Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Life Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
An Etiologic Study of Rabbit Dermatitis at Large Rabbit Farms in South Korea
Kim, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Jae-Hoon ; Chang, Hwa-Seok ; Kang, Eun-Hee ; Chung, Dai-Jung ; Kim, Hwi-Yool ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1499~1505
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1499
This study was carried out between August and September 2007 to determine the causative agents and epidemiologic features of rabbit dermatitis in Korea. Rabbits were shipped to the laboratory in the College of Veterinary Medicine from 10 rabbit farms. A total of 520 hair, blood, and skin specimens collected from skin lesions of 40 rabbits with suspected dermatopathy were examined mycologically, bacteriologically, and parasitologically. The positive rates of dermatophytosis, bacterial skin dermatitis, and ectoparasite dermatitis were 95, 92.5, and 7.5%, respectively. The etiologic agents of dermatophytosis were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophyte (95%), non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus s(5%), and Cryptococcus humilocus (2.5%). With respect to bacteria-related skin dermatitis, Staphylococcus coagulase negative was the most common etiological agent. Staphylococcus aureus was the second most frequent causative agent. Most of the pathogenic isolates were resistant to tetracycline, and aminoglycosides such as amikacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs against the pathologic bacteria isolated. Ectoparasites were rarely detected in this study. Only Psoroptes cuniculis was detected in 3 (7.5%) out of the 40 tested rabbits. The role of ectoparasites as a causative agent of dermatitis in rabbits in this study was minimal. Our results provide important information related to rabbit dermatitis treatments and researches.
RGS3 Suppresses cAMP Response Element (CRE) Activity Mediated by CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor in HEK293 Cells
Kim, Sung-Dae ; Lee, Whi-Min ; Endale, Mehari ; Cho, Jae-Youl ; Park, Hwa-Jin ; Oh, Jae-Wook ; Rhee, Man-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1506~1513
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1506
RGS proteins have been identified as negative regulators of G protein signalling pathways and attenuate the activity of GPCR receptors. However, information on the regulatory effects of RGS proteins in the activity of cannabinoid receptors is limited. In this study, the role of RGS proteins on the signal transduction of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor was investigated in HEK293 cells co-transfected with CB2-receptors and plasmids encoding RGS2, RGS3, RGS4 and RGS5. Treatment of cells with WIN55, 212-2, a CB2 receptor agonist, inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP response element (CRE) activity in CB2-transfected HEK293 (CB2-HEK293) cells. This inhibitory effect of WIN 55, 212-2 on CRE activity was reversed by co-transfection of CB2-HEK293 cells with RGS3, but not with RGS2, RGS4 and RGS5. However, endogenous RGS3 protein knocked down by a small interfering siRNA targeting RGS3 gene enhanced inhibition of forskolin induced CRE activity via agonist induced CB2 receptor signal transduction. These results indicate the functional role of endogenous RGS protein in cannabinoid signaling pathways and define receptor-selective roles of endogenous RGS3 in modulating CRE transcriptional responses to agonist induced CB2 receptor activity.
The Feasibility of Cathepsin B Level in Preoperatively Screening Patients with Thyroid Cancer and Nodular Hyperplasia
Choi, Young-Sik ; Kim, Young-Ok ; Kim, Woo-Mi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1514~1521
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1514
To evaluate the feasibility of cathepsin-B levels in preoperatively screening patients with thyroid cancer, we assigned these patients to either the thyroid cancer group (n=32) or the nodular hyperplasia group (n=7). Five healthy volunteers served as controls (n=5). We quantified cathepsin-B expressions in cancerous lesions with follicular carcinoma and hyperplastic lesions with nodular hyperplasia, and compared the degrees to those of normal thyroid tissue, which was obtained from matched contralateral lobe. The activity of serum cathepsin B was significantly higher in patients with thyroid carcinoma (
) and those with nodular hyperplasia (
) than compared to normal control (
) (p<0.05). Based on the results of immunoassay, the concentrations of cathepsin B in the thyroid cancer group (
) and the nodular hyperplasia group (
) were higher than those of the control group (
). The degree of cathepsin-B mRNA expression was significantly higher in cancerous or hyperplastic lesions than normal thyroid tissues from matched contralateral lobe with follicular carcinoma or non-neoplastic thyroid disease. Our results indicate that the activity of serum cathepsin B is a useful indicator in screening patients with nodular hyperplasia or neoplastic thyroid disease and it may be involved in the abnormal proliferation of cells.
Cloning and Expression of Alginate Lyase from a Marine Bacterium, Streptomyces sp. M3
Kim, Hee-Sook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1522~1528
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1522
A marine bacterium was isolated from brown seaweeds for its ability to degrade alginate. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence revealed that the strain belongs to Streptomyces like strain ALG-5 which was reported previously. New alginate lyase gene of Streptomyces sp. M3 was cloned by using PCR with the specific primers designed from homologous nucleotide sequences. The consensus sequences of N-terminal YXRSELREM and C-terminal YFKAGXYXQ were conserved in the M3 alginate lyase amino acid sequences. The homology model for the M3 alginate lyase showed a characteristic structure of
-jelly roll fold main domain like alyPG from Corynebacterium sp. ALY-1. The homogenate of the recombinant E. coli with the alginate lyase gene showed more degrading activity for polyguluronate block than polymannuronate block. The results from the multiple alignments and the homology modeling elucidated in the M3 alginate lyase can be classified into family PL-7.
A Natural L-Arginine Analog, L-Canavanine-Induced Apoptosis is Suppressed by Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56
in Human Acute Leukemia Jurkat T Cells
Park, Hae-Sun ; Jun, Do-Youn ; Woo, Hyun-Ju ; Rue, Seok-Woo ; Kim, Sang-Kook ; Kim, Kyung-Min ; Park, Wan ; Moon, Byung-Jo ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1529~1537
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1529
To elucidate further the antitumor effects of a natural L-arginine analogue, L-canavanine, the mechanism underlying apoptogenic activity of L-canavanine and its modulation by protein tyrosine kinase
was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. When the cells were treated with 1.25 to 2.5 mM L-canavanine for 36 h, several apoptotic events including mitochondrial membrane potential (
) loss, activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, and DNA fragmentation were induced without alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. These apoptotic changes were more significant in
-deficient Jurkat clone JCaM1.6 than in
-positive Jurkat clone E6.1. The L-canavanine-induced apoptosis observed in
-deficient JCaM1.6 cells was significantly reduced by introducing
gene into JCaM1.6 cells by stable transfection. Treatment of JCaM1.6/lck cells with L-canavanine caused a transient 1.6-fold increase in the kinase activity of
. Both FADD-positive wild-type Jurkat T cell clone A3 and FADD-deficient Jurkat T cell clone I2.1 exhibited a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of L-canavanine, excluding involvement of Fas/FasL system in triggering L-canavanine-induced apoptosis. The L-canavanine-induced apoptotic sub-
peak and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -7 were abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), whereas L-canavanine-induced activation of caspase-9 was not affected. These results demonstrated that L-canavanine caused apoptosis of Jurkat T cells via the loss of
, and the activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, leading to PARP degradation, and that the
kinase attenuated the
loss and activation of caspases, and thus contributed as a negative regulator to L-canavanine-induced apoptosis.
Effects of Supplementation of Synbiotic Co-cultures Manufactured with Anaerobic Microbes on In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and In Situ Degradability of Fermented TMR
Lee, Shin-Ja ; Shin, Nyeon-Hak ; Hyun, Jong-Hwan ; Kang, Tae-Won ; An, Jung-Jun ; Jung, Ho-Sik ; Moon, Yea-Hwang ; Lee, Sung-Sill ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1538~1546
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1538
This study was conducted to estimate the in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ degradabilities of total mixed rations fermented by the synbiotic co-cultures composed of various anaerobic microorganisms in the rumen of cow. Seventy two TMR bags (4 treatments
6 fermentation days
3 replications) were manufactured for in vitro and in situ experiments. The experiment was composed of four treatments including the control, the mould and bacteria synbiotics (T1), the mould and yeast synbiotics (T2) and the bacteria and yeast synbiotics (T3). Each treatment had six fermentation days (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 day) with three replications. Two rumen cannulated Holstein cows (550 ㎏ of mean body wt) were used for in situ trial, and a total of 96 nylon bags were retrieved from the rumen according to eight fermentation times (1, 3, 6, 9, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The mean fermentation temperatures of TMRs by supplementation of anaerobic micoorganism co-cultures ranged from
, and tended to increase steadily during the entire period. pH values of the F-TMRs ranged from 4.39 to 4.98 and tended to decrease with the extension of the fermentation period, and decreased by supplementation of synbiotics (p<0.05). The ammonia concentrations of F-TMRs were not affected by addition of synbiotic co-cultures during the early fermentation period (within 7 days), but was lowest (p<0.05) in T3 during the late fermentation periods (after 14 days). Lactic acid concentration of F-TMR was lowest in T3 at 1 day of fermentation, but was not different from treatments in the other fermentation days. Microbial growth rates of F-TMR reached a peak at 7 days of fermentation, and afterward tended to decrease. In in situ experiment, the DM disappearance rates were higher in T1 than the control during early fermentation times (within 3 hours), but was vice versa at 48 hours of fermentation (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in effective DM degradability among treatments. NDF and ADF disappearance rates in situ were similar to those of DM. From the above results, the supplementation of synbiotics, particularly the mould and bacteria synbiotics, resulted in improving the pH and concentration of lactic acid of F-TMR as parameters of fermentation compare to the control, and also had higher in situ disappearance rates of DM, NDF and ADF than the control at early fermentation time. However, effective DM degradability was not affected by supplementation of synbiotics.
Effect of Dietary Plant Extracts (Coxynil
) in Broilers
Cho, Sang-Beum ; Kwon, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Jun-Hyeong ; Lee, Yun-Jeong ; Kang, Chang-Won ; Paik, Hyun-Dong ; Chang, Byung-Joon ; Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1547~1552
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1547
This study was carried out to evaluate the supplementation effect of dietary natural plant extracts (NP:
) on broiler chickens. Forty thousand male broilers with 7 days adaptation after hatching were fed experiment diets for 34 days. The supplementation effects of NP on growth performance, blood parameters and biopsy were examined with twenty thousand broilers as the treatment group. Twenty thousand broilers for the control group (CON) were fed the diet with salinomycin-6, clopidol-25, enramycin-1, and BMD-2.5. In the diet of the treatment group, the antibiotics were replaced with 0.03%, 0.035% and 0.03% of
, respectively. The weight gain of the treatment group was increased but the feed intake was decreased, indicating that feed efficiency was increased compared to the CON. The mortality of the NP group was also lower compared to the CON group (1,008 birds to 1,693 birds), showing positive dietary effects from natural plant extracts. In the activity of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and new cattle disease virus (NDV) antibodies, the NP showed lower antibody titer levels for both of IBDV and NDV compared to the CON. The levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, globulin, and IgG in blood did not show significant differences between the groups. In the microscopic tissue analysis, no significant differences were detected. These results may suggest that a complex of three natural plant extracts can be used as alternative antibiotics in broilers.
Biological Activities and Chemical Characteristics of Monascus-Fermented Korean Red Ginseng
Park, Jin-Chul ; Cha, Jae-Young ; Lee, Chi-Hyeong ; Doh, Eun-Soo ; Kang, In-Ho ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1553~1561
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1553
This study investigated the biological activities and chemical characteristics of Monascus-fermented Korean red ginseng (MFRG). The comparative activities of water, ethanol, and methanol extracts from MFRGE and Korean red ginseng (RG) were tested in vitro of anti-oxidative models of linoleic acid peroxidation by thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods and DPPH (
-picrylhydrazyl)radical scavenging activities. In addition, measurements of their bioactive total phenolic compounds and minerals, and extract yield, were obtained. The extract yield of each solvent extracted from MFRG and RG was aqueous by 6.58% and 5.83%, ethanol by 0.62% and 0.98%, and methanol by 1.27% and 3.04%, respectively. Total phenolic compounds were higher in all solvents extracted from MFRG than those from RG. Major mineral contents (ppm) of MFRG and RG were K by 16,936 and 22,386, Ca by 2,310 and 3,693, Mg by 2,703 and 2,647, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities were higher in all solvents extracted from MFRG than those from RG, however, all these extracts exhibited a relatively low level of radical-scavenging activity compared to the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In antioxidative activities determined by TBA method using linoleic acid peroxidation, 70% methanol extract from MFRG and RG showed the highest antioxidative activity at a concentration of 0.1%. These results may provide the basic data to understand the biological activities of bio-active materials derived from MFRG.
Heavy Metal Contents In Tissues of Carassius auratus In Andong and Imha Reservoir
Kim, Jeong-Sook ; Shin, Myung-Ja ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Seo, Eul-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1562~1567
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1562
Heavy metal contamination levels in Andong reservoir and Imha reservoir were measured with heavy metal contents in both water and sediment, and analyzed with heavy metal accumulation level in inhabitant fish, Carassius auratus, using an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer and an atomic absorption spectrometer. High levels of heavy metal contents in water, sediment and the tissues of C. auratus were detected. Likewise, relatively high levels of As were detected in water and sediment from Andong reservoir. In addition, higher levels of Cr, Cu, Cd and As content were detected in muscle and bone tissues of fish from Andong reservoir than those from Imha reservoir. As a result, the heavy metal content of water, sediment and inhabitant fish, C. auratus, in Andong reservoir was higher than Imha reservoir. We proposed that heavy metal contamination in water and inhabitant fish is attributed to various metals derived from abandoned mines and farmlands that are upstream of Andong reservoir.
Cardiovascular Responses over the Time Course during Muscle Group III Stimulation in Prehypertensive Individuals
Park, Won-Il ; Park, Si-Young ; Choi, Hyun-Min ; Lee, Joon-Hee ; Jeon, Jong-Mok ; Kim, Jong-Kyung ; Shim, Jae-Kun ; Nho, Ho-Sung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1568~1574
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1568
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether group III muscle afferents play an important role eliciting abnormal blood pressure response mediated during passive muscle stretch in prehypertensive individuals. Eleven middle-aged prehypertensive men (average BP 133/80 mmHg) and nine middle-aged normotensive men (average BP 119/74 mmHg) participated in this study. After 1 min rest baseline data collection, the subject's foot was flexed (dorsiflexion) by an automated cybex for one minute. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were continuously measured on a beat-by-beat basis from a finger via a Finapres device for 1 minute. To evaluate the role of mechanoreflex, a component of exercise pressor reflex, SBP, DBP, and MAP responses over the course of time were examined. The results showed that the pressor response mediated by the muscle mechanoreflex was faster in prehypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individuals. The substantial pressor response was observed within mean 20 sec of the onset of passive stretch in prehypertension, while mean 45 sec in normotension (p<0.05). It is concluded that excessive pressor response produced during exercise in prehypertension may be due to the dysfunction of the mechano-receptors.
The Effects of Different Types of Tai Chi Exercise on Blood Variable and Physical Fitness in Obese Women
Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Kim, Yi-Soon ; Kim, Kyung-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1575~1580
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1575
Tai Chi is a slow and gentle exercise which is suitable for obese women with chronic diseases. Tai Chi can improve the health of a senior without exacerbating existing impairments, including obese patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of Tai Chi exercise on blood variables (glucose, cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, cortisol) and physical fitness (muscle strength, flexibility, muscle endurance, agility, balance). Thirty obese women were recruited from a public health center. They were divided into Yang style (YS: n=15) and 12 (12KS: n=15). The Tai Chi exercise group participated in a training program for 12 weeks (3times/week). There was significant improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and muscle endurance in both groups. Agility was significantly increased in YS, more than in 12KS. However, there was no improvement in balance in both groups. There was significant improvement in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and cortisol in both groups. However there was no improvement in blood glucose levels in either group. From the results, there was no significant difference in either Tai Chi exercises. The Tai Chi exercise program was effective in improving cholesterol related variables and physical fitness, except balance, in both groups. Further study is needed in this area.
Apoptosis Induction of Human Breast Carcinoma Cells by Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme
Jung, Sun-Hwa ; Hwang, Won-Deuk ; Nam, Taek-Jeong ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1581~1590
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1581
Hizikia fusiforme is a kind of brown edible seaweed that mainly grows in the temperate seaside areas of the northwest pacific, including Korea, Japan and China, and has been widely used as a health food for hundreds of years. Recently, H. fusiforme has been known to exert pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticoagulant activities. However, the molecular mechanisms of H. fusiforme in malignant cells have not been clearly elucidated yet. In this study, the effects of ethyl alcohol extract of H. fusiforme (EAHF) on the anti-proliferative effects of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were investigated. EAHF treatment resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition by including apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells and G1 phase arrest in MCF-7 cells, which could be proved by MTT assay, DAPI staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry analysis. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the increase in apoptosis induced by EAHF treatment correlated with up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression. EAHF treatment induced the proteolytic activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and a concomitant inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase,
protein and DNA fragmentation factor 45/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase. Taken together, these findings provide important new insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of H. fusiforme.
Effects of Capsosiphon fulvescens Extracts on Essential Amino Acids Absorption in Rats
Kim, Hyo-Young ; Kim, In-Hye ; Nam, Taek-Jeong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1591~1597
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1591
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Capsosiphon fulvescens extract (CFE) on levels of essential amino acids in serum and the rate of protein digestion. CFE contains approximately 68% carbohydrate as fiber, 17% crude ash, and 14% crude protein. Experimental rats were divided two groups, one group receiving a normal diet and the other a normal diet containing 5% CFE. To analyze the absorption of essential amino acids into the hepatic portal vein, blood from the hepatic portal vein was collected between 10 a.m. and 5 p.m. for 10 days. In vitro protein digestion was decreased in the group fed 5% CFE; these data indicated that CFE affected protease activity. We measured the absorption of essential amino acids in the serum of the hepatic portal vein, at 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120 minutes after feeding. Although there was no difference in the concentration of total essential amino acids between the two groups, the 5% CFE-fed animals had a decreased rate of absorption. Absorption of Lys and Thr into the hepatic portal vein was lower in the CFE-fed group than in the control group. The rate of absorption of Met was delayed nearly 50% in the CFE-fed group compared to the control group. On the other hand, the rate of absorption of Leu, Ile, and Val was increased; Phe showed the same. Therefore, we suggest that CFE could affect protein metabolism by increasing or decreasing the absorption rate of essential amino acids.
Effects of Onion Flesh and Peel on Chemical Components, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities
Jang, Joo-Ri ; Lim, Sun-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1598~1604
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1598
In order to determine chemical components of onion flesh and peel, general nutrients, vitamin C, and total flavonoids were measured. Onion peel showed less moisture (14.3%) and no vitamin C compared to onion flesh. Onion peel contained more amounts of total flavonoids compared to onion flesh. In addition, the inhibitory effects of solvent extracts from onion flesh and peel on
-induced oxidative stress and growth of cancer cell lines (AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma and HT-29 human colon cancer cells) were investigated. Acetone with methylene chloride (A+M) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from onion flesh and peel appeared to significantly reduce the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p<0.05) and a greater antioxidant effect was observed in onion peel. Among fractions, 85% aq. methanol showed a higher protective activity against oxidative stress in both flesh and peel and there was no effect in the water and hexane fractions. The growth of cancer cells exposed to medium containing extracts and fractions from onion flesh and peel was inhibited dose-dependently. The growth of AGS was inhibited more in both flesh and peel compared to HT-29, and onion peel was more effective than onion flesh. Among fractions, 85% aq. methanol showed the greatest effect on growth inhibition in both flesh and peel.
values of 85% aq. methanol fraction from onion flesh and peel on AGS were 0.04 and 0.03 mg/ml, respectively, while those on HT-29 were 0.23 and 0.04 mg/ml. From our results, 85% aq. methanol fraction had an inhibitory effect against oxidative stress and growth of cancer cells, suggesting that it may contain biological active compounds.
The Combined Effects of Exercise and Garlic Pill Intake on Body Composition, CRP and Adiponectin in Obese High School Male Students
Sung, Gi-Dong ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1605~1610
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1605
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined exercise program and garlic pill intake on Body Composition, CRP and Adiponectin in obese high school male students. Twenty-one male students in city B volunteered to participate, and the signed consents were received before the study. Experimental groups were garlic pill intake with combined exercise group (n=7), combined exercise group (n=7), control group (n=7). The total experimental period was 16 weeks. The combined exercise group exercised 3 times a week for 16 weeks with intensity of RPE 7~15. Each exercise was 70 minutes long. A 5 g garlic pill was consumed after lunch and dinner every day. For statistics, two-way repeated test within the group was conducted through SPSS 12.0; for post-examination, Scheffe was utilized; and for inter-group examination, a paired t-test was used. The conclusions of this study are as follows. Between groups, combined exercise with garlic pill group had a significant decrease in %body fat. Within each group, combined exercise with garlic pill group had a significantly greater decrease in %body fat than the control group. Between groups, combined exercise with garlic pill group had a significant decrease in LBM. Between groups, combined exercise with garlic pill group had a significant decrease in CRP. Between groups, combined exercise with garlic pill group, combined exercise and control group showed a decrease in adiponectin. In conclusion, regular exercise and garlic pill intake improved % body fat in obese high school male students.
Changes of the Breeding State of Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) in the Nakdong Estuary, Busan, Republic of Korea
Lee, In-Sup ; Hong, Soon-Bok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1611~1616
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1611
This study was conducted to determine the characteristics in breeding of the little tern Sterna albifrons in Shinja-do and Doyo-Deung in Nakdong estuary. The data was obtained in the middle and late 1990's and in the mid 2000's, which were analysed for the breeding information of the little tern. In Shinja-Do, a total of 638 nests were observed in 1995, and the average numbers of eggs laid per nest were 2.48. In 2004 and 2005, 94 and 456 nests were observed, and the average number of eggs laid per nest was 2.16 and 2.53, respectively. There was a significant difference between the average numbers of eggs laid per nest for the 3 respective years. In Doyo-Deung, a total of 269 nests were observed in 1998, and the average number of eggs laid per nest was 2.16. In 2004 and 2005, 1,023 and 1,123 nests were observed, and the average numbers of eggs laid per nest were 2.33 and 2.52, respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between the average number of eggs laid per nest as well. Hatching success rate by nesting site in Shinja-Do was calculated in 1995. Type A nest (nest located on dry sand land) showed a 56.8% success rate, and type B nest (nest located on the land with dwarf grass), type C nest (nest located on moist land) and type D nest (nest located on the land with shells) showed 55.3%, 36.6% and 59.3% success rates, respectively. The average hatching success rate in Shinja-Do was 54.5%. The most crucial factor for hatching failure was flood, especially, for the type C nests. The hatching success rate by the nesting site in Doyo-Deung showed an average of 73.2%. It was high in type D nest (83.8%) and type A nest (75.9%), and low in type C nest (59.7%). Again, the most crucial factor for hatching failure was flood, especially, for the type C nests. Nakdong estuary has been through many changes over time, particularly in recent. Therefore, continuous efforts to keep it a breeding place for the little tern are urgently required, including overall management of land, protection of reef and sand, etc.
Optimun Conditions for Production of Mycelia and Extracellular Polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and Their Immunomodulating Acitivities
Park, Hee-Sung ; Shin, Dong-Il ; Chung, Il-Kyung ; Yang, Byung-Keun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1617~1622
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1617
Optium conditions for the production of mycelia and extracellular polysaccharide (EXPS) from submerged mycelial culture of Inonotus obliquus and their immunomodulating activities were investigated. The optmium production of mycelia and EXPS from I. obliquus was observed in mushroom complete medium (MCM). The optimum pH, temperature, and agitation speed for the production of mycelia and EXPS were 5.5,
, and 150 rpm, respectively. The culture period for maximum production of mycelia (10.89 g/l) and EXPS (1.25 g/l) in shake flask cultivation was 11 days. The anticomplementary activity of intracellular polysaccharide (INPS) and EXPS form I. obliquus increased in a dose-dependent manner. Lysosomal enzyme activity of EXPS and INPS increased by 2.0- and 2.2-fold at
concentration, respectively, compared to the control group.
The Effects of Complex Ergogenic aid Supplementation on Endurance Performance, Energy Substrates Utilization and Blood Fatigue Factors
Kang, Seo-Young ; Paik, Il-Young ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Cho, Su-Youn ; Kim, Hee-Eun ; Jin, Hwa-Eun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1623~1628
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1623
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of complex ergogenic aid supplementation on endurance performance, energy substrate utilization (glucose, FFA) and blood fatigue factors (ammonia, lactate, phosphorous, pH, 5-HT) in endurance exercise. Subjects (male=10) took in complex ergogenic aid (180 ml/day) for 4 weeks and were tested after pre-test. Endurance performance times increased after supplementation compared to before supplementation. However, there was no additional accumulation of the fatigue materials. Thus the complex ergogenic aid supplementation caused the delay of the fatigue material accumulation during endurance exercise.
Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Pine Buds (Pinus densiflora) on Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Xanthine Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthesis
Cho, Eun-Kyung ; Song, Hyo-Ju ; Cho, Hea-Eun ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Choi, In-Soon ; Choi, Young-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1629~1636
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1629
Pine trees (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zacc.) have been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. This research was performed to determine the antioxidative and antibacterial activities, tyrosinase, nitric oxide synthesis, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and xanthine oxidase inhibition effects of the pine bud ethanol extract (PBE). Antioxidative activities of PBE were measured by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase-like activity (SODA). DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activities of PBE were remarkably increased in a dose-dependent manner, and were about 88.9% and 47.9% at 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml, respectively. The xanthine oxidase and angiotensin converting enzyme activities were inhibited about 71.9% and 60.8% at 1 mg/ml and
of PBE, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of PBE were slightly increased in a dose-dependent manner. The PBE showed strong antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Vibrio paraheamolyticus. Stimulation of the macrophages RAW264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in increased production of nitric oxide (NO) in the medium. However, NO synthesis was reduced up to 54% by addition of PBE at
. These results revealed that pine buds have a strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity, and exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. This suggests that pine buds have the greatest property as a source for natural health products.
A Study on the Gene Expression in Shikonin-Induced Inhibition of Adipogenesis
Lee, Hae-Yong ; Kang, Ryun-Hwa ; Chung, Sang-In ; Cho, Soo-Hyun ; Oh, Dong-Jin ; Yoon, Yoo-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1637~1643
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1637
Shikonin, a component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc, exerts various characteristics such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-obesity functions. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of shikonin-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, we analyzed the mRNA expression level of various adipogenesis-related factors including C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancerbinding proteins) and
(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
). The data showed that mRNA expressions of C/
were only slightly changed by shikonin treatment, but mRNA expressions of
were significantly down-regulated. Then, we tested whether upstream regulators of C/
were involved in anti-adipogenesis of shikonin. C/
and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), which are upstream regulators of C/
, were not affected by shikonin treatment. On the contrary, the mRNA level of KROX20 was markedly down-regulated by shikonin treatment. These results suggest that KROX20 might regulate downstream factors of adipogenesis through C/
-independent pathway. The expression of KLF15 (Kruppel-like factor15), which is a member of KLF family and is a upstream regulator of
, was dramatically decreased by shikonin treatment, but KLF2 was not changed. Shikonin had no impact on the expression of KLF5 in the early stage of adipogenesis, but shikonin increased expression of KLF5 in the late stage of adipogenesis. Even though mRNA expression of KLF5 was moderately changed by shikonin treatment, its effect may be small compared with the effect of KLF15, which was markedly inhibited. Taken together, these results suggest that shikonin inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of
, which is mediated by the down-regulation of two pro-adipogenic factors, KROX20 and KLF15.
Effects of 12-Week Walking Exercise on Health-related Factors, Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and Leptin in the Obese and the Normal Middle School Girls
Kim, Jong-Won ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Yoon, Byung-Kon ; Kim, Do-Yeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1644~1650
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1644
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12-week walking exercise on body composition, physical fitness, cardiovascular function, blood lipids, GH, IGF-1and leptin in obese and normal middle school girls. Participants included 12 pairs of middle school girls who were matched for sex, age and stratified by BMI (Obese Group: BMI
25.0; Normal Group: BMI<23.0). The variables of all factors were measured in all the subjects before and after the 12-week walking exercise program. The test data were analyzed by paired t-test, and t-test using the SPSS 14.0 statistics package and the alpha level of p<0.05 was set for all tests of significance. Body composition showed a significant difference in both groups, but the variables of physical fitness, cardiovascular function, blood lipids, growth hormone, and leptin did not show a significant difference in the two groups. We conclude that regular and continuous walking exercise improved body composition, physical fitness, cardiovascular function, blood lipids, and insulin factors in both groups. Consequently, these findings suggest that walking exercise will be effective for preventing obesity and improving health-related factors in the middle school girls.
The Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Inhibition of Soleus Muscle Atrophy and Improvement Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Contusion in the Rats
Oh, Myung-Jin ; Jang, Moon-Nyeo ; Seo, Tae-Beom ; Kim, Jong-Oh ; Byun, Jae-Jong ; Yoon, Jin-Hwan ; Jeong, Il-Gyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1651~1657
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1651
Physical activity and exercise can promote sensorimotor recovery from central nerve injury. It has been suggested that the functional recovery promoted by exercise training after spinal cord injury might be associated with insulin-like growth factor-I in the inflicted muscle. To investigate morphological and biochemical change of the soleus muscle after spinal cord injury, all tissues were used for H&E, immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. Also, BBB-test was used to evaluate behavioral improvement after spinal cord contusion. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (
; 7week in age) were assigned equally to three different groups; Normal (n=10), SCI (n=10), SCI+TMT (n=10). Every rat in SCI and SCI+TMT groups underwent laminectomy at T9 level and then contusion on the exposed spinal cord site in anesthetized condition. After one week-recovery from contusion, every rat in the SCI+TMT group exercised on a motorized treadmill for 30min/d, 5d/wk for 7wks. TMT followed by injury increased IGF-I induction levels in the soleus muscle and inhibited muscle atrophy. Behavioral scales for 4 and 8 weeks after spinal cord injury were improved in the SCI+TMT group compared to the SCI group. These results suggest that treadmill exercise after spinal cord injury might promote functional recovery along with muscle regrowth through the up-regulation of IGF-1 in muscle tissue.
An Association of Changed Levels of Inflammatory Markers with Hematological Factors during One-time Aerobic Exercise in Twenty-aged Young Men
Hyun, Kyung-Yae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1658~1665
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1658
This study was carried out on thirty men to define the association of inflammatory markers with physiological factors on one-time aerobic exercise (for 15 min. Post-exercise interleukin-6 (IL-6), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and pulsatility and resistance index of middle cerebral artery (PI and RI, respectively) levels were elevated compared to those measured pre-exercise. Total leukocyte and platelet counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), free radical (FR), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels tended to decrease after exercise. Pre-exercise IL-6 levels were positively correlated with pre-exercise SBP levels, while post-exercise IL-6 level was positively correlated with post-exercise PI and RI levels. Post-exercise, hs-CRP levels were negatively related to SBP and HR. Pre-exercise, FR levels were positively associated to SBP, DBP, and HR. Post-exercise FR levels were negatively related to the post-exercise blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery. Pre-exercise erythrocyte indices (RBC, MCV, MCH, and MCHC levels) were in inverse proportion to pre-exercise IL-6 levels. Post-exercise FR levels were inversely related to post-exercise total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte, and MCH levels. Pre-exercise
levels were in inverse proportion to pre-exercise IL-6, hs-CRP, or FR levels. These findings suggest that one-time aerobic exercise offers a significant relationship between inflammatory markers and some biochemical markers or electrolytes. Further studies need to be carried out for investigation of differences between genders or age groups following one-time or regular aerobic exercise.
Characterization of the Stigma side Self-incompatibility Genes in a Self-compatible Brassica oleracea
Park, Jong-In ; Lee, In-Ho ; Jung, Gun-Ho ; Nou, Ill-Sup ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1666~1671
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1666
In Brassica, S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK) genes function together for self-recognition in the self-incompatibility response. In addition, a water channel called aquaporins (MOD) is required for the self-incompatibility response. In this study, we isolated the SC-SLG, SC-SRK, and SC-MOD genes from a self-compatible line of B. oleracea. In the self-compatible line, the SC-SLG, SC-SRK, and SC-MOD genes showed the highest degree of sequence similarity with published data and to normal expression by RT-PCR. Therefore, it can be concluded that the SCR/SP11 gene of the B. oleracea pollen may not function and/or that mutations may occur in genes for self-incompatibility that are not linked to the S locus region.
Toxicity and Characteristics of Antifungal Substances Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IUB158-03
Kim, Hye-Young ; Lee, Tae-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1672~1678
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1672
The purified antifungal substances produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IUB158-03 was positive to ninhydrin but negative to aniline, suggesting that the antifungal substance could be a peptide. FAB-MS, UV adsorption spectrum, and amino acid composition analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the antifungal substance was 1042 and that maximal adsorption was at 220 nm and 277 nm. The antifungal substance was composed of
. The composition and structural characteristics of antifungal substance were analysed by
-COSY, HMQC, which revealed that the compound belongs to the iturin A family. Temperature and pH had little effect on the stability of the antifungal substance in the ranges of
and pH 6.0~10.0, respectively. It showed strong antibiotic activity against fungi. An in vitro cytotoxicity test using NIH3T3 cell showed that the antifungal substance does not have cytotoxicity. The number of circulating leukocytes and the hematobiological analysis of the mice administered with the antifungal substances was similar to those of the control group, indicating no cytotoxicity in vivo. Therefore, the antifungal substances extracted from culture broth of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IUB158-03 have future potential as biocontrol agents against plant diseases caused by fungi.
Effects of Cheonggukjang Added Phellinus linteus myceria on Lipid Metalbolism in Adult Female Rats
Choi, Mi-Ae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 11, 2009, Pages 1679~1683
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.11.1679
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Cheonggukjang (traditional soybean food, CK) and Cheonggukjang added with Phellinus linteus myceria (CKP) on the lipid metabolism, growth, food intake, and food efficiency ratio(FER) in adult female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (control diet: 0.1% cholesterol, 10% Lard) for 4 weeks. The rats were randomly assigned to each treatment group: control, and two kinds of CK and CKP (powders of CK and CKP as dietary protein sources). After 4 weeks of experimental diet consumption, the body weights and the uterine fat pad weights of the CK and CKP diet groups were more significantly decreased than those of the control diet group. The hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride and total lipid levels were significantly lower in both the CK and CKP diet fed groups than those in the control group. The concentrations in serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased in the CK and CKP diet groups compared to those in the control group. Fecal total lipid, moisture and wet weight excretion in the CK and CKP diet groups were more increased than those in the control group. These results showed that feeding of cheonggukjang and cheonggukjang added with Phellinus linteus myceria both the triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in serum, as well as the triglyceride and cholesterol in the livers of the rats.