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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Research in Plant Disease
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Dec 2001
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Aug 2001
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Apr 2001
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Characterization of Cucumver mosaic virus Isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla for. otaksa (Sieb. et Zucc) Wils.
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~7
An isolate of Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus(CMV) was isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla for. otaksa(Sieb. et Zucc. ) Wils. showing mosaic symptoms, and designated as Hm-CMV. Hm-CMV was characterized by the tests of host range, physical properties, serological properties, RNA and coat protein compositions, and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Twelve species in 4 families were used in the host range test of Hm-CMV and could be differentiated from Y-CMV used as a control CMV by the ringspot and line pattern on inoculated leaves of several tobacco plants. Thevirus produced local lesions on inoculated leaves of Chenopodium amarticolor, C. quinoa and Vigna unguiculata. The physical properties of the virus were as follows; thermal inactivation point(TIP) was 60
, dilution end point (DEP) was 10
-3/, and longevity in vitro (LIP) was 3∼4 days. Hm-CMV was serologically identical to Y-CMV. SDS-polyaciylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) showed one major protein band of about 28 kDa. In RNA or dsRNA analysis, Hm-CMV consisted of four RNA or dsRNA species, but satellite RNA was not detected. In RT-PCR using CMV-common primer and CMV subgroup I-specific primer, bothe amplified expected size of about 490 bp and 200 bp DNA fragments from Hm-CMV, respectively. Restriction enzyme analysis of the 490 bp RT-PCR products using EcoR I and Msp I showed that Hm-CMV belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, Hm-CMV could be differentiated from other CMV subgroup I isolates by RNA fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR).
Stem Rot of Kalanchoe Caused by Phytophthora nicotianae
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 8~10
A stem and root rot disease of kalanchoe (Kalanchoe sp.) which is a succulent plant that provides consumers with a durable flowering pot was found in Koyang, Kyounggi province, Korea in May 1998. We found that stems and roots of potted kalanchoe had dark brown spots at the soil level. The causal organism was identified as Pjytophtora nicotianae on the basis of mycological characteristics. The fungus produced markedly papillate, ovoid to spherical sporangia, and abundant chlamydospores. Sporangia were 20∼48
47.3㎛) in size, and optimum temperature for the mycelial growth of the isolate was 30
. The fungus showed relatively different pathogenicity to 14 kalanchoe cultivars including K. blossfelana cv. Florus. cultivars florsu, calypso, Maya, and Redsing were susceptible to thedisease in root dip inoculation. This is the first report demonstrating the stem rot on kalanchoe caused by P. nicotianae in Korea.
Occurrence and Distribution of Monosporascus Root Rot and Pathogenicity of Monosporascus cannonballus on Cucurbitaceae Plants
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 11~15
Root rot of Cucurbitaceae plants, caused by Monosporascus cannonballus, is one of the recently described diseases in Korea. The distribution and pathogenicity of M. cannonballus were examined by field and in vitro experiments. Root rot caused by M. cannonballus occurred on melon, oriental melon, watermelon and cucumber plants. In two years of disease survey, the disease occurred at 10 and 32 fields in 1997 and 1998, respectively, which were located at Kimhae, Chinju, and Namhae in Kyeongnam province, at Kwangyang in Chonnam province, at Kwangju city, and at Yeoju and Inchon in Kyeonggi province. The disease progress in a melon field at Namhae was not observed until the middle stage of plant growth, but rapidly increased at the fruit maturing stage, resulting in more than 50% yield loss. Isolation rate of M. cannonballus was 36.7% from wilted hosts. Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also frequently isolated. In vitro test, seedlings wilted after 7∼14 days of inoculation, and perithecia were formed in infected roots 21 days later. Two cucumber cultivars, Baekbong and Eunhwa, were resistant to the disease.
Cultural Characteristics and Ascospore Density in Soil of Monosporascus Cannonballus on Cucurbitaceae Plants
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 16~19
The cultural caracteristics of Monosporascus cannonballus causing root rot of Cucurbitaceae plants were examined in vitro, and population density of the fungal ascospores were measured and compared aoming diferent host species and soil depths. Potato-dextrose agar(PDA) was the most appropriate medium for the mycelial growth and perithecial formation among the 5 media tested. Corn-meal agar(CMA), oat-meal agar (OMA) and V-8 juice agar were moderate media for the mycelial growth and perithecial formation, whereas water agar(WA) was poor medium. Perithecia were not formed on WA. Optimum temperature for the formation of perithecia was about 25 to 30
. distribution of ascospores in the infested fields was variable amount the curcubitaceae plants and within the same plant species, ranging from 1.7 to 14.6 ascospores in 20 g of soil, but no ascospore was detected in the uninfested field soils. Ascospores were distributed more at 20cm of soil depth than at 10cm or 30cm of soil depth.
Fitness Analysis of the Forecasting Model for the Root Rot Progress of Ginseng Based on Bioassay and Soil Environmental Factors
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 20~24
As stand-missing rate (SMR) of ginseng plants in fields are directly related to the ginseng root rot, the forecasting model for the root rot progress in ginseng fields was developed, using the estimated SMRs by disease incidence (DI) of ginseng seedling in the soil-indexing bioassay and the estimate of DI derived from soil environmental factors or rhizoplane microflora. For fitness analysis of the forecasting model, simple correlation and linear regression between SMRs at different planting ages in fields and their estimates by 3 factors of the model were evaluated.The SMR estimated from the factor of DI in the bioassay had much higher fitness to the SMR observed in fields than that from the factors of soil environments and rhizoplane microflora. The estimated SMRs in young and aged ginseng fields by DI in the bioassay were significantly correlated with the observed SMRs in 3- and 5-year-old ginseng fields, respectively (p=0.01). this implicates that indexing preplanting field soils with the forecasting model using DI in the bioassay can provide an information to determine the suitability of the fields for ginseng cultivation, and that indexing cultivating field soils can be helpful to determine the time of harvesting to reduce further yield loss by root rot in continuous cultivation in the next year.
Influence of Soil Flooding with Organic Matters Amendment at Various Temperatures on Changes of Microbial Populations in Ginseng-Replanting Field Soils
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 25~30
Influence of soil flooding with organic matters amendment at various temperatures on population changes of fungi, including Fusarium, and bacteria in ginseng-replanting field soils was examined to evaluate the effective flooding conditions for reducing the progress of ginseng root rot. Populations of Fusarium spp. and total fungi in flooded soils declined with days after flooding. The higher was the temperature in range of 20
, the greater was the effect of flooding on the decrease of the fungal population. Flooding of soils with organic matters amendment had synergistic effect on the decrease of the fungal population at the same temperature; Fungal populations in flooded soils with and without organic matters amendment were reduced to 1/100 and 1/10, respectively, relative to those in non-flooded soils after 60 days of treatment at 30
. rice straw seemed to be more effective than greens. Population changes of total bacteria in flooded soils were similar to the trend of total fungi. However, the flooding seemed to influence less effect on the bacterial population than on the fungal population. Based on these experiments, we suggest than the progress of ginseng root rot in ginseng-replanting field soils may be significantly reduced by flooding them for longer than 3 months near at 30
after amendment of organic matters.
Chemical Control of Powdery Mildew of Sweet Pumpkin in Korea
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 31~36
To establish an effective chemical control strategy against powder mildew of sweet pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) caused by Sphaertheca fuliginea, screening of effective fungicides and determination of their application times were conducted. Powdery mildew caused by S. fuliginea began to occur at about 80 days after transplanting and continuously increased until harvesting in Korea. Systemic fungicides, such as difenoconazole, triforine, bitertanol, and triflumizole, were effective for controlling powdery mildew, showing control efficacies of about 80-90%. When the fungicide triflumizole was applied 3 or 4 times from the beginning day of the disease at 10-day intervals, about 92.0% and 94.6% of disease control and yield increase of 7% and 9% were obtained, respectively. Therefore, the proper application of triflumizole for controlling powdery mildew of sweet pumpkin must be done more than 3 times.
Protection of Peach Trees from Bacterial Shot Hole with Bordeaux Mixture Spray during the Postharvest Season
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 37~41
This experiment was carried out to investigate the prevention of bacterial shot hole by Bordeaux mixture when it was sprayed on peach trees after harvest. bordeaux mixture was sprayed on \`Mibaeko\` peach trees 1 to 3 times after mid September, and the occurrence of bacterial shot hole was examined in the next year. Bacterial shot hole in leaves appeared from mid May and thereafter increased gradually. The more times was sprayed Bordeaux mixture, the less peaches were diseased with bacterial shot hole. At the beginning of August, the peach harvest time, the disease incidence of the untreated control plot was 27.4 to 38.1%, while the disease incidence was 9.7 to 31.8% when Bordeaux mixture was sprayed. The control value ranged from 16.5 to 64.6%. Occurrence of the fruit disease was similar to that of the leaf disease. Incidence of the fruit disease in the untreated control was 17.2 to 21.6%, but incase of the chemical treatment, it was 5.0 to 12.2 %, showing 41.9 to 70.9% of the control value. Chemical injury on peach leaves were not found in the 4-12 and 408 types, but occurred in some degrees in the 6-6 type of Bordeaux mixture.
Effects of Control Methods on Yields of Oriental Melon in Fields Infested with Meloidogyne arenaria
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 42~48
The effect of cultural, physical and chemical control methods on the population density of Meloidogyne arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) and on fruit yields of oriental melon was investigated at Seongju Fruit Vegetable Experiments Station, Kyungpook province, Korea, for two years from 1999 to 2000. Crops used in a rotation prior to Oriental melon were rice, corn, sesame, and green onion. The physical methods used were either solarization, soil addition or soil drying, and a nematicide, fosthiazate of granular formula, was used as the chemical method, applying at a rate of 300g a. i./10 a. Growing rice in the rotation, solarization, and soil addition controlled the nematode disease most effectively, reducing the number of J2 by 90% and increasing fruit yields two times. However, the effects of these control methods on the J2 population were limited to the early growing season; the J2 population increased later, suggesting that additional control practices may be needed in the following season. The next effective control methods were use of corn in the rotation, the nematicide application, and soil drying. The nematicide application was effective only for the early fruit yield, but neither for the late nor for the total yields. Use of sesame or green onion in the rotation was not effective in controlling the nematode.
Root-knot Nematode Species Distributing in Greenhouses and Their Simple Identification Scheme
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 49~55
Species and races of root-knot nematodes in greenhouses in southern Korea were investigated and a simple identification scheme was provided. Among 23 populations of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 was 59%, M. incognita race 1 was 23%, and an unknown race of M. incognita was 18%. Total length of M. arenaria juveniles was 411㎛(306-503㎛) and that of M. incognita was 384㎛(312-488㎛); however, the ranges of two species were overlapped and could not be used to distinguish the two species. Excretory pore in female head was a consistent character to differentiate M. arenaria and M. incognita.
Occurrence of Stem Rot Caused by Bipolaris cactivora on Different Species of Cactus and Its Pathogenicity
Research in Plant Disease, volume 7, issue 1, 2001, Pages 56~59
Stem rot of cacti was found at major cultivating areas including Koyang, Ansung and Eumsung of Korea in 2000. Bipolaris cactivora was consistently isolated from the lesions. The disease occurred on different species of cactus including Cereus peruvianus, C. neopithahaja f. monstruo년, C. tetragonus, Chamaeceresu silestrii, Ch. silvestrii, f. variegata, Gymnocalcium mihanovichii var. friedrichii. G. denudatum var. pentacantha, Hylocereus trigonus and Isolatocereus dumortier. Major symptoms on the cactus species except H. trigohus were almost identical. A rapid rot of the upper portion of the catus stem appeared, and became blackened and somewhat dry. On H. trigonus, the symptom was initially light yellow, water-soaked lesion, turned into light brown and dried to death. According to pathogenicity test, 10 out of 16 cactus species and varieties tested produced identical symptoms as found in the field. However, the fungi did not show pathogenicity to Notocactus scopa, Echinocactus grusonii, Eriocactus leninghausii, Lobivia nealeana, Mammillaria elongata var. intertexta.