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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
Differences of Garlic Powder Ingestion and Exercise Training on Blood Lipids, MDA and SOD in Rats
Jeon, Byung-Duk ; Kim, Jin-Ha ; Ryu, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1337~1345
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1337
This study investigated the effect of exercise training and garlic powder ingestion on blood lipids and antioxidants activity in rats. Twenty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with or without garlic powder (500 mg/kg) for four weeks as grouped in control (CON), exercise (EXE), garlic (GAR), and garlic + exercise training (GAREXE), respectively. EXE and GAREXE were trained on the treadmill for the same periods. Weight of fats (mesentery, perirenal, and epididymal) were weighed and blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) for lipid peroxidation were analyzed in liver tissue. Body weight in GAREXE was significantly lower in the statistics than that in other groups (p<0.05), and the volume of fat in GAR and GAREXE was also much lower (p<0.05). Blood glucose was significantly lower in EXE and GAR (p<0.05), however, there was no effect of exercise training. Blood TG was lower in GAR and GAREXE (p<0.05), however, there was no effect of exercise training. HDL-C was significantly improved in EXE and GAR compared to CON (p<0.05), and GAREXE was higher than EXE (p<0.05). MDA content was considerably lower in GAREXE compared to EXE (p<0.05), and SOD activity was much higher in other groups compared to CON (p<0.05). In addition, GAREXE was significantly higher than EXE and GAR, thus there was significant increase when a garlic diet was carried out together with exercise (p<0.05). These results suggested that garlic powder ingestion during the training periods had a beneficial effect of lowering glucose and enhancing blood lipids profiles. Moreover, it also has antioxidant effects, which means that it could possibly suppress aging. It is necessary to inspect various effects of garlic with a variety of research methods regarding sampling process, production process, intake method, etc.
The Effects of Wnt Signaling on Neural Crest Lineage Segregation and Specification
Song, Jin-Su ; Jin, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1346~1351
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1346
Recent evidence has shown that many pluripotetic neural crest cells are fate-restricted and that different fate-restricted crest cells emigrate from the neural tube at different times. Jin et al. (2001) identified the expression patterns of Wnts and its antagonists at the time that neural crest cells were being specified and suggested that Wnt signaling was involved in the segregation/differentiation of neural crest cells in the trunk in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Wnt signaling in avian neural crest lineage segregation. To accomplish this, Wnt signaling was disturbed at the time of neural crest segregation and differentiation by grafting Wnt-3a expressing cells and conducting dominant negative glycogen synthase kinase (dnGSK) electroporation. Stimulation of Wnt signaling induced neural crest lineage segregation and melanoblast specification, and increased the expression levels of genes known to be involved in neural crest development such as cadherin 7 and Slug, which suggests that they are involved in Wnt-induced neural crest lineage differentiation into melanoblasts.
The Harmful Effects of Prolonged Strenuous Treadmill Exercise on Bronchoalveolar System in Rats
Oh, Kyoung-Mo ; Hyun, Kyung-Yae ; Kim, Chi-Young ; Choi, Seok-Cheol ; Shin, Koon-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1352~1359
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1352
We designed this study to investigate the effects of continuous strenuous aerobic exercise on the respiratory system in a rat model. After exercise for 8 weeks, rats' weights were higher in the exercise groups than in the Control group (non-exercise). Rats in Exercise-120 min group (Ex-120 group) had the lowest weights. Total leukocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were higher in exercise groups than in Control group. The Ex-30 and Ex-120 groups had higher neutrophil counts, whereas that in the Ex-60 group was lower than in the Control group, and that in the Ex-30 group was the highest. Lymphocyte and monocyte counts were higher in all exercise groups than in the Control group, and those in the Exercise-120 min group were the highest. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) level was the highest, while IL-10, interferon-
and nitric oxide (NO) levels were the lowest in the Ex-120 group when compared to the Control and other exercise groups. These findings suggest that strenuous aerobic exercise for short periods (30 min) may have a beneficial effect on decrease in body weight, whereas prolonged-strenuous aerobic exercise (>1 hr) may be adverse to leukocyte and immune levels in the bronchoalveolar system, as well as result in an increased production of oxygen free radicals.
Inhibitory Effects of Chimeric Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide in the Regulation of Transcription Factors NF-κB and Sp1 in an Animal Model of Liver Cirrhosis
Kim, Kyung-Hyun ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Soo-Jung ; Lee, Woo-Ram ; Chang, Young-Chae ; Kim, Hyun-Chul ; Park, Kwan-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1360~1367
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1360
Liver fibrosis is a process of healing and scarring in response to chronic liver injury. Following injury, an acute inflammation response takes place resulting in moderate cell necrosis and extracellular matrix damage. To develop a novel therapeutic approach in hepatic fibrogenesis, we examined the simultaneous suppression of the transcription factors NF-
B and Sp1, which regulate acute inflammation and continuous deposition of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis. We employed chimeric decoy oligodeoxynucleotide containing the consensus sequences of both NF-
B and Sp1 binding sites, to suppress these transcription factors simultaneously. Treatment of chimeric decoy oligodeoxynucleotide reduced the activity of hepatic stellate cells in vitro, and decreased the expression of fibrotic and proinflammatory gene responses in a mouse model of liver fibrosis. These results suggest that chimeric decoy oligodeoxynucleotide strategy can be a potential therapeutic application to prevent liver fibrosis.
Accuracy of Electronic Pedometers to Assess Body Fatness in Obese Children and Youth
Kim, Do-Yeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1368~1373
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1368
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of waist size on the reliability and validity of pedometers to count steps in children and youth. The participants for this study were 20 children and youth, composed of 14 Hispanic and 6 Caucasian children. Ten children and youth had waist circumferences greater than the
percentile (Body Mass Index (BMI)=
), and 10 children and youth had waist circumferences smaller than the
). To examine pedometer reliability, each child completed 3 ascent and descent trials up a set of 15 stairs while wearing a Yamax SW-701 pedometer. The main effect of trials was not statistically significant for the stair ascent trials F (2, 36)=2.575 or for the descent trials F (2, 36)=0.235. The trial by group interaction was also not statistically significant. To examine the influence of waist circumference on the validity of the pedometer in counting walking steps at a self-selected walking pace, the children and youth in the two groups completed a 400-m course. The main effect on the groups was statistically significant, F (1, 18)=7.489. The main effect of counting techniques was not statistically significant, F (1, 18)=2.983 (hand-counted vs. pedometer counted). Overall, the trial and trial by group interaction comparisons for the 400-m walk were not statistically significant, suggesting that the pedometer was equally valid as a tool for assessing walking steps in high waist circumference (HWC) and low waist circumference (LWC) in children and youth.
Comparison of Physiological Variables by Age Group in Drinking Men
Hyun, Kyung-Yae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1374~1381
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1374
This study was designed to investigate the differences of physiological variables by age group in alcohol-consuming men. The thirty year old-age group had the lowest waist-hip ratio (WHR), right and left cardio-ankle vascular index (R-CAVI and L-CAVI), right and left ankle-brachial index (R-ABI and L-ABI), amylase, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels, and the highest body weight (BW), interleukin-6 (IL-6), right and left intraocular pressure (R-IP and L-IP), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte, red blood cells distribution width (RDW), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), and ferritin levels. The forty year old-age group was the highest in hs CRp and CPK levels, but the lowest in ferritin level. The fifty year old-age group possessed the highest WHR, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), R- and L-ABI, eosinophil, and amylase levels. The sixty year old-age group had the highest R- and L-CAVI, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), ALP,
-GTP), rheumatoid factor (RF),
-fetoprotein (AFP) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and the lowest BW, DBP, R-IP, L-IP, Hct, Hb, leukocyte, platelet, RDW, eosinophil, monocyte, ALT, amylase, TG, and CPK levels. These findings indicate that there may be differences of physiological variables depending on age group in alcohol-consuming men. Further studies should be focused on the physiological differences between alcohol-consuming men and women.
Phenetic Variability in Leaf Morphological Characteristics of the Korean Rubus crataegifolius Populations
Cho, Min-Cheol ; Huh, Man-Kyu ; Kim, Sea-Hyun ; Cho, Kye-Joong ; Kang, Chang-Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1382~1388
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1382
Rubus crataegifolius is a shrub species and is primarily distributed throughout Asia and Europe. We collected 550 representative samples of the eleven populations in Korea to estimate leaf variation within species. The 35 morphological characteristics allowed us to resolve well-supported fixed characteristics and variable characteristics. Sixteen of twenty-three quantitative characteristics and five of twelve qualitative characteristics showed significant differences among populations. We argued that the population differentiation can accounted for the variation in phenetic characteristics such as spine in this species, but were less successful in accounting for variation in other traits. Within a polystatistic leaf structure, their morphological differences could be modulated by ecological pressure such as temperature, altitude, duration of sunshine, and solar radiation. The phenogram showed two distinct clades. One was a group in central Korea and the other was a group in the southern regions of Korea. If morphological characteristics in R. crataegifolius populations reflect their ecological niche, morphology should be regarded with caution as the main criterion for population studies in R. crataegifolius.
Evaluation of Stability in the Purified Wood Vinegar and Its Hair Growth Effect
Cho, Young-Ho ; Lee, Ju-Yeon ; Lee, Jong-Hwa ; Cho, Jae-Su ; Lee, Gye-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1389~1395
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1389
Generally, it takes a long time to purify wood vinegar, and it contains toxic compounds such as tar, methanol, phenol and benzopyrene. To reduce the toxicity of wood vinegar itself, we have developed a new purification method of wood vinegar using an oxidation-cohesion reaction and distillation with an active carbon. We have investigated the physico-chemical change (pH, specific gravity, refractive index and dissolved tar), the change of amount of toxic compounds (carbonyl group, phenol, benzopyrene and residual solvents) and organic acids (formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA)) of the purified wood vinegar under the long term and accelerated storage conditions. Also, we have evaluated the effect of the purified wood vinegar on hair growth using an alopecia model of C57BL/6 mice. As a result, we could find out that the purified wood vinegar was stable and remained without decay under the storage conditions and benzopyrene, a carcinogenic agent, was not detected in the purified wood vinegar. After topical treatment of the purified wood vinegar solution or minoxidil (MXD) for 2 weeks to dorsal skin, the hair regrowth of the mice accelerated faster than that of the control, with no clinical signs. In conclusion, we could suggest a guideline for quality control of process to reduce the toxic compounds in wood vinegar and it might be a useful hair growth promoter in the treatment of baldness or alopecia.
Hizikia fusiforme Inhibits Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E
Production by PMA through Inactivation of NF-κB
Park, Cheol ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1396~1402
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1396
Hizikia fusiforme is a kind of edible brown seaweed that grows mainly in the northwest Pacific including Korea, Japan and China, and has been widely used as food in Korea. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin
) production is thought to have beneficial immunomodulatory effects in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of extracts of H. fusiforme on the expression of COX-2 and production of
in U937 human pre-monocytic cell models. In U937 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to mimic inflammation, methanol extract of H. fusiforme (MEHF) and ethanol extract of H. fusiforme (EEHF), but not water extract of H. fusiforme (WEHF), inhibited PMA-induced expression of both COX-2 protein and mRNA, which was associated with inhibition of
production. To investigate the mechanism by which MEHF and EEHF inhibit COX-2 gene expression and
production, we examined the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-
B) in U937 cells. Pre-treatment with MEHF and EEHF significantly attenuated the PMA-induced IkappaB degradation and prevented nuclear translocation of NF-
B. Taken together, these findings provide important new insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity of H. fusiforme.
The Development of Obesity Age (OA) for Health Index of Middle Aged Obese Women
Lee, Dong-Jun ; Park, Tae-Seop ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1403~1409
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1403
The purpose of this study was to compare Obesity Age (OA) and chronological age, to calculate Obesity Age (OA), which gauges the state of obesity, and to analyze presented factors of obesity using expectant factors on middle-aged obese women. The subjects were one hundred twenty seven middle-aged obese women (
) who participated in different weight loss programs three times. The body composition, physical fitness, blood pressure and blood were measured before the weight loss programs. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects before enrollment in the study. The regression equation is as follows: (1) OAS (Obesity Age Score)=
), (2) OA (Obesity Age)=7.3*OAS+49.6*(-1), (3) Z (correction factor)=(CA-49.6)(1-0.03), (4) OAc (corrected Obesity Age)=1.03*CA-7.3*OAS+1.47. The comparison of corrected Obesity Age (OAc) and chronological age did not have any differences, and the average of the OAc was close to chronological age. The correlation coefficient between the OAc and chronological age was r=0.724 (p<0.05). The equation can be utilized for middle-aged obese women, because it could evaluate the obesity-related factors by including BMI, body weight, %fat, waist circumference, triglycerides and
Effect of Turbid Water on Fishes in the Streams of Imha Reservoir
Yu, Sam-Hwan ; Kim, Jeong-Sook ; Shin, Myung-Ja ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Seo, Eul-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1410~1416
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1410
The present study aims to examine the effect of turbid water on fishes in streams which branch into a turbid water area (Yeongyang-gun) and a non-turbid water area (Cheongsong-gun), and finally flow into the Imha reservoir. In a comparison of water quality, the chemical status of the water showed higher pH, DO and SS in the turbid water area than in the non-turbid water area. Also, high density of clay minerals such as vermiculite (V) and illite (I), which is from clay mineral leakage during rainfall, was detected in turbid water, resulting in an increase of turbidity. Fishes inhabiting the turbid water showed irregular spaces in gill lamella, cell separation, edema, and clubbing in epithelial tissues. Also, the gill surface showed roughness and plenty of muddy debris substances inside the gills. The Bowman's space was expanded because of contraction of the glomerulus in the Bowman's space of the kidney tissues. Antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPX, and GST showed higher activities in the specific tissues, muscles and kidney, of fishes living in turbid water than in the non-turbid area. We suggested that; first, the antioxidant activities were increased due to removal of harmful radicals generated in fish bodies in the turbid water area, second, long-time exposure of these histological changes in the tissues might have induced secondary lesion accompanying the inaccurate physiological constancy of fishes.
Effect of Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid into N-3 Fatty Acid Deficient and Adequate Diets on Rat Brain and Liver Fatty Acid Composition
Lim, Sun-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1417~1423
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1417
Previous studies have suggested that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation into n-3 fatty acid deficient diet improved spatial learning performance, but there was no significant difference in brain related function when DHA was added into a n-3 fatty acid adequate diet. Here, we investigated the effect of adding DHA into an n-3 fatty acid deficient or adequate diet on brain and liver fatty acid composition. On the second day after conception, Sprague Dawley strain dams were divided into four groups as follows; n-3 fatty acid deficient (Def), n-3 fatty acid deficient plus DHA (Def+DHA, 10.2% DHA), n-3 fatty acid adequate (Adq, 3.4% linolenic acid), and n-3 fatty acid adequate plus DHA (Adq+DHA, 3.31% linolenic acid plus 9.65% DHA). After weaning, male pups were fed on the same diets of their respective dams until adulthood. In brain fatty acid composition, the Def group showed a lower brain DHA (64% decrease), which was largely compensated for by an increase in docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6). Brain DHA in the Def+DHA group was increased to almost the same extent as in the Adq and Adq+DHA groups and there were no significant differences among them. Liver fatty acid composition showed a similar pattern to that of the brain, but liver DHA in the Def+DHA showed the highest percentage among the diet groups. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acid deficiency from gestation to adulthood leads to decreased brain DHA, which has been shown to be highly associated with poor spatial leaning performance. Thus, adequate brain DHA levels are required for optimal nervous function.
Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus licheniformis SC082 Degrading Fibrin and Chitin from Shrimp Jeot-Gal
Cho, Eun-Kyung ; Jung, Yu-Jung ; Gal, Sang-Wan ; Choi, Young-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1424~1431
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1424
Shrimp Jeot-Gal is a popular traditional Korean fermented seafood and has been used for seasoning. We isolated a bacterium showing strong extra-cellular fibrinolysis and chitinase activity from shrimp Jeot-Gal and the strain was designated SC082. SC082 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequence homology search. B. licheniformis SC082 exhibited optimum temperature, pH, and salt concentration at
, pH 7.0, and 6%, respectively. Substrate specificity of the culture supernatant from B. licheniformis SC082 was detected in fibrin, skim milk, and chitin plate. The fibrinolytic activity was highly maintained up to
at a pH of 7.0 for 3 hr and was stable up to pH 9.0 at
for 3 hr. The chitinase activity was remarkably induced by addition of 1.0% colloidal chitin and the pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 5.0 and
, respectively. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram analysis, this strain produced three fibrinolytic isozymes and two chitinase isozymes. The approximate molecular weights of the putative fibrinolytic enzymes were 23.0, 62.0, and 72.0 kDa and those of the chitinases were 62.0 and 55.0 kDa, respectively. The antioxidant activity of SC082 was also measured by using 2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The DPPH radical scavenging was slightly increased in a dose-dependent manner.
Pretreatment of Cane Molasses for Production of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Physico-Chemical Properties
Jung, Ho-Il ; Jeong, Jin-Ha ; Jeon, Young-Dong ; Lee, Na-Ri ; Park, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ; Park, Geun-Tae ; Son, Hong-Joo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1432~1437
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1432
The aim of this study is to investigate cane molasses pretreatments for the production of cellulose by Acetobacter sp. V6, which has excellent bacterial cellulose (BC) producing capacity in the shaking culture. Among pretreatments of cane molasses, 1% (w/v) tricalcium phosphate (TP) treatment was more efficient in BC production. The physico-chemical properties of BCs that were produced in static and shaking cultures were also investigated. Although BC had an emulsifying ability, its emulsion stability was low. Water holding capacity (WHC) of BC was high; the WHC of BC produced in static culture was 14 times higher than that of
-cellulose. In addition, the viscosity of BC was higher than that of
-cellulose. Composition analysis by FT-IR showed no difference in composition between BC and plant cellulose. In the crystallinity analysis by XRD, all BC samples showed crystallinity. All BC samples showed reticulated structures consisting of ultrafine cellulose fibriles. Microfibriles of cellulose from static culture were especially more compact than those of cellulose from shaking culture.
Inhibitory Effect of LPS-Induced Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 by Ascofuranone in Rat Kidney Fibroblast Cells
Chang, Young-Chae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1438~1443
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1438
Renal fibrosis is a final common manifestation of every type of chronic kidney disease. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is known to play an essential role in the progress of renal fibrosis. In this paper, we found that an isoprenoid antibiotic, ascofuranone (AF), suppresses expression of profibrotic factors, PAI-1 and promoter activity of PAI-1 induced by LPS in rat kidney fibroblast cells. We therefore investigated signaling pathway mediated inhibitory effects of LPS-induced PAI-1 by AF in rNRK-49F cells. PAI-1 expression is suppressed by treatment with kinase inhibitors for MEK-1/2, as it isin inhibition of PAI-1 expression by AF, and AF inhibits phosphorylation of ERK-1/2. This study suggest that AF suppresses expression of PAI-1 through the inhibition of an ERK-1/2-dependent signal transduction pathway. The data indicates the possibility that AF can be used to prevent the development and progression of renal fibrosis.
Allergy Prevention Effect of Oral Administration of Quercetin on Picryl Chloride-induced Contact Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice
Kim, Hyeong-Jin ; Jung, Ji-Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1444~1450
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1444
The number of patients with immune- mediated dermatitis such as contact dermatitis is increasing year by year. Allergic contact dermatitis is a complex phenomenon that involves resident epidermal cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, as well as invading leukocytes that interact with each other under the control of a network of cytokines and lipid mediators. It is a cell-mediated immune reaction, which occurs after susceptible individuals are exposed to sensitizing chemicals, and characteristic eczematous reaction is seen at the point of contact with an allergen. In this study, we investigated the allergy prevention effects of quercetin on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with 40
of 1.5% picryl choloride (PCL) to the left and right ear each. Total serum IgE levels and histamine levels were measured by the sandwich ELISA method using mouse IgE, histamine measuring kit. For histopathological examination, paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE) or toluidine blue(TB). Ear swelling responses were much weaker in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg) than the control group (0 mg/kg). The number of mast cells showed a significant decrease in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg) compared to the control group (0 mg/kg). Degranulation of mast cells was also confirmed by Toluidine Blue (TB) staining method. Both total serum IgE and histamine levels were significantly decreased in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg) compared to other groups. These findings suggest a certain relationship between the elevation of IgE, histamine levels and the degranulation of mast cells. These results show that the pharmacological actions of quercetin indicate its potential activity for prevention of allergic inflammatory diseases through the down-regulation of mast cell activation.
Virological Prevalence and Infection Patterns of Porcine Cytomegalovirus in Selected Pig Farms in Korea
Park, Choi-Kyu ; Choi, Eun-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1451~1455
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1451
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which causes reproductive failure in breeding sows and generalized infection in newborn piglets. It has worldwide distribution including Korea. Serological survey on this virus has been reported in 76.3% of pigs, but virological survey and epidemiological analysis on PCMV distribution have been reported in only a few papers in Korea. In this study, we investigated the virological prevalence and infection status of PCMV on a farm level in selected swine farms with respiratory diseases. A total of 1,938 blood samples taken from groups of pigs of different ages were collected from 31 farms distributed nationwide in 2006 and 2007 and tested by PCR to detect the presence of PCMV. Virological prevalence at farm level and pig level were 96.8% and 17.5%, respectively, suggesting that PCMV has endemically infected Korean pig herds. The prevalence at farm level in gilts, sows and suckling piglet groups were 16.7%, 36.7% and 56.7%, indicating that vertical infections frequently occurred in conception or newborn stage. Thereafter, detection rates of PCMV were slightly increased in pig groups aged 40 and 70 days (70.0% and 73.3%), and then gradually decreased as they aged - 33.3% in 100, 26.7% in 130 and 16.7% in 160 day old pig groups. The prevalence at pig level has similar patterns to that at farm level. With the passage of time, the variation of infection patterns of PCMV was investigated in four PCMV-positive farms. Three blood samples were collected at intervals of 6 months in each farm, and examined for presence of PCMV using PCR. The results revealed that once PCMV was introduced to the pig farms, it continuously circulated between and within groups of sows and piglets in those farms. Taken together, it can be concluded that PCMV has endemically infected Korean pig farms and has the potential risk for emerging pathogen in combination with the known endemic pathogens including porcine reproductive, respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2. Therefore, more research is needed on diagnosis, epidemiology and control strategy for PCMV on the field.
Increase of the D-chiro-inositol and D-Pinitol Contents by Abiotic Stress in the Buckwheat Seedlings
Ahn, Chul-Hyun ; Park, Phun-Bum ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1456~1462
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1456
D-chiro-Inositol, which is the isomer of myo-inositol, is a well known drug for the treatment of type II diabetes. The methylated form of D-chiro-inositol, D-pinitol and D-chiro-inositol are synthesized when the plants are exposed to the abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and low temperature as osmoprotectants. In soybean, myo-inositol is converted to ononitol by O-methyltransferase, and ononitol is converted to D-pinitol by ononitol epimerase and finally converted to D-chiro-inositol by demethylase. However there have been some reports that in buckwheat, myo-inositol can be converted to D-chiro-inositol directly. This study was conducted to determine the changes of soluble cyclitols in buckwheat seedlings after exposure to salt and drought stresses by GC-FID. The results indicated that myo-inositol may be the precursor of D-chiro-inositol biosynthesis.
Amount of Telomeric DNA on Lymphocytes in Senescence Mouse by Quantitative Fluorescence in situ Hybridization
Lee, Mi-Rang ; Do, Kyoung-Tag ; Han, Jyung-Ju ; Moon, So-Hyun ; Kang, Han-Seok ; Kim, Seon-Ku ; Shin, Teak-Soon ; Lee, Hong-Goo ; Hwang, Dae-Yon ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ; Sohn, Sea-Hwan ; Choi, Na-Eun ; Kim, Byeong-Woo ; Cho, Byung-Wook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1463~1467
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1463
Telomeres, comprised of tandem repeats of TTAGGG sequences, are special nucleoprotein structures that protect and stabilize chromosome ends. These structures form the crux of the telomere concept of aging, senescence and genomic instability. The classic terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis to quantify the amount of telomeric DNA is disadvantageous in species containing ultra long telomeres like in mice (100Kb). In this study, we used a more sensitive quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q FISH) technique to quantify telomeric DNA, and used it as a biological aging marker in mice. 12 litters each of Senescence-Resistant (SAMR1) and -Prone (SAMP1) known as senescence accelerated mouse strains were purchased from Central Lab, Animal Inc. We quantified the amount of telomeric DNA using telomere specific DNA probes on the two strains of male mice at 8 weeks, 18 weeks and 26 weeks of age. The amount of telomeric DNA correlated with aging and age associated changes in body and organ weight between SAMR1 and SAMP1 strains of mice. These data suggest the usefulness of the amount of telomeric DNA as a biological aging marker in human aging studies.
Biological Activity of Fermented Silkworm Powder
Cha, Jae-Young ; Kim, Yong-Soon ; Ahn, Hee-Young ; Eom, Kyung-Eun ; Park, Bo-Kyung ; Jun, Bang-Sil ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1468~1477
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1468
The comparative effects of the fibrinolytic, and tyrosinase inhibition activities and electrophoretical protein patterns with freeze-drying silkworm powder (FDSW), heating-drying silkworm powder (HDSW) and fermented silkworm powder by Bacillus subtilis or Lactobacillus hilgardii were investigated. When total protein patterns of FDSW, HDSW, both fermented SW, were analyzed by native- and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), there were slightly varietal differences in electrophoretical protein patterns. Major minerals of FDSW and HDSW were K, Ca, Mg, and Zn. Major compositional amino acids of FDSW and HDSW were glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and serine. Major fatty acids of FDSW and HDSW were linolenic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Fibriolytic activity was the highest in the fermented FDSW by 5% B. subtilis among the various samples. Tyrosinase inhibition activity was higher in the water and 70% methanolic extract of FDSW than in HDSW. DPPH radical scavenging activity was slightly stronger in HDSW than in FDSW. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in FDSW or HDSW fermented by L. hilgardii than that fermented by B. subtilis, however, all samples exhibited a relatively low activity compared to the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). These results may provide the basic data to understand the biological activities of fermented SW.
Solid Cultivation of Fibrinolytic Enzyme (Bacillokinase) from Bacilis subtilis BK-17
Jeong, Yong-Kee ; Beak, Hyun ; Seo, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Lee, Hye-Hyeon ; Joo, Woo-Hong ; Kim, Jeong-In ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ; Chung, Kyung-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1478~1483
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1478
A solid-state culture based on grain materials was attempted to produce a fibrinolytic enzyme for blood circulation improvement using Bacillus subtilis BK-17. The spore, rather than vegetative cell inoculation, of B. subtilis BK-17 on the solid-state culture was effective in the production of a fibrinolytic enzyme. Maximum spore production was obtained with a SFM medium (0.8% nutrient broth, 0.05% yeast extract,
M dipicolic acid, pH 6.5). Optimal pH and temperature were pH 6 and
, respectively. The spore production reached a maximum at 60 hours of incubation. Bacillus subtilis BK-17 on the mung bean solid-state culture produced greater fibrinolytic activity, and less activity was seen in other grains such as kidney bean, soybean and corn. Protein and lipid contents of fermented soybeans were about 10 - 30% more than those of unfermented soybeans. Amino acid content was also 5 - 20% more than that of unfermented soybeans. These results indicated that fermented solid-state culture medium, fermented soybean in this case, can be utilized as a food supplement.
Effect of Extracellular Potassium on Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channel Proteins of KCNQ3 and KCNQ5 in Familial Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis
Kim, Sung-Jo ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, June-Bum ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1484~1488
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1484
Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder characterized by episodic attacks of muscle weakness with concomitant hypokalemia. Mutations in either a calcium channel gene (CACNA1S) or a sodium channel gene (SCN4A) have been shown to be responsible for this disease. The combination of sarcolemmal depolarization and hypokalemia has been attributed to abnormalities of the potassium conductance governing the resting membrane potential. To understand the pathophysiology of this disorder, we examined both mRNA and protein levels of delayed rectifier potassium channel genes, KCNQ3 and KCNQ5, in skeletal muscle fibers biopsied from patients with HOKOur results showed an increase in the cytoplasmic level of KCNQ3 protein in patients' cells exposed to 50 mM external concentration of potassium. However, mRNA levels of both channel genes did not show significant change in the same condition. Our results suggest that long term exposure of skeletal muscle cells in HOKPP patients to high extracellular potassium alters the KCNQ3 localization, which could possibly hinder the normal function of this channel protein. These findings may provide an important clue to understanding the molecular mechanism of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis.
The Effect of Swimming and Minocycline on Motor Function and Expression of Bcl-2 after Spinal Cord Injury in the Rats
Ha, Mi-Sook ; Ha, Bae-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1489~1494
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1489
This study was designed to investigate the effects of swimming and minocycline on motor function recovery and Bcl-2 expression after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. After operation, neurological motor behavior test (BBB scale) on days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 14 were tested. Western blot and immunohistochemical assessment (Bcl-2) were performed on day 14. BBB scale started to show a statistically significant difference on day 7 (p<0.05). On day 14, it showed the most significant (p<0.05) difference. Expression of Bcl-2 increased in all the experimental groups. In particular, the highest expression of Bcl-2 appeared in the swimming and minocycline groups. Based on these results, minocycline and swimming were the most effective factors in the motor behavior function and immunohistochemical assessment of SCI rats.
Association of Adiponectin Polymorphisms with Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Population
Yoo, Min ; Kim, Su-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 10, 2009, Pages 1495~1498
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.10.1495
Type 2-diabetes is a typical polygenic disease complex, for which several common risk alleles have been identified. Adiponectin, which modulates insulin resistance as well as glucose and lipid metabolism, has recently been associated with type 2-diabetes (T2DM). Therefore, we investigated the genotype for the T45G and G267T polymorphisms in adiponectin genes in the Korean population and compared genotypes of patients with those of a control group. 100 patients (63 male, 37 female), who previously underwent T2DM and 100 controls (36 male, 63 female) participated in this study. There was a strong association between T45G polymorphism in the adiponectin gene and T2DM. The present study shows that adiponectin T45G polymorphism may be associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM. Further studies with a larger population may be needed for the development of diagnostic methods at genetic levels such as DNA chip.