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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis among Subpopulations of Salix koriyanagi in Swampy Area at the Namgang River, Korea
Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1465~1470
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1465
Salix koriyanagi is a deciduous shrub and native to Korea. The spatial distribution of multilocus allelic frequencies and geographical distances of the natural population in upper swampy area at the Namgang River in Korea were studied. The species showed a significant positive and negative spatial autocorrelation according to geographical distances as measured by Moran's I. Genetic similarity of individuals was found among subpopulations at up to a scale of a 12 m distance, and this was partly due to a combination of allelic frequencies, and therefore, a significant spatial autocorrelation was composed of a scale of 12 m intervals. Within S. koriyanagi in swampy area at the Namgang River, a strong spatial structure was observed for allozyme markers, indicating a migration within subpopulations.
Impaired Functions of Lymphocytes on Nitric Oxide Production in Endotoxin- Tolerant Mice
Gil, Young-Gi ; Kang, Mi-Kyung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1471~1478
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1471
In this study, nitric oxide (NO) production in a macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture system was used to assess the cytokine producing capability of cells during endotoxin tolerance in mice. Incubation of peritoneal macrophages with interferon-
) in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) augmented NO synthesis. Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-
) could also replace LPS for the stimulation of NO production. Macrophages co-cultured with splenic lymphocytes showed augmented NO synthesis by LPS alone. However, pretreatment of mice with 2.5 mg/kg LPS completely prevented the lethality and the increase of blood TNF-
after the second challenge with a lethal dose of LPS. In addition, when macrophages prepared from LPS-tolerant mice were co-cultured with normal splenocytes, LPS also could not induce the production of NO, even in the presence of exogenous TNF-
. Moreover, when normal macrophages were co-cultured with splenocytes obtained from LPS-tolerant mice, stimulation with LPS could not evoke the NO production enhancement. However, this down-regulation was able to reverse by exogenous IFN-
or concanavalin A (ConA), a stimulator of IFN-
production. Our results indicate that not only macrophages but also lymphocytes contribute to LPS tolerance. As INF-
can enhance the expression of TNF-
, the decrease of INF-
synthesis from lymphocytes may orchestrate with the decrease of TNF-
synthesis from LPS-tolerant macrophages for the production of tolerant state and the prevention of excessive inflammation. Therefore, LPS tolerance may be exploited for prophylaxis of severe sepsis in patients at risk.
Promotion of Synaptic Maturation by Deep Seawater in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons
Kim, Seong-Ho ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Shon, Yun-Hee ; Nam, Kyung-Soo ; Moon, Il-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1479~1484
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1479
Deep seawater (DSW) refers to water extracted from the ocean, usually at depths of 200 meters or more, which is rich in inorganic materials and has attracted attention for various applications. We investigated the effects of the DSW on the synaptic maturation of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Immunocytochemical examination of DIV21 showed that PSD-95,
CaMKII, and synGAP
clusters were strengthened and coupling rates of SV2 and NR2B were significantly increased in neurons grown in the presence of H-800 and H-1000 DSW. Our results indicate that DSW promotes the formation of excitatory postsynaptic signal transduction complexes NRC/MASC and functional synapses.
-induced Apoptosis is Not Inhibited by Heme Oygenase-1 in U2OS Cells
Ko, Kyoung-Won ; Lee, Sun-Young ; Ahn, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Jae-Taek ; Kim, In-Kyung ; Kim, Ho-Shik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1485~1492
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1485
), one of cyclopentenone PGs, induced both apoptosis and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in U2OS cells.
-induced apoptosis was not perturbed by either over-expression or knock-down of HO-1, whereas
-induced cell death was inversely modulated by the expression level of HO-1. In addition, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant, blocked both apoptosis and HO-1 expression induced by
. But, non-thiol antioxidants like butylated hydorxyanisole (BHA) and ascorbic acid did not block either apoptosis or HO-1-induction. Taken together, these results suggest that
induces both apoptosis and HO-1 expression, which are critically related to the thiol- reactivity of
, but not oxidative stress, and HO-1 expression may be independent or functionally located downstream of apoptosis by
without contribution to apoptosis progression.
Factors Affecting the Postoperative Outcome in Adult Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Lee, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Yun-Tae ; Moon, Seong-Min ; Hyun, Kyung-Yae ; Kim, Dae-Sik ; Choi, Seok-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1493~1498
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1493
We defined factors affecting the postoperative outcome in adult cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Thirty-two adult patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery participated in this study. Levels of leukocyte, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), troponin-I (cTNI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were significantly elevated, whereas platelet count declined in cardiac surgery with CPB. GOT and D-dimer levels at CPB-off each had a positive significant correlation significantly with 24 hrs-bleeding, total bleeding, mechanical ventilatory assist time, ICU stay time and length of hospitalization. BUN levels at CPB-off were directly related to total bleeding, mechanical ventilatory assist time, ICU stay time and length of hospitalization. Platelet count at CPB-off was inversely related to mechanical ventilatory assist time, ICU stay time and length of hospitalization. Creatinine concentration at CPB-off interrelated positively with mechanical ventilatory assist time and ICU stay time. NSE levels at CPB-off had a positive relationship with postoperative 24 hrs-bleeding. The length of hospitalization was prolonged proportionally to the elevation of cTNI levels in cardiac surgery. Aortic cross-clamping and total CPB times also related with increase of 24 hrs and total bleeding volumes and the length of hospitalization. IL-6 and ET-1 had no mutual relation with any postoperative outcome. These data suggest that GOT, BUN, creatinine, D-dimer and platelet levels are the most important factors affecting postoperative outcomes and patient's recovery in adult cardiac surgery with CPB.
Apoptosis of Human Jurkat T Cells Induced by the Methylene Chloride Extract from the Stems of Zanthoxylum schinifolium is Associated with Intrinsic Mitochondria-Dependent Activation of Caspase Pathway
Jun, Do-Youn ; Woo, Mi-Hee ; Park, Hae-Sun ; Kim, Jun-Seok ; Rhee, In-Koo ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1499~1506
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1499
To examine antitumor activity of the edible plant Zanthoxylum schinifolium, the cytotoxic effect of various organic solvent extracts of its stems on human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells was investigated. Among these extracts such as methanol extract (SS-7), methylene chloride extract (SS-8), ethyl acetate extract (SS-9), n-butanol extract (SS-10), and residual fraction (SL-11), SS-8 exhibited the most cytotoxic activity against Jurkat T cells. The methylene chloride extract (SS-8) possessed the apoptogenic activity capable of inducing sub-G1 peak along with apoptotic DNA fragmentation in Jurkat T cells. Western blot analysis revealed that SS-8 induced apoptosis via mitochondrial cytochrome c release into cytoplasm, subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP, which could be blocked by overexpression of Bcl-xL. Jurkat T cell clone I2.1
) and Jurkat T cell clone I9.2 (caspase-
were as sensitive as was the wild-type Jurkat T cell clone A3 to the cytotoxic effect of SS-8, suggesting no contribution of Fas/FasL system to the SS-8-mediated apoptosis. The GC-MS analysis of SS-8 showed that it was composed of 16 ingredients including 9,12-octadecanoic acid (18.62%), 2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-4- (1-methylethylidene)- 2-(4-nitrophenyl)-3H- pyrazol-3-one (14.97%), hexadecanoic acid (14.23%), (z,z)-6,9-pentadecadien- 1-ol (13.73%), 5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl benzofuran (10.95%), and 4-methoxy-2-methylcinnamic acid (5.38%). These results demonstrate that the methylene chloride extract of the stems of Z. schinifolium can induce apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells via intrinsic mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade regulated by Bcl-xL without involvement of the Fas/FasL system.
Identification and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cysteine Auxotrophy in Salmonella typhi
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Sam-Woong ; Yu, Jong-Earn ; Yoo, Ah-Young ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Oh, Jeong-Il ; Baek, Chang-Ho ; Kang, Ho-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1507~1512
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1507
In spite of long research period for Salmonella typhi, little information is known about the pathogenesis mechanism of human typhoid fever caused by S. typhi due to lack of infection model in animals. A wild-type of S. typhi Ty2 strain requires cysteine to grow on minimal media. We hypothesized that this cysteine requirement may restrict colonization of S. typhi in animals during infection process. Among the S. typhi strains carrying Salmonella typhimurium genomic library, we have isolated three S. typhi transformants growing on minimal media without cysteine. Although there were three ORFs in DNA of pBP71, the STM1490 ORF complemented cysteine auxotrophy of S. typhi. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the STM1490 homolog in S. typhi revealed that there are differences in two amino acids. Plasmids containing amino acid substitutions in STM1490 supported S. typhi growth on minimal media without cysteine, indicating irrelevance of these two amino acids to STM1490 function. These results tells us that there are other factors or systems involved in cysteine requirement of S. typhi.
4-Hydroxynonenal Induces Endothelial Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Depolarization
Kang, Dae-Yeon ; Lee, Ji-Young ; Kim, Min-Sun ; Kim, Chul-Hong ; Kim, Hyung-Keun ; Lee, Sun-Mi ; Kwon, Young-Mi ; Lee, Jae-won ; Baik, Hyung-Suk ; Yu, Byung-Pal ; Chung, Hae-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1513~1520
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1513
The 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) affects vascular dysfunctions probably through the interruption of the cellular redox balance. To better understand vascular abnormalities resulting from the accumulation of HNE, we delineated mechanism by which mitochondrial apoptosis occurs in the YPEN-1 endothelial cells. HNE treatment led to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (
), resulting in the release of cytochrome c. Data showed decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax protein levels in HNE-treated cells. NAC, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and penicillamine, the peroxynitrite scavenger, blocked HNE-mediated ROS generation, thereby thwarting the cytochrome c release and apoptosis. The treatment of the cells with zVAD-fmk, a broad range caspase inhibitor did not suppress HNE-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the apoptosis might be the possibility of caspase-independent process. Our findings delineate the underlying mechanism of the HNE induced endothelial apoptosis by triggering depolarization of mitochondria membrane potential that can lead to the deterioration of vasculature homeostasis and subsequent vascular dysfunction with aging.
Effect of Feeding By-product of Pleurotus eryngii in Pigs on Pork Quality
Lee, Soo-Jung ; Kang, Min-Jung ; Chung, Mi-Ja ; Lee, Hyun-Uk ; Seo, Jong-Kwon ; Sung, Nak-Ju ; Shin, Jung-Hye ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1521~1531
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1521
After pigs was fed by commercial diets supplemented with various concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5%) of the fermented mushroom by-product of Pleurotus eryngii, the meat qualities and the serum lipid compositions of the individual pig groups were investigated. The levels of total lipid, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the serum were significantly lower when the pigs were fed with the diet supplemented with 1.5% fermented mushroom by-product than those of the control pigs. HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL-cholesterol contents in the serum exhibited no significant difference between the pig group fed by the diet containing the fermented mushroom by-product and the control group. In comparison to the control group, the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with 1.5% fermented mushroom by-product showed significantly lower level of AI, CRF, GOT, and LDH values in the serum, whereas the difference in the level of antioxidant activity of the serum was not significant. Sensory evaluation regarding color, off-flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability also showed that the pork from the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with the fermented mushroom by-product (
) was better than that from the control group. Although enhancement in the lghtness (
) value of the pork was significant in 20 days of storage at
, the redness (
) value was not significantly differential during the storage periods regardless of the supplementation of the fermented mushroom by-product into the diet. The cooking loss of the pork from the pig group fed by the diet supplemented with the fermented mushroom by-product (1% and 1.5%) decreased in the storage 10 days, but it increased in the storage 20 days. After storage for 20 days at
, shear force of the pork obtained from the pigs fed by the diet supplemented with
fermented mushroom by-product appeared to become significantly lower than that of the control. There were, however, no significant changes between two groups in the level of moisture content, crude lipid, and pH during the storage period. Although the TBARS content was enhanced in all groups during the storage period, the enhancement appeared to be more significant in the pork from the pig group fed by the diet containing the fermented mushroom by-product in comparison to the control. On the other hand, the ratio of UFA/SFA for the pork obtained from the individual pig groups showed no considerable diet-associated alterations during the storage period.
Biomechanical and Physiological Comparative Analysis of the Single-Radius Knee Arthroplasty Systems and Multi-Radius Knee Arthroplasty Systems
Jin, Young-Wan ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1532~1537
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1532
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different arthroplasty designs on knee kinematic and lower limb muscular activation for up-stair and down-stair movement. 3-D video analysis of whole body and joint kinematics and EMG analysis of quadriceps and hamstrings were conducted. One-way ANOVAs were used for statistical analyses (p=0.05). The single-radius group exhibited more arthroplasty limb quadriceps EMG and hamstring coactivation EMG than the multi-radius group. Single-radius demonstrated more abduction angular displacement and reached peak abduction earlier than the multi-radius arthroplasty limb. The single- radius the percent body fat showed similar values in the Elderly, Single and Multi-radius group among the periods, however Control group was Lowered among the periods. Single-radius group limb also increased the quadriceps muscle activation level to produce more knee extension moment to compensate for the short quadriceps moment arm. Resting metabolic rate was significantly increased in control group in the period of LI. Energy expenditure was extremely increased in all groups except control group among the periods. We can say this is the exercise effects.
Effect on the Quality Characteristics of Beef Jerky Ripened by Wine
Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Moon, Yoon-Hee ; Jung, In-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1538~1542
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1538
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of wine ripening on quality characteristics such as chemical compositions, Hunter's color, rheological properties, water activity, pH, TBARS value, VBN content, total plate count and sensory score. Beef jerky was prepared by three types such as beef jerky containing water 50 ml (T0), beef jerky containing water 25 ml and wine 25 ml (T1), and beef jerky containing wine 50 ml (T2). The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash,
(yellowness), hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were not significantly different among the beef jerky. The Aw, pH and TBARS value were not significantly different among the beef jerky, the VBN content and total plate count of T2 had the lowest among the beef jerky (p<0.05). The flavor of T2 was superior to the T0 (p<0.05), and the taste, color, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the beef jerky.
Lectin Histochemistry on the Effects of Smoking on Glycoconjugates of Rat Sebaceous Glands
Jo, Un-Bock ; Jeong, Gil-Nam ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1543~1550
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1543
We studied the effects of smoking, which is one of indoor-environmental pollutants and related to various cancers, on glycoconjugates of rat sebaceous glands with the lectin histochemistry. To investigate the effects of smoking on glycoconjugates, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to tabacco smoke for 10 minutes per day in an inhalation chamber for 1, 2, 3, and 5 days with active and passive exposure. For the structure of sebaceous glands we used PAS reaction, and for the glycoconjugates binding pattern 9 biotinylated lectins (DBA, SBA, PNA, BSL-1, WGA, RCA-1, UEA-1, Con A, and LCA) were used. Some remarkable changes, such as the decrease in the size of sebaceous glandular acini, the destruction of upper portion of sebaceous glands, vacuolation of central portion of sebocytes, and the immature sebaceous glandular acini were seen in the smoke-exposed rats. In the control rats, basal cells were stained with BSL-1, PNA and WGA, but the stronger reaction was founded in BSL-1 binding. Also, sebocytes were stained with PNA, WGA, Con A, BSL-1 and SBA, but stronger reactions were founded in PNA and Con A stainings. Specific changes in the lectin binding patterns were also observed in the smoke-exposed rats. In the basal cells of exposed rats, PNA binding increased, BSL-1 decreased but returned to control level, and WGA disappeared. Plus, immature glandular acini, which were not found in the control rats, were stained PNA, Con A and BSL-1, but the stronger reaction were founded in PNA and Con A binding. In conclusion, it was assumed that the tabacco smoke seriously effected on the structure and glycoconjugates metabolism of sebaceous glands.
Analysis of the Correlations between the Serum Levels of Cytokines and Postoperative Outcomes in Valvular Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Moon, Seong-Min ; Ki, Chong-Rak ; Kim, Yun-Tae ; Choi, Seok-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1551~1560
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1551
Cytokines play a pivotal role in systemic inflammatory response following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The purpose of this study was to investigate the perioperative changes in proinflammatory [tumor necrosis factor-
) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and antiinflammatory cytokines [interleukin-10 (IL-10)], and each correlation between the cytokines and other variables in valvular heart surgery with CPB. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and leukocyte counts significantly increased following CPB. CPB caused hepatic, renal and myocardial dysfunctions. IL-6 levels had positive correlations with IL-10 levels at postoperative periods. TNF-
levels had correlations with leukocyte counts and myocardial marker levels at postoperative 24 hr (PO-24 h). Furthermore, IL-6 or IL-10 levels had positive correlations with other variable such as hepatic, renal or myocardial marker at postoperative periods. These results showed that balance between proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines is maintained during cardiac surgery with CPB, and that these cytokines exert postoperatively inflammatory and antiinflammatory reactions.
Effects of Steam Flaking on In situ DM Digestibility and Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin Contents during Storage of Corns
Lee, Shin-Ja ; Lee, Ji-Hun ; Shin, Nyeon-Hak ; Hyun, Jong-Hwan ; Moon, Yea-Hwang ; Lee, Sang-Suk ; Lee, Sung-Sill ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1561~1569
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1561
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of steam flaking of corn grains on in situ dry matter degradability in the rumen and contents of mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin) during storage. Yellow dent corns imported from USA and India were flaked, and stored for 8 weeks under the standard temperature and pressure (STP;
/ 1 atm.). Experimental treatments were composed of four corn grains (untreated-USA corn, USCW; steam flaked-USA corn, USCF; untreated-India corn, IDCW; steam flaked-India corn, IDCF) with 4 replications according to 9 storage periods (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 week). Two ruminally cannulated Holstein bulls were used for in situ trial. Pathogen contamination trial was performed by comparing the mycotoxin contents in corns during storage periods. Dry matter disappearance rate in the rumen was about 3.0 to 44.1% higher (P<0.05) for USCW than IDCW, but was not difference between USCF and IDCF. With steam flaking of corn, dry matter degradability in the rumen was significantly (P<0.05) increased in corn from India, but was not affected in corn from USA. Aflatoxin content was very low level in corns from USA and steam flaked corns, but was higher than the tolerance limit of domestic aflatoxin content regulation when IDCW was stored over 6 week under STP. Ochratoxin content was low level in all treatments. From above results, it is reasonable that the corn imported from India might be flaked for enhance the ruminal DM degradability and safe from aflatoxin pathogen.
Volatile Flavor Compounds in Omandungi (Styela plicata)-Doenjang (Soybean paste) Soups and stew by Cooking
Jeong, Eun-Jeong ; Cho, Woo-Jin ; Cha, Yong-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1570~1577
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1570
For useful basic data in developing of Omandungi (Styela plicata) processed products, volatile flavor compounds were analyzed to identify the key reaction flavor compounds induced through heat treatment (
, 10 min) in Omandungi -Doenjang (soybean paste) soups and stew. A total of 128 flavor compounds were identified and composed mainly of esters (16), aromatic compounds (14), N-containing compounds (11), alcohols (34), terpenes (5), carbonyl compounds (23), furans (4), hydrocarbons (13), acids (5) and miscellaneous compounds (3). Three groups including aromatic compounds, alcohols and acids were detected in high amounts in Doenjang. However, the levels of C4-C6 series acids (i.e., pentanoic acid having off-flavor) decreased by cooking (
, 10 min), whereas that of furans (i.e., furfural) as heat induced compounds increased 2 times. Alcohols were detected the major group in Omandungi and followed by hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds in that order. In particular, 3 compounds including decenol, 2,6-dimethylheptanol and octanol were the major alcohols of Omandungi. By cooking, the compounds known heat-induced compound, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline and benzothiazole, were newly formed in Omandungi-Doenjang stew. The alcohols (i.e., decenol, 2,6-dimethylheptanol), hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds derived from Omandungi were supposed to enhance a seafood-like flavor in Omandungi-Doenjang stew.
Effects of Sea Tangle Extract on Formation of Collagen and Collagen Cross-link in Ovariectomized Rats
Lee, Young-Ae ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1578~1583
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1578
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sea tangle (ST) extracts on formation of collagen and collagen cross-link in ovariectomized rats. From day 3 until 42 after the ovariectomy, Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated rats(Sham), ovariectomized control rats (OVX-control), ovariectomized rats supplemented with ST at 50 mg/kg bw/day (OVX-ST50), 200 mg/kg bw/day (OVX-ST200). The ethanol extraxcr of ST was orally administrated at 1 ml/day. The change of collagen content was investigated in bone, cartilage and skin of ovariectomized rats. Effects of ST extract on the amount of collagen was examined by measuring the hydroxyproline, which is a specific amino acid existing in collagen. The ovariectomy resulted in a decrease in the levels of collagen content in bone and cartilage tissues. However, the supplementation with the sea tangle extract prevented the decrease in the collagen level in bone and cartilage tissues. Pyridinoline is pyridinium cross-link formed in the mature form of collagen from lysine and hydroxylysine residues. Although the pyridinoline content in bone collagen declined after ovariectomy, it was recovered to a normal level of Sham group by the supplementation with the ST extracts. In addition, the deoxypyridinoline content in bone collagen, which was reduced after ovariectomy was enhanced to normal level by the supplementation with the ST extract. These results was consistent with the conclusions based on estrogenic activities of ST.
Hypoglycemic Effect of Chlorella sp. CMS-1 Hot Water Extract on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Kim, Jung-Wook ; Cha, Jae-Young ; Heo, Jin-Sun ; Jin, Hyun-Jin ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1584~1591
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1584
The effect of Chlorella hot water extract (CE) on hyperglycemia in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats has not been studied. Therefore, hypoglycemic effect of CE in type I streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats was studied. Rats were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with either 3% (the STZ+CE3) and 6% (the STZ+CE6) CE or no supplement the Normal and the STZ-Control rats for 4 weeks. The concentrations of fasting and non-fasting blood glucose were higher in the STZ-Control rats than in the Normal rats, but this rise was lowered in the STZ+CE3 and the STZ+CE6 rats. Serum insulin concentrations were decreased with STZ injection, however, the decreased levels were almost restored to the Normal level with CE supplementation. The increased serum fructosamine levels associated with hyperglycemia were decreased with the CE treatment. The morphology of pancreatic islets in the Normal rat was round and maintained a typical arrangement. The STZ-Control pancreatic beta-cells were found to have significant swelling and severely morphological damaged, however, pancreatic tissue damage by STZ in the CE-supplemented diet group was ameliorated. This study shows that Chlorella hot water extract had a hypoglycemic effect on the STZ-diabetic rats via either increased insulin secretion during recovery or the prevention of STZ-induced pancreatic damage.
Cloning of the β-Lactamase Gene from Bacillus sp. J105 and Analysis of Its Expression in E. colis Cells
Kang, Won-Dae ; Lim, Hak-Seo ; Seo, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Lee, Hye-Hyeon ; Cho, Kyeong-Soon ; Kang, Byoung-Won ; Seo, Kwon-Il ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ; Jeong, Yong-Kee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1592~1599
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1592
-lactamase gene was cloned into E. coli DH5
from Bacillus sp. J105 with strong resistance against
-lactam antibiotics. The chromosomal DNA was partially digested with Sau3AI and ligated to BamHI digested pLAFR3.
-Lactamase positive clones were obtained by using in vitro packaging kit. The pKL11-
-lactamase activity was obtained by subcloning of the recombinant plasmid (
-lac +). The 6.5 kb fragment in the subcloned plasmid was sequenced. The DNA fragment that contains the
-lactamase gene encodes 309 amino acids. The 0.17 kb upstream region was similar to those of B. thuringinesis and B. cereus with 97% identity. The deduced amino acids sequence was also similar to those of
-lactamase from B. thuringinesis and B. cereus with 97% and 94% identity, respectively. The phylogenetic tree also showed the relationships of the
-lactamase gene of Bacillus sp. J105 to genetically related that of other Bacillus strains. Analysis of expression pattern of the pKL11-
in E. coli, revealed that the secretion efficiency of
and the molecular weight was as same as that of original
-lactamase (31 kDa) from Bacillus sp. J105.
Adipocyte-Related Genes and Transcription Factors were Affected by siRNA for Aromatase Gene during 3T3-L1 Differentiation
Jeong, Dong-Kee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1600~1605
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1600
This study was performed to verify the gene expression of 3T3-L1 using the siRNA of the aromatase gene, which is the estrogen synthesis enzymes. First of all three pairs of siRNA were designed from the CYP19A1 (aromatase) and analyzed the formation of fat cell mechanism by transferring gene to 3T3-L1 and differentiating it. As a result, the expression of leptin gene, which is the main gene causing the obesity, was controlled and the cause of the obesity is related with the insulin specifically. The overexpression of adiponectin and adipsin was observed. This result showed that the formation of the fat was controlled a little without any side effect by obstructing a specific material out of all the signal systems in the fat formation. This study will be an important clue to make it clear that the lack or overexpression of estrogen might be the cause of fat formation mechanism.
Regulation of an Outer Membrane Protein, OmpW, Expression and Its Biological Function in Salmonell typhimurium
Yoo, Ah-Young ; Yu, Jong-Earn ; Yang, Ji-Seon ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Bae, Chang-Ho ; Oh, Jeong-Il ; Kang, Ho-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1606~1611
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1606
Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) expressed in the Gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella play multiple functions including material transports, adhesive factors and reception of external signals. This study has been focused on an OmpW protein known as a protein required to form a hydrophobic porin in outer membrane. We have constructed a S. typhimurium CK10 mutant deleting an ompW gene on chromosome. The CK10 strain was more tolerant to SDS than the wild-type strain did. As increase of salt concentration in the culture media, significantly decreased amount of OmpW protein in cells were detected. The maximum OmpW protein was expressed in the absence of salt supplement. However, the growth of CK10 strain was indistinguishable compared to that of the wild-type strain at the variable osmotic conditions. The biological role of differential OmpW expression in response to osmotic conditions remains to be investigated.
The Effect of Resistance Exercise on Aerobic Capacity for Old Adults and CAD Patients
Yoon, Byung-Kon ; Jin, Young-Wan ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1612~1616
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1612
Aerobic capacity is an important health indicator which is related to the probability of disease, disability, and mortality. Typically, endurance exercise is known as the primary method of improving aerobic capacity. Although most of resistance exercises are not considered for a good method increasing aerobic capacity, low to moderate intensity resistance exercise with short rest periods may improve aerobic capacity, especially old adults and most low to moderate risk patients suffering from CAD. This review is to understand that a number of physiological changes occur during both aerobic and resistance exercise, and to support that resistance exercise has advantages for improving aerobic capacity.
Classification and Characteristics of Chitin/Chitosan Hydrolases
Lee, Han-Seung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 18, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1617~1624
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2008.18.11.1617
Chitin and chitosan, which is deacetylated form of chitin, are one of the most abundant biomass on the earth. They showed various biological activities including antimicrobial activity, heavy metal chelating, immune system activation, and have very diverse applications in food, pharmaceutical, medicinal, and environmental industry. There have been reported many chitin/chitosan-hydrolyzing enzymes, their structures and genes from three domains, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. Carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes are classified in CAZy (Carbohydrate Active Enzymes) database according to their amino acid sequence similarity. Interestingly, chitinases and chitosanases are classified in various glycosyl hydrolase(GH) families, GH2, GH5, GH7, GH8, GH18, GH19, GH20, GH46, GH48, GH73, GH75, GH80, GH84, and GH85. Here, we review characteristics and structures of chitin/chitosan hydrolyzing enzymes according to glycosyl hydrolase families in order to provide information about gene mining.