chemical spray calendar (CSC) for controlling diseases and insect pests of strawberry plants cv, Seolhyang during the two nursery seasons. EFSC did reduce the incidence of diseases and insect pests as compared to the non-treated control. Incidence of anthracnose and powdery mildew by EFSC and CSC was similar in 2012 and 2013 seasons. In addition, occurrence of two-spotted spider mite in EFSC in 2013 was similar to those of CSC and was shown highly in early and mid-June both 2012 and 2013 seasons. Occurrence of aphid in EFSC was shown highly in early and mid-June both 2012 and 2013 seasons. These results suggest that EFSC program may be effective for controlling strawberry diseases and insect pests by using environmental-friendly organic materials.
Biological Control of Fusarium Stalk Rot of Maize Using Bacillus spp.
Han, Joon-Hee ; Park, Gi-Chang ; Kim, Joon-Oh ; Kim, Kyoung Su ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 280~289
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.280
Maize (Zea mays L.) is an economically important crop in worldwide. While the consumption of the maize is steadily increasing, the yield is decreasing due to continuous mono-cultivation and infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Fusarium species. Recently, stalk rot disease in maize, caused by F. subglutinans and F. temperatum has been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated bacterial isolates in rhizosphere soil of maize and subsequently tested for antagonistic activities against F. subglutinans and F. temperatum. A total of 1,357 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere. Among them three bacterial isolates (GC02, GC07, GC08) were selected, based on antagonistic effects against Fusarium species. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were most efficient in inhibiting the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The three isolates GC02, GC07 and GC08 were identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequence analysis, respectively. GC02 and GC07 bacterial suspensions were able to suppress over 80% conidial germination of the pathogens. GC02, GC07 and GC08 were capable of producing large quantities of protease enzymes, whereas the isolates GC07 and GC08 produced cellulase enzymes. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were more efficient in phosphate solubilization and siderophore production than GC08. Analysis of disease suppression revealed that GC07 was most effective in suppressing the disease development of stalk rot. It was also found that B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 have an ability to inhibit the growth of other plant pathogenic fungi. This study indicated B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 has potential for being used for the development of a biological control agent.
Development of an Efficient Screening System for Resistance of Tomato Cultivars to Ralstonia solanacearum
Lee, Ji Hyun ; Jang, Kyoung Soo ; Choi, Yong Ho ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Choi, Gyung Ja ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 290~296
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.290
This study was conducted to establish an efficient screening system for resistant tomato to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Under several conditions such as inoculation methods, growth stages of tomato seedlings, inoculum concentrations, and incubating temperatures after inoculation, development of bacterial wilt on nine resistant or susceptible cultivars of tomato was investigated. To inoculate by drenching the non-cut roots with the bacterial suspension was better to distinguish resistance and susceptibility of tomato cultivars than by drenching the cut roots using scalpel. And 'Hawaii7996' a resistant tomato to R. solanacearum showed high resistance at all the tested conditions including growth stages (3-, 6-, 8-, 10-leaf stages), inoculum concentrations (
) and incubation temperatures (25, 30,
). On the other hands, susceptible cultivars represented disease index of 3.7 and 3.9 at 6- and 8-leaf stages, respectively. At 3- and 10-leaf stages, the cultivars demonstrated lower disease severity of 2.1 and 0.5, respectively, than at 6- and 8-leaf stages. When the inoculated seedlings were incubated in growth chambers of 25, 30 and
, disease severity of susceptible cultivars was significantly greater at 30 and
. In addition, the level of resistance of the tomato cultivars was not significantly affected by inoculum concentrations of
. On the basis of the results, we suggest an efficient screening method to measure resistance level of tomato cultivars to bacterial wilt. The eight-leaf stage seedlings transplanted 7 days before inoculation, are inoculated with R. solanacearum by drenching the non-cut roots with a bacterial suspensions (
) to give inoculum volume of 50 ml/soil l. The inoculated plants are incubated in a growth room at
for 12-13 days with 12-hour light a day.
Effect of Extracts and Bacteria from Korean Fermented Foods on the Control of Sesame Seed-Borne Fungal Diseases
Kim, Yong-Ki ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Park, Jong-Won ; Park, So-Hyang ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Kim, Seok-Cheol ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 297~308
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.297
In order to control seed-borne diseases, we obtained extracts from commercial fermented food products of Kimchi, Gochujang, Doenjang, Ganjang and Makgeolli and their suppressive effects against seed-borne diseases were studied. In addition, the suppressive effects of bacterial strains isolated from the fermented foods were screened in vitro and in vivo. Among fifty food extracts, twenty food-extracts suppressed more than 92% incidence of seedling rots in vitro and seven food extracts increased 58.3-66.8% of healthy seedling in the greenhouse. Among 218 isolates from the fermented foods, 29 isolates showing high antifungal activity against seven seed-borne fungal pathogens were selected. Among 29 isolates, 13 isolates significantly reduced seedling rot and increased healthy seedlings. Sixteen isolates with high antifungal activity and suppressive effect against sesame seedling rots were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Fourteen of sixteen isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. and the other two isolates from Makgeolli were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was confirmed that B. amyloliquifaciens was majority in the effective bacterial population of Korean fermented foods. In addition, when the bioformulations of the two selected effective microorganisms, B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1, were prepared in powder forms using bentonite, kaolin, talc and zeolite, talc- and kaolin-bioformulation showed high control efficacy against sesame seed-borne disease, followed by zeolite-bioformulation. Meanwhile control efficacy of each bentonite-bioformulation of B. amyloliquifacien Gcj2-1 and B. amyloliquifacien Gcj3-1 was lower than that of bacterial suspension of them. It was found that the selected effective microorganisms from Korean fermented foods were effective for controlling seed-borne diseases of sesame in vitro and in the greenhouse. We think that Korean fermented food extracts and useful microorganisms isolated from the extract can be used as bio-control agents for suppressing sesame seed-borne diseases based on above described results.
Suppression of Powdery Mildew Using the Water Extract of Xylogone ganodermophthora and Aqueous Potassium Phosphonate Solution on Watermelon under Greenhouse Conditions
Kang, Hyo-Jung ; Kim, Youngsang ; Kim, Taeil ; Jeong, Taek Ku ; Han, Chong U ; Nam, Sang Young ; Kim, Ik-Jei ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 309~314
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.309
Xylogone ganodermophthora (Xg) is an ascomycetous fungus that causes yellow rot on cultivated Ganoderma lucidum. Previously, we reported in vitro antifungal activities of a Xg culture extract against several watermelon pathogens. In 2014, we conducted greenhouse experiments to evaluate the control efficacy of a water extract of cultured Xg on watermelon powdery mildew (WPM). The test material (stock solution, ca.
) was prepared by an autoclaved Xg culture in water at a ratio of 800 g of culture per 6 liter of water, and then filtering it through filter paper. Six foliar applications of the solutions (diluted 100- and 1,000-fold) significantly suppressed the formation of conidiophores and conidia. The inhibitory effect of aqueous potassium phosphonate solution on the disease and its phytotoxicity was tested. Phytotoxicity on watermelon plants was observed at concentrations of 1,000 and
as irregular brownish spots. The control efficacies against WPM were 91.9% at
, 64.9% at
, and 62.2% at
Detection of Soybean mosaic virus by Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification
Lee, Yeong-Hoon ; Bae, Dae-Hyeon ; Kim, Bong-Sub ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Bae, Soon-Do ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Mainali, Bishwo P. ; Park, In-Hee ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Kang, Hang-Won ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.315
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a prevalent pathogen that causes significant yield reduction in soybean production worldwide. SMV belongs to potyvirus and causes typical symptoms such as mild mosaic, mosaic and necrosis. SMV is seed-borne and also transmitted by aphid. Eleven SMV strains, G1 to G7, G5H, G6H, G7H, and G7a were reported in soybean varieties in Korea. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method allowed one-step detection of gene amplification by simple procedure and needed only a simple incubator for isothermal template. This RT-LAMP method allowed direct detection of RNA from virus-infected plants without thermal cycling and gel electrophoresis. In this study, we designed RT-LAMP primers named SML-F3/B3/FIP/BIP from coat protein gene sequence of SMV. After the reaction of RT-LAMP, products were identified by electrophoresis and with the detective fluorescent dye, SYBR Green I under daylight and UV light. Optimal reaction condition was at
for 60 min and the primers of RT-LAMP showed the specificity for nine SMV strains tested in this study.
Simple and Rapid Detection for Rice stripe virus Using RT-PCR and Porous Ceramic Cubes
Hong, Su-Bin ; Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Seo, Jang-Kyun ; Shin, Jun-Sung ; Han, Jung-Heon ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 321~325
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.321
A rapid and simple RT-PCR diagnosis method for detection of Rice stripe virus (RSV), one of major virus infecting rice, was developed using porous ceramic cubes in this study. The porous ceramic cube can rapidly absorb biological molecules such as small-sized proteins and nucleic acid fragments into its pores. We examined whether this ability of porous ceramic cubes could be applied for isolating viral nucleic acids or particles from the RSV- infected plant tissues. In this study, we found that the porous ceramic cube was capable of absorbing a detection level of viruses from the rice tissues infected with RSV and established RT-PCR-based RNA diagnosis method using porous ceramic cubes.
Rapid Detection Method for Fusaric Acid-producing Species of Fusarium by PCR
Lee, Theresa ; Kim, Sosoo ; Busman, Mark ; Proctor, Robert H. ; Ham, Hyeonhui ; Lee, Soohyung ; Hong, Sung Kee ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 326~329
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.326
Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin produced by species of the fungus Fusarium and can act synergistically with other Fusarium toxins. In order to develop a specific detection method for fusaric acid-producing fungus, PCR primers were designed to amplify FUB10, a transcription factor gene in fusaric acid biosynthetic gene cluster. When PCR with Fub10-f and Fub10-r was performed, a single band (~550 bp) was amplified from F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. anthophilum, F. bulbicola, F. circinatum, F. fujikuroi, F. redolens, F. sacchari, F. subglutinans, and F. thapsinum, all of which were known for fusaric acid production. Whereas the FUB10 specific band was not amplified from Fusarium species known to be trichothecene producer. Because production of fusaric acid can co-occur in species that also produce fumonisin mycotoxins, we developed a multiplex PCR assay using the FUB10 primers as well as primers for the fumonisin biosynthetic gene FUM1. The assay yielded amplicons from fumonisin producers such as F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, allowing for the simultaneous detection of species with the genetic potential to produce both types of mycotoxins.
First Report of Leaf Spot of Datura metel Caused by Alternaria tenuissima in Korea
Aktaruzzaman, Md. ; Kim, Joon-Young ; Afroz, Tania ; Kim, Byung-Sup ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 330~333
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.330
In June 2013, we collected leaf spot disease samples of Datura metel from Gangneung, Gangwon Province, Korea. The symptoms observed were small circular to oval dark brown spots with irregular in shape or remained circular with concentric rings. We isolated the pathogen from infected leaves and cultured the fungus on potato dextrose agar. We examined the fungus morphologically and confirmed its pathogenicity according to Koch's postulates. The results of morphological examinations, pathogenicity tests, and the rDNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS4), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene sequence revealed that the causal agent was Alternaria tenuissima. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of leaf spot of D. metel caused by A. tenuissima in Korea as well as worldwide.
Sclerotium Rot of Pulsatilla koreana Nakai Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Hwang, Gap-Chun ; Lee, Seol-Bi ; Choi, Yong-Jo ; Lee, Sang-Dae ; Nguyen, Le-Minh ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 334~336
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.334
Sclerotium rot on Pulsatilla koreana was observed in the exhibition field of Jinju Agriculture Technology Center in July 2013. The infected plants showed water-soaked, blighted and rotted symptoms. White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and then numerous sclerotia were formed on flower stalk and flower stem near the soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, 1-3 mm in size and white to brown in color. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and sclerotia formation on PDA was
and the hyphal width was
. The typical clamp connections were observed in the hyphae of the fungus grown on PDA. For molecular identification, the complete ITS rDNA sequence of the causal fungus was sequenced and analyzed. On the basis of mycological characteristics, ITS rDNA sequence analysis, and pathogenicity to host plants, this fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot on Pulsatilla koreana caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.
Occurrence of Rust on Peucedanum japonicum Caused by Puccinia jogashimensis in Korea
Ko, Sug-Ju ; Kim, Hyo-Jeong ; Myung, Inn-Shik ; Uhm, Mi-Jeong ; Choi, In-Young ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 337~340
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.337
During July to November 2014, severe rust infection was consistently found on Peucedanum japonicum growing farm in Yeosu, Korea. The rust was observed mainly on lower leaf surfaces. Symptoms of typical plants included yellow-orange rust pustules were observed on the petiole and leaf surface with small yellowish to chlorotic lesions on the upper surface. No symptom was observed on flowers. Uredinia were occurred amphigenous on leaf surface, and occasionally caulicolous, scattered or loosely aggregate, rounded to oblong, 0.4 to 4 mm in diameter, covered by epidermis, then naked, surrounded by ruptured epidermis, pulverulent, and brown. Urediniospores were ovate-ellipsoid, ellipsoid or subglobose, light brown, 20 to
, walls 2 to
thick. The resulting sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession No. KT778808, KT778809, and KT778810, respectively. Since this was the first accession of 28S sequence Puccinia jogashimensis, there was no exact match in GenBank nucleotide database. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA, the fungus was identified as P. jogashimensis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report on the occurrence of P. jogashimensis on P. japonicum in Korea.
First report of Cucumber mosaic virus in African Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) in Korea
Choi, Seung Kook ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Kwon, Sun-Jung ; Cho, In-Sook ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 341~345
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.341
Virus-like symptoms including stunt, severe mosaic with malformation of leaves, fern-like leaves and abnormal petals were observed from an African impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) grown in a plant nursery in Icheon, Korea. Serological analysis using immuno-strip kits for viruses reported in African impatiens indicated that Cucumber mosaic virus (named CMV-Im) was a causal agent for the symptomatic African impatiens. Biological properties of CMV-Im were analyzed using responses of host plant species, suggesting that CMV-Im is a typical strain that belongs to CMV subgroup I. RT-PCR analysis verified CMV-Im infection from naturally infected African impatiens or mechanically inoculated some host species. Analysis of multiple alignments of CMV capsid protein (CP) sequences showed that CMV-Im shared high CP amino acids identities with other CMV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis for the CP sequences of CMV-Im and representative CMV strains confirmed that CMV is a typical member of CMV subgroup I. To our knowledge, it is the first report of CMV in African impatiens in Korea.
Phylogenetic Analysis of Apple scar skin viroid Isolates in Korea
Cho, Kang Hee ; Kim, In-Soo ; Kil, Eui-Joon ; Park, Seo Jun ; Kim, Se Hee ; Choi, In-Myung ; Kim, Dae-Hyun ;
Research in Plant Disease, volume 21, issue 4, 2015, Pages 346~350
DOI : 10.5423/RPD.2015.21.4.346
To identify genome sequences of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) isolates in Korea, the field survey was performed from 'Hongro' apple orchards located in eight sites in South Korea (Bongwha, Cheongsong, Dangjin, Gimchoen, Muju, Mungyeong, Suwon, and Yeongwol). ASSVd was detected by RT-PCR and PCR fragments were cloned into cloning vector. Full-length viral genomes of eight ASSVd isolates were sequenced and compared with 21 isolates reported previously from Korea, India, China, Japan and Greece. Eight isolates in this study showed 92.2-99.7% nucleotide sequence identities with those reported previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven isolates reported in this study belong to the same group distinct from other groups.