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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
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Glucocorticoid Regulation of Gene Expression in Hippocampal CA3 and Dentate Gyrus
Kim, Dong-Sub ; Ahn, Soon-Cheol ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Park, Byoung-Keun ; Ahn, Yong-Tae ; Kim, Ji-Youn ; Kyoji, Morita ; Her, Song ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 305~311
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.305
Glucocorticoids (GCs) alter metabolism, synaptogenesis, apoptosis, neurogenesis, and dendritic morphology in the hippocampus. To better understand how glucocorticoids regulate these aspects of hippocampal biology, we studied gene expression patterns in the CA3 (Hippocampal pyramidal cell field CA3) and dentate gyrus (DG). Litter-matched Lewis inbred rats treated for 20 days with either 9.5 mg per day sustained-release corticosterone or placebo pellets were compared with high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis (Rat Neurobiology U34 Arrays, Affymetrix). In placebo-treated rats, 32 genes were expressed at greater levels in CA3 than DG, whereas 3 genes were expressed at great levels in DC than CA3. Regional differences were also apparent in corticosterone-induced changes in the hippocampal transcriptome. Six genes in CA3 and 41 genes in DC were differentially regulated by corticosterone. As per the glucocorticoid effects on gene transcription in the brain, forty three of these genes were upregulated, and 4 genes were downregulated. Genes differentially expressed in hippocampus included those for 13 neurotransmitter proteins, 5 ion channel related proteins, 4 transcription factors, 3 neurotrophic factors, 1 cytokine, 1 apoptosis related protein, and 5 genes involved in synaptogenesis. Interestingly, GCs can have suppressive effects on brain BDNF mRNA transcription, one of the neurotrophic factors. These results indicate the diversity of targets affected by chronic exposure to corticosterone and highlight important regional differences in hippocampal neurobiology.
Morphological characteristics and genetic diversity of Calanthe species native to Korea
Cho, Dong-Hoon ; Choi, Young-Whan ; Kang, Jum-Soon ; Lee, Yong-Jae ; Choi, In-Soo ; Lee, Young-Geun ; Jee, Sun-Ok ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Son, Beung-Gu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 312~317
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.312
This study was conducted to research the morphological characteristics and analyze the genetic diversity by using RAPD in Calanthe species native to Korea. Nine samples were selected by flower color and 19 morphological characteristics. In the length and width of leaf, dorsal sepal, the lateral sepal, the petal, the central lip, and the lateral lip, C. discolor was the shortest and narrowest, respectively, but C. sieboldii was the longest and the widest, respectively. The flower stalk length was the shortest in C. discolor, and the longest in C. sieboldii. Three variants were the intermediate between C. discolor and C. sieboldii in the above morphological characteristics, but spur length was the longest in C. discolor, the shortest in C. sieboldii, and intermediate in the variants. The ovary length in C. discolor was shortest and C. sieboldii and variants were similar with each other. The flower color of C. discolor were brownish red, the value of CIE Lab was between 40 and 50. The flower color of C. sieboldii was yellowish, the value of CIE Lab was between 110 and 130. And variants had various colors between 50 to 70 in the value of CIE Lab. By analyzing multiple band patterns of PCR products, 154 bands were selected as polymorphic RAPD markers. The analysis of genetic similarity of Calanther species using RAPD showed that C. discolor and C. sieboldii are more distant from each other than variants, and these results demonstrated that genetic position of variants located between C. discolor and C. sieboldii.
Molecular phylogeny of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita Linnaeus collected from Yeosu waters in Korea based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences
Kim, Sook-Yang ; Cho, Eun-Seob ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 318~327
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.318
This study presents the molecular phylogenetic analysis of Korean Aurelia aurita Linnaeus collected from Yeosu in the southern waters of Korea using nuclear ITS1 region and mitochondrial COI gene sequences. The use of oligonucleotide primers F5 (forward) and R5 (reverse) targeted to ITS1 and LCO1490 (forward) and HCO2198 (reverse) targeted to COI amplified 267 bp and 643 bp fragments, respectively. The shortest genetic distance towards the ITS1 region is estimated at 0.023 when comparing Korean A. aurita to Aurelia sp. collected from California, USA. In particular, Korean and American/Swedish A. aurita were located far away in terms of genetic distance, ranging from 0.393 to 0.395. On the other hand, the genetic distance between Korean and English/Turkish/Swedish/American A. aurita regarding the mitochondrial DNA COI gene ranged from 0.201 to 0.205. However, a sister-ship with Korean and American A. aurita showed an extremely high bootstrap value (100%). The predicted secondary RNA structure of the mitochondrial DNA COI gene showed many different folding structures with a similar energy between Korean and American A. aurita. These results suggest that ITS1 and the mitochondrial DNA COI gene could be used as genetic markers for identification of the biogeographic populations.
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Liriope platyphylla (Liliaceae) in Korea
Huh, Hong-Wook ; Choi, Joo-Soo ; Lee, Bok-Kyu ; Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 328~333
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.328
Genetic diversity and population structure of eleven Liriope platyphylla (Liliaceae) populations in Korea were determined using genetic variation at 20 allozyme loci. The percent of polymorphic loci within the enzymes was 55.9%. Genetic diversity at the species level and at the population level was high(Hes
Screening for inhibitory effect on nine CYP isoforms by 20 herbal medications
Kim, Hyun-Mi ; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 334~339
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.334
We evaluated the potential of 20 herbal medications (HMs), commonly used in Korea, to inhibit the catalytic activities of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. The abilities of 500
of aqueous extracts of 20 HMs to inhibit phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2), coumarin 6-hydroxylation (CYP2A6), bupropion hydroxylation (CYP2B6), rosiglitazone hydroxylation (CYP2C8), tolbutamide 4-methylhydroxylation (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin 4`-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan O-demethylation (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1), and midazolam 1`-hydroxylation (CYP3A) were tested using human liver microsomes. The HMs Woohwangcheongsimwon suspension and Hwanglyeonhaedok-Tang strongly inhibited CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 isoform activity, respectively. These results suggest that some of the HMs used in Korea have potential to inhibit CYP isoforms in vitro. Although the plasma concentrations of the active constituents of the HMs were not determined, some herbs could cause clinically significant interactions because the usual doses of those individual herbs are several grams of freeze-dried extracts.
Inactivation of Avian Influenza Viruses by Alkaline Disinfectant Solution
Jo, Su-Kyung ; Kim, Heui-Man ; Lee, Chang-Jun ; Lee, Joo-Seob ; Seo, Sang-Heui ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 340~344
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.340
Avian influenza viruses cause a considerable threat to humans and animals. In this study, we investigated whether alkaline disinfectant solution can inactivate H5N1, H3N2, H6N1, and H9N2 subtypes of avian influenza virus. When H5N1, H3N2, H6N1, and H9N2 avian influenza viruses were treated with alkaline solution diluted with PBS (pH 7.2) prior to infection into MDCK cells, alkaline disinfectant solution (at dilutions up to
) completely inactivated all avian influenza subtypes tested. To confirm the inactivation of avian influenza viruses by alkaline disinfectant solution, we used an immunofluorescence assay with influenza A anti-nucleoprotein antibody and FITC-labeled secondary antibody to stain MDCK cells infected with avian H9N2 influenza viruses. No staining was observed in MDCK rells infected with H9N2 viruses that were pre-treated with a
dilution of alkaline disinfectant solution, while strong staining was observed in MDCK cells infected with H9N2 viruses without pre-treatment. Our results indicate that alkaline solution could help to control avian influenza viruses including the highly pathogenic H5N1 subtype.
Cloning, Purification, and Structural Characterization by 1D
H-NMR of the PDZ domain of the Shank3 protein
Sung, Mee-Sook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 345~349
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.345
We wished to create a set of small molecular weight PDZ domain ligands that may be used in functional studies on the proteins AF6, PSD-95 and Shank. As a starting point, the Shank3 PDZ domain was cloned, purified, and characterized the structure of Shank3 PDZ domain by 1D
. The chemical shift dispersion of the proton signals indicates that the purified Shank3 PDZ protein is very pure and globally well folded. Currently, we are working on improving the yield of the protein production for complete NMR structural analysis of the Shank3 PDZ domain.
Roles of Src-family kinase isoforms, Lyn, Fyn, Fgr, and c-Src on degranulation in RBL-2H3 mast cells
Lee, Jun-Ho ; Mun, Se-Hwan ; Ko, Na-Young ; Kim, Jie-Wan ; Kim, Do-Kyun ; Kim, Joo-Dong ; Her, Erk ; Choi, Wahn-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 350~355
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.350
The rat RBL-2H3 mast cells contain various Src-family kinases. Previous reports with this cell line indicated that Lyn activation is an important initial signaling for the activation of the cells. However, the role and location of other Src-family kinase isoforms which are expressed in the cells are not clear. In this study, we now show that isoforms of Src-family kinases, Lyn, fyn, Fgr, c-Src, and Yes are differentially expressed and located differently in the cells as indicated by RT-PCR, immunoblotting analysis, and confocal microscopy. Lyn and Fgr were located on plasma membrane but on the other hand c-Src and Yes were located on intracellular organelle. All of Src-family kinases were cloned and overexpressed for investigating the roles of the isoforms. Overexpression of Fyn and Fgr, not Lyn and c-Src, stimulated Ag-induced degranulation in the cells. Our findings strongly suggest for the first time that each of Src-family kinase isoform can regulate differentially
-mediated signaling in RBL-2H3 mast cells.
ErbB2 kinase domain is required for ErbB2 association with β-catenin
Ha, Nam-Chul ; Xu, Wanping ; Neckers, Len ; Jung, Yun-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 356~361
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.356
To investigate the region of ErbB2 for the
interaction, a proteasome
and various ErbB2 constructs were transfected in COS7 cells. ErbB2 proteins were immunoprecipitated, and coimmunoprecipitated
was examined by Western blotting.
coimmunoprecipitated with full length ErbB2. Of the truncated ErbB2 proteins DT (1-1123), DHC (1-1031) and DK (1-750), the ErbB2 constructs containing the kinase domain, DT and DHC, precipitated together with
but DK containing no kinase domain did not. To further test the requirement of the kinase domain for
interaction, the presence of
in the immunocomplex was examined following transfection with an ErbB2 mutant (
) whose kinase domain is internally deleted and subsequent immunoprecipitation of the ErbB2 mutant.
was not detected in the immunocomplex. These results suggest that the ErbB2 kinase domain comprises a potential site for
binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase.
Changes in Physico-Chemical Properties of Deer Meat Packed Different ways During Storage at 4°C
Shin, Teak-Soon ; Lee, Kil-Wang ; Kim, Seon-Ku ; Kang, Han-Seok ; Park, Hyean-Cheal ; Kim, Keun-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 362~367
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.362
A total of 5 female elk deer (220
kg) were included in a study on the changes in physico-chemical properties of deer meat during storage at
. The deers were exposed to normal pre-slaughter handling and put under anesthesia before slaughtered. The loin and leg cuts were deboned from the carcass after 24hrs slaughter. The samples weighing approximately 300 g were packaged using three packaging methods : Atmospheric packaging(A), Vacuum packaging (V) and Modified atmospheric at packaging (M: 80%
)and stored for 3, 7, 11, 15, 20 and 25days at
. The ability of moisture maintenance tended to be decreased with the passage of storage time, and that of the meats treated with the vacuum wrapping was lower than that with other wrapping methods. TBARS values of the meats with the regardless of treatments was increased with the passage of storage time, although the values with vacuum wrapping was lowest. VBN values of the meats with the regardless of treatments was also increased with the passage of storage time, although the values with vacuum wrapping was also lowest. The pH values of the meats with the regardless of treatments was also increased with the passage of storage time, although the values with vacuum wrapping was also lowest. For the meat softness, the value of the meats treated with atmospheric packaging was increased with the passage of storage time, but the values with vacuum wrapping and modified atmospheric packaging were respectively decreased. There were no significant differences in luminosity of leg, although loin treated with vacuum wrapping was significantly brighter than that with atmospheric packaging and modified atmospheric packaging. In general, the index of red color of the meats treated with vacuum wrapping was higher than that with atmospheric packaging and modified atmospheric packaging. The index of yellow color tended to be decreased after increment for a time with the passage of storage time, although the value with vacuum wrapping was generally higher than that with other wrapping methods.
The Effects of Different Type of Triglyceride Supplements on Exercise Performance Time, Energy Substrates, Insulin Hormone and Lipase Activity in the Trained Rats
Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 368~374
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.368
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different type of triglycerides (MCT & LCT) on weight, survival time, energy substrate (FFA, TG, pyruvate, lactate), insulin and lipase in the trained rats. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (CG, n
Up-regulation of dynamin-2 gene expression in Ras-transformed cells
Yoo, Ji-Yun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 375~380
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.375
Dynamin plays a key role in the scission event common to various types of endocytosis. It has been previously reported that the SH3 domain-mediated association of Grb2 with dynamin-2 was dominantly found in Ras transformed cells. However, whether this association results from the increased expression of dynamin-2 and Grb2 in Ras transformed cells or not is still unknown. So in this study we first analyzed the expression levels of dynamin-2 and Grb2 and found that the expression of dynamin-2 protein was dramatically increased in Ras-transformed NIH3T3 (NIH3T3(Ras)) cells. Furthermore competitive PCR data revealed that the mRNA transcripts for dynamin-2 were increased about 100-fold in NIH3T3(Ras) compared to those of NIH3T3 cells. However, the protein level and mRNA transcript of Grb2 were not changed in these two cells. We also examined promoter activity of dynamin-2 in NIH3T3(Ras) cells and suggest the existence of Ras-responsive sequence in promoter region -300 to -200.
The expression of human Spt16 is associated with cell proliferation
Gwak, Jung-Sug ; Cho, Mun-Ju ; Ryu, Min-Jung ; Oh, Sang-Taek ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 381~385
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.381
Facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) is a chromatin-specific elongation factor required for transcription of chromatin templates in vivo and in vitro. FACT consists of human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt16/Cdc68 protein (hSpt16) and the high mobility group-1-like protein structure-specific recognition protein-1 (SSRP-1). Here we show that the protein level of hSpt16 is massively down-regulated in quiescent T98C cells using both immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. In contrast, we observe high level of the hspt16 expression in the proliferative T98G cells. Interestingly, the expression of SSRP-1 is not altered in both quiescent and proliferative states. Taken together, our findings implicate that the expression of hSpt16 is associated with the proliferative state and can be used as a proliferation marker.
Genetic Characteristics and Virulence Factors of Pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated in South Korea and Japan
Hong, Seuk-Won ; Moon, Ji-Young ; Lee, Bok-Kwon ; Kim, Yung-Bu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 386~395
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.386
A total of 27 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (18 strains isolated from Korea and 9 strains from Japan) were serotyped and examined for biochemical characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, cytotoxicity assay, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) production and molecular epidemiology. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and DNA probe hybridization method, the strains were tested for toxR, tdh, trh and ORF 8 genes. The V. parahaemolyticus isolated from patients were belonged to 8 different serotypes : O3:K6, O1:K38, O3:K57, O4:K9, O4:Kl2, O4:K68, O5:Kl5 and O6:K46. Urease-positive strain possessed the trh gene, and conversely, urease-negative strains lacked the gene, indicating that urease production by V. parahemolyticus strains strongly correlates with the possession of the trh gene. Most strains showed multiple resistant to more than three antibiotics and the antibiogram could be classified into 6 group (I to VI). All of the O3:K6 strains isolated in South Korea and Japan producted TDH at high levels. The TDH titers ranged between 256 and 2.048, and the average titer was 1009. To distinguish the new and increasingly common V. parahaemolyticus strains from clinical isolates, ORF 8 is a useful genetic marker. After Southern hybridization, the HindIII restriction fragment patterns of the tdh gene were grouped one type, respectively. One type showed two bands one of which was 4.3kb and the other was 11.5kb in size. Variation between the O3:K6 serotype are minor when compared to the differences seen with the non O3:K6 strains. The migration patterns of Not I -digested of the total DNA of the O3:K6 strains were similar, and only slight variations were observed between the serotypes. By contrast, the O3:K6 strains and non O3:K6 had markedly different profiles. In conclusion, Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile using appropriate primers was an effective epidemiological marker.
The Effects of Diesel Exhaust Particulates and Particulate Matters on the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 Expression in the Lung of Asthma-incuced Mouse
Li, Tian-Zhu ; Lee, Soo-Jin ; Jang, Yang-Ho ; Lee, Jeong-Hak ; Park, Se-Jong ; Park, Jun-Hong ; Chang, Byung-Joon ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ; Choe, Nong-Hoon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 396~401
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.396
This research investigated whether exposure of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and particulate metter (PM) effect on intercellular. adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in asthma-induced Balb/c and IL-10 knock out (KO) mouse. Mouse was sensitized with intraperitoneal injection with ovalbumin, followed by challenges with intranasal ovalbumin. After induction of asthma mouse placed in the inhalation chamber and exposed to DEP and PM (10
). The evidences of pulmonary inflammation were assessed by immunohistochemical stain and westen blot against ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the lung tissue. In the immunohistochemical stain, positive reactions for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were much stronger in asthma-induced groups and asthma-induced group with DEP or PM than control groups. Although mild positive reactions were appeared in asthma-induced IL-10 KO mice groups, positive reactions were very strong in the asthma-induced group with DEP or PM. In Western blot, expression of VCAM-1 was increased in asthma-induced group with DEP or PM than asthma-induced groups. In the IL-10 KO mouse, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression were increased in asthma-induced group with DEP or PM than asthma-induced groups. DEP and PM exposure have additive effects on the aggravation of inflammatory signs in the asthma-induced murine model. These results suggest that inhalation of DEP and PM in asthmatic patients may aggravate clinical symptoms.
Molecular Sex Determination Using Sexual Dimorphisms between ZFX and ZFY Genes in Korean Hares(Lepus coreanus Thomas)
Han, Sang-Hyun ; Cho, In-Cheol ; Lee, Sung-Soo ; Oh, Moon-You ; Oh, Hong-Shik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 402~406
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.402
This study was performed to develop the molecular marker for sex determination of hare (Lepus coreanus) distributed in Korea which focused on sexual dimorphism between X and Y chromosomal homologous genes, zinc finger-X (ZFX) and -Y (ZFY). The intron 7 regions of ZFX and ZFY genes exhibited differential amplification patterns between male and female hares. The lengths of intron 7 region of ZFX and ZFY genes were 538 and 233-bp, respectively. Especially, the ZFX intron 7 contained a repetitive sequence identified as member of RNA-mediated transposable elements which was similar to CSINE2 commonly found in the rabbit genome. However, it was not present in intron 7 of ZFY gene. The molecular sex typing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also carried out to determine the sex of hare based on difference in lengths between the intron 7 regions of ZFX and ZFY genes. All DNA samples tested had common band amplified from ZFX. However, the male hare DNAs had two distinct bands which amplified from ZFX and ZFY genes, respectively. The results from ZFX-ZFY PCR sex typing were identical to those from phenotypic investigation and from amplification patterns using male-specific sex determining region Y (SRY) gene as well. Finally, this study suggested that the sexual dimorphism between intron 7 regions of ZFX and ZFY could be useful genetic marker to determine sex of hare.
Regulation of β-xylosidase biosynthesis in Paenibacillus sp. DG-22
Lee, Tae-Hyeong ; Lim, Pyung-Ok ; Lee, Yong-Eok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 407~411
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.407
synthesis in Paenibacillus sp. DC-22 was studied to optimize the enzyme production.
synthesis of the Paenibacillus sp. DG-22 was observed to be regulated by carbon sources present in culture media. The synthesis of
was induced by xylan and methyl
) but slightly repressed by readily metabolizable monosaccharides.
was found to be the best substrate for the induction of
-xylosidase and the most effective induction was obtained at a concentration of 10 mg/ml.
production showed a cell growth associated profile with the maximum amount formed during the late exponential phase of growth. The presence of glucose and xylose decreased the level of
activity indicating that its production was subjected to a form of carbon catabolite repression. SDS-PAGE and zymogram techniques demonstrated the induction by
and revealed the presence of one
of approximately 80 kDa.
Antimicrobial Effect of Medicinal Plants against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Ji, Young-Ju ; Lee, Ji-Won ; Lee, In-Seon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 412~419
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.412
In the present study, we investigated antimicrobial activity of the medicinal plants against various strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Among the tested, the plants extracts of Asiasarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum, Coptidis rhizoma, Reynoutria elliptica Migo., Solidago virga-aurea var. gigantea Miq.seed exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against MRSA KCCM 11812, 40510 and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The methanol extract of Asiasarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum showed strong antimicrobial activity against MRSA KCCM 11812, 40510 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 at the 5 mg/disc. A synergistic effect was found in combined extracts of Asiasarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum and Coptidis rhizoma as compared to each extracts alone. The result suggests that medicinal plant extracts can be used as an effective natural antimicrobial agent in food.
Effects of dietary polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the differentiation of mouse C2C12 myoblasts
Kim, Hye-Jin ; Lee, Won-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 420~426
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.420
In the present investigation, we studied the modulating effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG) on the differentiation of mouse C2C12 myoblasts. We found that the strong inhibitory effect of EGCG on DNA methyltransferase-mediated DNA methylation induced transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into smooth muscle cells demonstrated by both morphological changes and immunofluorescent staining. C2C12 myoblasts treated with EGCG for 4 days expressed smooth muscle
protein. Real-time PCR data revealed that smooth muscle
mRNA was induced by EGCG treated C2C12 myoblasts in a concentration-dependent manner. Smooth muscle
mRNA concentration increased 330% and 490% after 2 and 3 days of 50
of EGCG treatment. The expression of another smooth muscle marker, transgelin, mRNA was also increased up to 9-fold by 4 days of EGCG treatment compared with control in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that C2C12 enables to transdifferentiate into smooth muscle when gene expression patterns are changed by the inhibition of DNA methylation induced by EGCG. In conclusion, transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into smooth muscle is resulted from the modulating effects of EGCG on DNA methylation which subsequently results in changing the expression pattern of several genes playing a critical role in the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts.
Effect of Some Herbal Plant Extracts on the Activation of Dendritic Cells
Kim, Do-Soon ; Park, Jung-Eun ; Cho, Hyun-Wook ; Joo, Woo-Hong ; Yee, Sung-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.427
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal roles in the initiation of T cell-mediated immune responses, making them an attractive in immuno vaccines. Angelica gigas and Cnidium officinale were a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries. In this study, we examined the effects of A. gigas and C. officinale extracts on the DCs functional maturation and phono-type. Immature DCs were cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4, and the generated immature DCs were stimulated with OVA in the presence or absence A. gigas and C. officinale extracts, respectively, for 24 hours. The antigen-presenting capacity of A. gigas and C. officinale extracts-treated DCs as analyzed by
helper T cell clone (OVA-specific) proliferation and cytokines (IL-2 and
) production were significantly increased. But A. gigas and C. officinale extracts were not directly effected
helper T cell clone function. Also, the expression of surface co-stimulatory molecules, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD86 and CD11c, is increased on DCs that were stimulated with A. gigas and C. officinale extracts. These results indicate the immunomodulatory properties of A. gigas and C. officinale extracts, which might be medical supplies or health foods.
Multi-drug Resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Isolates from Patients with Respiratory Diseases against Quinolone and Macrolide
Jun, Sung-Gon ; Chang, Myung-Woong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 435~443
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.435
Antimicrobial susceptibility test of the 116 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates were performed by a broth micro-dilution method against to moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin minocycline, erythromycin, josamycin, and tetracycline. The initial-minimum inhibitory concentration (I-MIC) was evaluated as the lowest concentration of antimicrobial agents that prevented a color change in the medium at that time when the drug-free growth control, about 7 days after incubation, and the final-minimum inhibitory concentration (F-MIC) was defined a color change about 14 days after incubation. The evaluation to the drug-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates were determined the
of each antimicrobial agent. According to the I-MIC, single drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, clarithromycin and erythromycin were 79.3, 53.5, 10.3, and 7.8%, respectively. Two kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were 42.2 and 9.5%. Three kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains to erythromycin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, or ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were 6.9 and 6.0% . According to the F-MIC, single drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, minocycline,erythromycin, josamycin, clarithromycin and sparfloxacin were 91.4, 91.4, 91.4, 89.7, 68.1, 52.6, 28.5, and 11.2%, respectively. The incidence of two kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains were from 20.7% to 91.4%, three kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains were from 28.5% to 89.7%, four kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains were 2.6%, five kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae were from 2.6% to 21.6%, six kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains were from 0.9% to 24.1%, seven kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains were from 0.9% to 2.6%, and eight kinds of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae strains were 1.7%. These results suggest that sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin might be promising antimicrobial agents for the treatment of M. pneumoniae infection in Korea. However, most strains of M. pneumoniae isolates were single or multi-resistance pattern to the other tested antimicrobial agents. Therefore, tetracycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and second-generation quinolones are more carefully used to patients with M. pneumoniae infection in Korea.
Histone Lysine Methylation
Kwak, Sahng-June ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 17, issue 3, 2007, Pages 444~453
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2007.17.3.444
Our genome exists in the form of chromatin, and its structural organization should be precisely regulated with an appropriate dynamic nature for life. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome, which consists of a histone octamer. These nucleosomal histones are subject to various covalent modifications, one of which is methylation on certain lysine residues. Recent studies in histone biology identified many histone Iysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) responsible for respective lysine residues and uncovered various kinds of involved chromatin associating proteins and many related epigenetic phenotypes. With the aid of highly precise experimental tools, multi-disciplinary approaches have widened our understanding of how lysine methylation functions in diverse epigenetic processes though detailed mechanisms remain elusive. Still being considered as a relatively more stable mark than other modifications, the recent discovery of lysine demethylases will confer more flexibility on epigenetic memory transmitted through histone lysine methylation. In this review, advances that have been recently observed in epigenetic phenotypes related with histone lysine methylation and the enzymes for depositing and removing the methyl mark are provided.