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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
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Heterologous Expression of Fission Yeast Heavy Metal Transporter, SpHMT-1, Confer Tolerance to Cadmium in Cytosolic Phytochelatin-Deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Lee, Sang-Man ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1685~1689
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1685
Phytochelatins (PCs) are small polypeptides synthesized by PC synthase (PCS). They are present in various living organisms including plants, fission yeast, and some animals. The presumed function of PCs is the sequestration of cytosolic toxic heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) into the vacuoles via vacuolar membrane localized heavy metal tolerance factor 1 (HMT-1). HMT-1 was first identified in fission yeast (SpHMT-1), and later in Caenorhabdtis (CeHMT-1). Recently, its homolog has also been found in PC-deficient Drosophila (DmHMT-1), and this homolog has been shown to be involved in Cd detoxification, as confirmed by the heterologous expression of DmHMT-1 in fission yeast. Therefore, the dependence of HMT-1 on PC in Cd detoxification should be re-evaluated. I heterologously expressed SpHMT-1 in cytosolic PC-deficient yeast, Saccharomycea cerevisiae, to understand the dependence of HMT-1 on PC. Yeast cells expressing SpHMT-1 showed increased tolerance to Cd compared with control cells. This result indicates that SpHMT-1 is not strictly correlated with PC production on its function. Moreover, yeast cells expressing SpHMT-1 showed increased tolerance to exogenously applied glutathione (GSH) compared with control cells, and the tolerance to Cd was further increased by exogenously applied GSH, while tolerance in control cells was not. These results indicate that the function of SpHMT-1 in Cd detoxification does not depend on PCs only, and suggest that SpHMT-1 may sequester cytosolic GSH-Cd complexes into the vacuole.
Up-regulation of CD11c Expression on Human Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Cells by Flt-3 Ligand
Xu, Qi ; Kwak, Jong-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1690~1697
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1690
CD11c and costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 express mainly in dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we investigated the biologic effects of recombinant Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (Flt-3) ligand on the expression of DC surface markers, including CD11c in leukemia cell lines, such as KG-1, HL-60, NB4, and THP-1 cells. The expression of the Flt-3 receptor was found in NB4 and HL-60 cells, as well as KG-1 cells, but not in THP-1 cells. When KG-1 cells were cultured in a medium containing Flt-3 ligand or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
, cell proliferation was inhibited and the expression levels of CD11c, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I, and MHC-II were increased in the cells. Flt-3 ligand also increased the expression level of CD11c on HL-60 and NB4 cells, but not on THP-1 cells. In comparison with CD11c expression, the expression level of CD11b on KG-1 cells, but not on NB4 and HL-60 cells, was slightly increased by Flt-3 ligand. Flt-3 ligand induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) in KG-1 cells, and the up-regulation of CD11c expression by Flt-3 ligand in the cells was abrogated by PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK. The results suggest that Flt-3 ligand up-regulates DC surface markers on
myelomonocytic KG-1 cells, as well as promyelocytic leukemia cells, and that the differentiation of the leukemia cells into DC-like cells by Flt-3 ligand is mediated by ERK-1/2 activity.
The Rapid Determination of Gemcitabine by Reversed-phase Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Park, Dae-Jin ; Kim, Woo-Mi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1698~1704
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1698
Gemcitabine is an anticancer drug used to treat a variety of solid tumors. The drug is rapidly inactivated by cytidine deaminase in plasma and its hydrophilicity restricts the extent of quantification that is possible using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. In this paper, we report a rapid and precise method to analyze velocity and peak efficiency using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a reversed-phase column. The retention periods of gemcitabine and 2'-deoxycytidine at 283 nm were 3.2 and 2.1 min, respectively. The assay provided highly linear results in the range of
> 0.999). The coefficients of variation of the intra-day and inter-day assays were less than 10.0%. We observed that the estimated average concentrations of the intra-day and inter-day assays ranged from 97.3 to 113.5% to verify the accuracy. These results suggest that this new reversed-phase UPLC method is a rapid and reliable way of determining gemcitabine levels.
Heat Shock Induces Necrosis in Cisplatin-resistant Gastric Cancer Cells through Suppressing JNK1/2 Activation and HSP27 Induction
Lim, Sung-Chul ; Choi, Cheol-Hee ; Han, Song-Iy ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1705~1711
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1705
Carcinoma cells that had acquired resistance to a chemotherapeutic drug often show cross-resistance to various other cytotoxic drugs. In the present study, we explored the effect of heat shock in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells SNU601/Cis2 to figure out the efficacy of hyperthermia in drug-resistant carcinoma. While SNU601/WT cells showed a high-sensitivity response to heat shock by dying through apoptosis, SNU601/Cis2 cells were considerably resistant to mild heat shock, but died by necrosis upon treatment with harsh heat shock. The occurrence of necrosis in SNU601/Cis2 cells was linked to the suppression of both JNK1/2 activation and HSP27 induction in response to heat shock. Since necrosis is closely associated with tumor malignancy and poor prognosis through inflammatory responses, our result suggests that hyperthermic treatment should be carefully applied when it is combined with chemotherapy.
The Effect of Duration Protocols on VO
max and Presence of Plateau
Kim, Do-Yeon ; Yoon, Byung-Kon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1712~1717
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1712
The purpose of this study was to compare
max, maximal power output, and presence of
plateau across 4 protocol durations (5, 8, 12, and 16 min) during incremental cycling exercise to
max. Twenty moderately to highly trained subjects (
) participated in the study. The mean
max in the 5-min (
) and 8-min (
) duration protocols had higher and significantly higher mean value in the 8-min duration protocol compared to the 12-min (
) and 16-min (
) duration protocols. The AMPO across four protocols showed a significant difference. The AMPO for the 5-min protocol was 12%, 24%, and 35% higher than AMPO for the 8-min, 12-min and 16-min protocols. The presence of plateau was 12.5% for the 5 min protocol, 56.25% for the 8 min protocol, 37.5% for the 12 min protocol, and 56.25% for the 16 min protocol. This study indicates that the short duration protocol (<8 min) is a more valid measurement for
max than optimal duration protocol (8-12 min) in moderate to highly trained individuals on the cycle ergometer.
Characterization of Plasmid-Mediated SHV-11 β-lactamase Gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from the Clinical Specimens
Kim, Yun-Tae ; Lee, Sang-Hoo ; Jang, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Tae-Un ; Choi, Seok-Cheol ; Baik, Hyung-Suk ; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul ; Yoon, Hye-Ryoung ; Kim, Young-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1718~1723
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1718
In this study, we characterized extended-spectrum
-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens in Korea and found two strains harboring plasmid-mediated
, Klebsiella pneumoniae. First, the isolates were detected using the Vitek system and confirmed by the double-disk synergy test. The classification of gene coding for ESBL was also performed by polymerase chain reactions and followed by DNA sequencing. The transmission of genes was confirmed by transconjugation and transformation. Resistant expression of transformants was determined by broth microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test. Genotypic analysis revealed that one strain harbored the
and the other strain harbored the
. They showed high resistance to oxyiminocephalosphorins (3rd-generation cephalosporins), while the transformant containing only
did not show any resistance to the antibiotics.
Isolation and Characterization of Mannanase Producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CS47 from Horse Feces
Cho, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1724~1730
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1724
The mannanase-producing bacteria, designated CS47, was isolated from the fresh feces of three horses (from a farm in Jinju National University). The isolate CS47 was facultatively anaerobic and grew at temperatures ranging from
with an optimal temperature of
. The DNA G+C content of the isolate CS47 was 44 mlo%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-15:0 (39.6%), 17:0 (7.6%), and iso-15:0 (37.8%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolate CS47 and other Bacillus strains varied from 93% to 98%. In the phylogenetic analysis based on these sequences, the isolate CS47 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens clustered within a group and separated from other species of Bacillus. Based on the physiological and molecular properties, the isolate CS47 was classified within the genus Bacillus as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CS47. The optimal pH and temperature for mannanase activity of B. amyloliquefaciens CS47 were pH 6.0 and
, respectively. The thermal stability of mannanase from B. amyloliquefaciens CS47 is valuable when using this enzyme in industrial application.
Effects of Cholic Acid/CDCA and FGF-19 on the Protein Levels of the Endogenous Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP) in the Mouse Liver and HepG2 Cells
Min, Gye-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1731~1736
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1731
Recent studies determined that a chronic western-style diet increased the endogenous small heterodimer partner (SHP) protein levels in mice. In experiments with cell cultures, chenodeoxy cholic acid (CDCA) treatment increased endogenous SHP protein levels and reduced the degradation rate of exogenously expressed flag-SHP levels in the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 cells. In addition, bile acid-induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) increased the half-life of the exogenously expressed SHP when HepG2 cells were transfected with ad-flag-SHP. However, both the expression level and the degradation rate of the endogenous SHP in response to cholic acid and FGF-19 have not been well understood, either in mice or in cultured HepG2 cells. This study examined the effects of cholic acid treatment on the endogenous SHP protein levels in mice and the effects of FGF-19 on the degradation rate of the endogenous SHP protein in HepG2 cells. Mice fed 0.5% cholic acid in normal chow showed an increase in endogenous SHP protein levels during both 12 hr and 24 hr treatment periods as compared to control mice fed only normal chow. In cultured HepG2 cells, treatment with CDCA did not noticeably change the rate of degradation in the endogenous SHP protein from cells not treated with CDCA. Although consistent with the previous studies on the exogenous ad-flag-SHP protein, treatment with FGF-19 significantly decreased the degradation rate of the endogenous SHP protein when HepG2 cells were treated with cyclohexamide. These results suggest that both bile acids and FGF-19 increase the endogenous SHP protein levels in mouse liver and HepG2 cells.
Inhibitory Effect of Linum usitatissimum and Perilla frutescens as Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Mutagenicity and Growth of Human Cancer Cell Lines
Lim, Sun-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1737~1742
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1737
It has been known that Linum usitatissimum and Perilla frutescens are dietary sources of possible chemopreventive compounds such as lignans and
-linolenic acid. Here, we investigated and compared the inhibitory effects of methanol extracts from Linum usitatissimum and Perilla frutescens on mutagenicity using the Ames test, and growth of human cancer cells (AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma, HT-29 human colon cancer, Hep 3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells). In the Ames test system using Salmonella typhimurium TA100, aflatoxin
)-induced mutagenicity was significantly inhibited by treatment with the methanol extract from either Linum usitatissimum or Perilla frutescens (p<0.05) in a dose dependent manner. As for N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguamidine (MNNG)-induced mutagenicity, the methanol extracts (5 mg/assay) from Linum usitatissimum and Perilla frutescens showed 63% and 78% inhibitory rates, respectively, indicating that Perilla frutescens possessed stronger antimutagenic activity than did Linum usitatissimum. Inhibitory effects of methanol extracts from Linum usitatissimum and Perilla frutescens on the growth of human cancer cells (AGS, HT-29 and Hep 3B) appeared to increase dose dependently, and the inhibition was more effective against AGS and HT-29 compared to Hep 3B cells. Our results suggested that the methanol extract from Perilla frutescens showed stronger antimutagenic activity than that from Linum usitatissimumas assayed by the Ames mutagenic test, whereas the methanol extract from Linum usitatissimum was more effective than its counterpart for growth inhibition of human cancer cells. It is concluded that intake of Linum usitatissimum and Perilla frutescens as sources of omega-3 fatty acids will be beneficial for preventing cancer.
Effects of Cucumber Beverage Intake on Fluid-Regulating Hormones and CRP in Amateur Marathoners
Kim, Gi-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1743~1749
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1743
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cucumber beverage intake on fluid-regulating hormones and CRP in amateur marathoners between the ages of 47~49. Among research subjects, 8 male middle-aged marathoners who have completed the full marathon course over 5 times and who have run for over 50 months were selected. In two marathon races, they received firstly water and secondly cucumber beverage: 10 ml before the race, 50 ml every 5 km, and 200 ml after the race, adding up to 10 drinks and 710 ml in total amount of beverage taken. For statistics, one-way ANOVA within the group was conducted through SPSS 12.0; for post-examination, Duncan was utilized; and for inter-group examination, an independent t-test was used. Before, right after, and after the marathon, the cucumber beverage intake group had a significantly decreased serum ADH concentration compared to the water intake group. Both the cucumber beverage and water intake groups had significantly increased serum rennin levels before, right after, and after the marathon. Both the cucumber beverage and water intake groups had significantly increased aldosterone before, right after, and after the marathon. CRP levels didn't show change. In conclusion, intake of cucumber beverage during a marathon race was found to help with fluid-regulating hormones. This research has attempted to continue to study the influence on hormones that control body fluids.
Effects of Regular Walking Exercise on Health-Related Parameters in Persons with Chronic Diseases
Lim, Hwe-Jin ; Kim, Yu-Sik ; Cho, Hyeong-Suk ; Kim, Chang-Hee ; Lim, Hee-Jung ; Jeong, Hee-Seong ; Im, Jee-Aee ; Yoon, Byung-Kon ; Paik, Il-Young ; Suh, Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1750~1757
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1750
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular walking exercise on health-related parameters in the elderly with chronic diseases - apoplexy, overweight, impaired fasting glucose, and overweight + impaired fasting glucose. A total of 85 subjects, 27, 17, 21 and 20 in apoplexy (A), overweight (O), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), overweight + impaired fasting glucose group (O_IFG), respectively, completed a 12-week walking exercise. The health-related parameters were measured before and at the completion of the exercise program including anthropometric measurements, functional physical fitness levels, blood pressure, fasting glucose, blood lipid profiles and chronic inflammatory markers (CRPs). Significant improvements in body weight, BMI, %body fat, blood pressure, all blood lipid measurements and all measured physical fitness items were shown in A; those in %body fat, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C in O; those in body weight, BMI, %body fat, fasting glucose, TC, TG and HDL-C in IFG; and those in body weight, HDL-C and LDL-C in O_IFG (p<0.05). The results of the present study demonstrated that a 12-week walking exercise brought positive effects on body weight, bloody lipid profiles, fasting glucose and functional physical fitness levels in the elderly with chronic diseases. In conclusion, this study suggested that walking regularly is very effective in lowering the risks of developing chronic diseases.
Community Structure and Cluster Analysis of the Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Inflow and Outflow area of Ten Reservoirs of the Nakdong River System
Lee, Mi-Jin ; Park, Jin-Young ; Seo, Jung-Kwan ; Lee, Hae-Jin ; Seo, Eul-Won ; Lee, Jong-Eun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1758~1763
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1758
Biological assessments of benthic macroinvertebrates community structure were carried out in ten reservoir inflow and outflow areas of the Nakdong river system from April 2008 to August 2008. The collected benthic macroinvertebrates from the surveyed sites were 9,427.6 inds./
, 42 species belonging to 29 families and 16 orders. A dominant species was Chironomus sp. and a subdominant species was Ecdyonurus levis. In the all sites, Ephemeroptera had the most number of species (17.81%) and Diptera had the most number of individuals (64.00%). Dominance, species diversity, species richness, and species evenness indexes were 0.68, 2.42, 2.96 and 0.54, respectively. The numbers of benthic macroinvertebrates species in each surveyed site were from 21 (site 9 Jilnal wetland) to 51 (site 2 Yeongcheon reservoir). As a result of an analysis about relative resistance and resilience of stability factors, the most popular group was group I with high indices in both resistance and resilience. Site 7 (Beongae wetland) and site 8 (Jangcheok reservoir) had the highest similarity in the result of cluster analysis using the surveyed benthic macroinvertebrates.
Effect of Bovine Granulosa Cell Culture Supernatant on In Vitro Development of Mouse Embryos
Lee, Sang-Bum ; Moon, Sin-Hong ; Kim, Seon-Ku ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1764~1768
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1764
This study was carried out to examine a concentration of steroid hormones and in vitro development of mouse embryos in culture supernatant of bovine granulosa cells (GC). To obtain the culture supernatant, granulosa cells were retrieved from mature follicles (6~15 mm diameter) and immature follicles (2~5 mm diameter) of bovine ovary and were cultured, respectively, in media of Ham's F-10 with 15% FCS for 16 days. Mature and immature granulosa cells formed their monolayers easily and showed similar growth patterns in culturing. There was no morphological difference between mature and immature granulosa cells. High levels of both progesterone and estradiol were detected in the culture supernatant of mature granulosa cells and immature granulsa cells, and the endocrine profiles of the two types of cells were similar. Progesterone secretion of granulosa cells was high in the late stage of culturing and estradiol secretion was high in the early stage of culturing. In vitro development rates of mouse embryos to morula, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst were significantly (p<0.05) higher in culture supernatant of mature granulosa cells (92.7%, 78.1% and 34.5%) and in culture supernatant of immature granulosa cells (96.4%, 78.5% and 26.8%) than in Ham's F-10 (86.7%, 41,7% and 13.3%). However, there was no difference between the culture supernatant of mature granulosa cells and the culture supernatant of immature granulosa cells in the development of embryos.
Effect of Garlic and Medicinal Plants Composites on Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Levels of Liver in Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Lee, Soo-Jung ; Shin, Jung-Hye ; Kang, Min-Jung ; Yang, Seung-Mi ; Ju, Jong-Chan ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1769~1776
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1769
The effects of combined garlic and medicinal plant extracts such as Gyeolmyeongja (Cassia obtusifolia Linne), Hasuo (Polygoni multiflori Radix), Youngji (Ganoderma lucium) and Sansayuk (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) on the antioxidant activity and lipid levels in the livers of rats fed a high cholesterol diet were analyzed. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were the highest in the Gyeolmyeongja by
/100 g and
/100 g. Electron donating ability, reducing power and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were significantly increased when over 0.3% garlic extract was added. The antioxidant activity of linoleic acid in
- carotene increased in a dose dependant manner in response to the concentration of garlic extract. In livers of rats, the content of total lipids was significantly decreased by feeding garlic and medicinal plants composites; in particular, the group in which 0.7% garlic extract was added was the lowest. Total cholesterol was 14.95 mg/g in the control group; its level was lower in the groups fed garlic and medicinal plants composites, ranging from 11.47 to 11.86 mg/g. Triglyceride concentration was significantly decreased in the group fed 0.7% garlic extracts, with 46.42 mg/g compared to groups fed 0.3% and 0.5%. TBARS content showed a 15.8~17.6% decrease in groups fed 0.5~0.7% garlic extract and medicinal plants composites. Antioxidant activity was significantly increased in groups fed over 0.5% garlic extract compared to the control group. This study shows that garlic and medicinal plant composites intake is able to reduce the levels of liver lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Analysis of Thymosin β4 and Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in Normal Human Tissues Using Tissue Microarray
Ock, Mee-Sun ; Cha, Hee-Jae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1777~1786
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1777
, a small protein containing 43 amino acids, has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It was first identified as a thymic maturation factor and recently has been shown to accelerate wound healing, hair growth, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. It was also reported to play a key role in developing organs, including the nervous system and heart. Thymosin
induces the expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), laminin-5, and other important biologically active genes. Using tissue microarray analysis, we investigated the expression patterns of thymosin
and VEGF in various normal human adult tissues. Thymosin
was highly expressed in the liver, pancreas, ductal epithelium of the salivary gland, and heart, and moderately expressed in the skin, lung, spleen, lymph node, thymus, ureter, and blood endothelial cells in both the lung and adrenal gland. The expression of VEGF generally co-localized with thymosin
and VEGF was highly expressed in the pancreas, ureter, mammary gland, liver, esophagus, and blood endothelial cells in both the lung and adrenal gland. These results suggest that thymosin
plays an important role in the function of various organs and since the expression pattern of thymosin
co-localized with VEGF, part of that function may be to induce or maintain angiogenesis.
Over-expression of NSAID Activated Gene-1 by Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester
Jang, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Hyo-Eun ; Son, Seong-Min ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Seo, Eul-Won ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1787~1793
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1787
To investigate whether caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) could affect cancer cell viabilities and gene expression, human colorectal HCT116 cells were incubated with CAPE. CAPE decreased cancer cell viabilities and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. To analyse differently expressed genes by CAPE, we performed oligo DNA microarray analysis. We found that 266 genes were up-regulated more than twofold, whereas 143 genes were down-regulated more than twofold by 24 hr of treatment with
CAPE. Among the up-regulated genes, we selected 3 genes (NSAID activated gene-1 [NAG-1], cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [CDKN1A, p21] and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha [GADD45A]) and performed reverse-transcription PCR to confirm microarray data. In addition, we found that CAPE increased NAG-1 gene and NAG-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. And, several other phytochemicals (resveratrol, genistein, daidzein and capsaicin) also could induce NAG-1 expression in human colorectal HCT116 cells. However, CAPE was the highest inducer of NAG-1, even in low concentrations. Overall, these results imply that cancer cell death by CAPE is closely related with over-expression of NAG-1.
Effects of Soluble Collagen Peptides Extract Derived from Mugil cephalus Scale on the Blood Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Diabetic Rats
Kim, Han-Soo ; Yoon, Ho-Dong ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Guen ; Xie, Cheng-Liang ; Kim, Su-Ha ; Choi, Woo-Seok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1794~1801
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1794
This study was conducted to examine the effects of soluble collagen peptides extract supplementation on the improvement of blood glucose, lipid components and enzyme activities in the sera of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg BW, IP injection)-induced diabetic rats fed on experimental diets for 5 weeks. The concentrations of blood glucose, total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL, LDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester ratio, triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL) in serum were remarkably higher in the diabetic group (group SW) and STZ (IP)+collagen peptides extract supplementation group (group SFW) than those in the control group (group CG, basal diet + water). However the concentrations of blood glucose, total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL, LDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester ratio, TG and PL in serum were lower in the SFW group than in the SW group, whereas the ratio of HDL-cholesterol concentration to total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentration in the SFW group were higher than in the SW group. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransferase (AST, ALT) in serum were lower in the SFW group than in the diabetic SW group. The results shown above suggest that soluble collagen peptides extract supplementation effectively improves blood glucose, lipid compositions and enzyme activities in the sera of STZ induced diabetic rats.
Effects of Platycodin D on Gene Expressions of Pro-adipogenic and Anti-adipogenic Regulators in 3T3-L1 Cells
Lee, Hae-Yong ; Kang, Ryun-Hwa ; Cho, Soo-Hyun ; Kim, Sung-Su ; Kim, Yeong-Shik ; Yoon, Yoo-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1802~1807
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1802
Platycodin D, a major component of Platycodi radix, is known to have various activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-tumor activities and others. Recently, it was reported that platycodin D inhibits fat accumulation and adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether various adipogenic regulators are modulated by platycodin D treatment during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. mRNA levels of terminal markers of adipogenesis such as ADIPOQ (adiponectin) and GLUT (glucose transporter) 4, which were quantified by real time PCR, were decreased by platycodin D treatment. mRNA expression of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor)
and C/EBP (CCAAT/enhaner binding protein)
, which are central transcription factors of adipogenesis, were also decreased by platycodin D treatment. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism of platycodin D-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, we analyzed mRNA expression of upstream regulators of PPAR
. mRNA levels of the pro-adipogenic regulators, KROX20 and KLF (Kruppel-like factor) 15 were markedly down-regulated by platycodin D treatment. On the other hand, mRNA expression of CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), an anti-adipogenic regulator, was significantly up-regulated by platycodin D treatment. mRNA levels of other pro-adipogenic regulators, C/EBP
, were not affected by platycodin D treatment, and another anti-adipogenic regulator, C/EBP
was also not affected by platycodin D treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that platycodin D-induced inhibition of adipogenesis is mediated by gene interactions including the down-regulation of pro-adipogenic regulators, KROX20 and KLF15, and the up-regulation of an anti-adipogenic regulator, CHOP.
Inhibitory Effects of a Herbal Composition (HemoHIM) on the Activation of Human Mast Cell Line (HMC-1)
Kim, Jong-Jin ; Jo, Sung-Kee ; Jung, U-Hee ; Park, Hae-Ran ; Yee, Sung-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1808~1814
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1808
In our previous study, a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) was developed as a functional food for the radioprotection and immunomodulatory agents. In order elucidate the mechanism involved, we examined the effect of HemoHIM on the compound 48/80-induced histamine release, and on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/calcium ionophore (A23187)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in HMC-1. The cell culture supernatants were harvested, and the cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-
, GM-CSF) in the supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total RNA of the cells was extracted, and the cytokines or c-kit/tryptase/Fc
RI's messenger RNA expressions were examined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Under low concentrations, HemoHIM inhibited histamine release in HMC-1 stimulated compound 48/80. Furthermore HemoHIM inhibited PMA/A23187-induced inflammatory cytokines' secreation or mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. But IL-8 secretion was not inhibited by low concentrayion of HemoHIM, respectively. The mRNA expression of c-kit and Fc
RI were also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Tryptase mRNA expression was only inhibited by low concentration of HemoHIM. These results indicated that HemoHIM might be an useful agent for protection against allergy as well as immune modulation, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.
Physicochemical Composition of the Acanthopanax Chilsanensis
Kim, Myung-Suk ; Sung, Chan-Ki ; Kim, Hong-Chul ; Gal, Sang-Wan ; Lee, Sang-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1815~1820
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1815
This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical compositions in the root, stem and fruit of A. chilsanensis. The contents of crude fat were 2.09, 2.51 and 7.94%, and crude proteins were 11.50%, 7.18% and 10.17%, respectively. Crude ash levels were 11.07, 6.85 and 6.38%, respectively, and it was higher in root than stem or fruit. The contents of reducing sugar were 18.90, 10.70 and 24.05 g/100 g in the root, stem and fruit of A. chilsanensis. As a result of color measurement, L value (lightness) of stem, a value (redness) of fruit and b value (yellowness) of root were high, respectively. The content of free sugar was high in all root, stem and fruit, in order of fructose, glucose and sucrose. Acanthoside-D, the main factor of A. chilsanensis, was 18.95 mg/100 g in stem, 8.10 mg/100 g in root and 2.85 mg100 g in fruit. Free amino acid in stem was 955.26 mg/100 g, which was 4.5 times higher than in stem and 8.5 times higher than in fruit. Natural aromas were identified by GC/GC-MS. Natural aromas such as
-pinene, 3-carene and D-limonene were detected in A. chilsanensis.
The Differential Effects of Plyometric Training and Weight Training on Muscular Power, Agility and Maximal Muscular Strength of the Male and Female High-school Throwers
Kim, Hyung-Don ; Kim, Duk-Jung ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1821~1828
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1821
The purpose of this research was to investigate how the plyometric training and weight training program, applied in the field for exercise performance of throwing players, influenced improvement of athletic abilities, including agility, maximum muscular power, and strength. After implementing plyometric training and weight training to 21 high school throwing players for 10 weeks, we designed the next step. The 21 subjects were divided into two groups - women's group and men's group. All subjects were tested to determine agility using sidestep, burpee test, reaction time, lower body power and strength using standing long jump, standing jump, 30 m running, squats and leg presses. Additionally, isokinetic strength was measured using Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. The results showed that both groups demonstrated improvement in the standing long jump, standing jump and 30 m running after training. Particularly, the women's group indicated better improvement. Second, women's groups showed higher improvement in the sidestep and burpee test. However, in the reaction time test, the men's group indicated better improvement. Third, both groups showed better improvement in squats and leg presses after training. Particularly, the women's group indicated better improvement. Fourth, in the left and right side extension torque and flexion torque at a velocity of
/sec, both groups showed better improvement after training. In the left side extension peak torque, the men's group showed higher improvement, but the women's group showed higher improvement in the left side flexion and extension peak torque. Fifth, both groups showed better improvement in bench pressing and back strength after training. Particularly, the women's group indicated higher improvement.
Quantitative Electroencephalogram Alteration by Ventilation Volume of Hyperventilation
Kim, Young-Sik ; Choi, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1829~1835
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1829
Hyperventilation (HV) is routinely induced in order to activate brain waves during an electroencephalogram (EEG). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HV conditions on EEG and suggested basic data for the standardized procedure. Three degrees of HV were induced for 5 minutes with a ventilation volume of 160 ml/min (control group), 240 ml/min, and 300 ml/min in rats. Powers of delta, theta, alpha, and beta waves were examined by a quantitative EEG. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the powers of all EEG waves between the control and 240 ml/min groups. However, a notable change in EEG powers during HV induced by a ventilation volume of 300 ml/min was observed in the frontal cerebral region as follows: power of the delta was increased by 12.8% (p<0.01), powers of the theta, alpha and beta were decreased by 41.3% (p<0.01), 48.6% (p<0.05), and 41.9% (p<0.05), respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that an increase of about 90% of the normal ventilation volume might be adequate for the hyperventilation, and a useful parameter for evaluation of the qualified hyperventilation might be an alteration of the frontal EEG powers.
Production of Hydroxymethylfurfrual by Sesamum indicum L. Root Cultures
Chun, Jae-An ; Lee, Jin-Woo ; Yi, Young-Byung ; Hong, Seong-Sig ; Cho, Kang-Jin ; Chung, Chung-Han ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1836~1840
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1836
Recently, hydroxymethylfurfrual (HMF) has been highlighted as a key intermediate for the production of liquid biofuels and other valuable compounds. We used sesame roots as a biocatalyst to synthesize HMF using flask cultures. The synthesis of HMF was identified by GC-mass analysis. The highest root growth was observed in cultures with 1.0 mg/l NAA at
, while root growth was not found in those without NAA treatment. When silver nitrate (
) was added, the root growth was greatest in those treated with 0.5 mg/l
and cultured at
. In the case of HMF synthesis, its highest yield was obtained in those treated with 0.5 mg/l NAA at
, but low HMF was detected in those treated without naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The addition of
to the culture medium showed a 8-10% reduction in HMF yield compared to that of the control, indicating its inhibitory effect on the synthesis of HMF. On the whole, an optimal culture temperature for HMF synthesis seemed to be between
The Effect of Ecklonia cava Extracts on Bone Turnover Markers in Ovariectomized Rats
Kang, Sung-Rim ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1841~1846
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1841
Menopause is often associated with the incidence of several chronic diseases including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is an effective regimen that has been found to prevent these diseases in postmenopausal women. However, HRT is accompanied by an increased risk of unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ecklonia cava, a kind of seaweed, extract on bone turnover markers in symptomatic menopausal women. For this study, the following four groups of 9-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated over 6 weeks: normal rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats (OVX-CON) and ovariectomized rats that were treated with Ecklonia cava extracts. The optimum extraction temperature and solvent of Ecklonia cava were found to be
and 80% ethanol. We measured the osteocalcin and CTx content, enzyme ALP activity in serum and collagen content in the cartilage, bone, skin and lungs. We found that the levels of indicators of bone metabolism such as ALP, osteocalcin and CTx were lower in rats in the Ecklonia cava extract group than the OVX-CON group. In addition, the collagen contents in the bone, cartilage, skin and lungs decreased in response to ovariectomy, but the levels of collagen were greater in the bone of rats that were treated with Ecklonia cava extract than in the bone of rats in the OVX-CON group. According to these results, we were able to know the effects of Ecklonia cava extract on bone aging in ovariectomized rats. Consequently, we expect Ecklonia cava extract to have an effect on bone aging in postmenopausal women.
Bovine Tuberculosis of Korean Native Cattle in an Abattoir
Jang, Seong-Jun ; Do, Sun-Hee ; Ki, Mi-Ran ; Hong, Il-Hwa ; Park, Jin-Kyu ; Ji, Ae-Ri ; Jeong, Kyu-Shik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1847~1850
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1847
Bovine tuberculosis is generally detected postmortem because it is a chronic debilitating disease. Since tuberculosis is mainly found in the lungs, clinical signs including coughing, nasal discharge, and difficulty breathing can occur in severe instances. In the present study, specimens were collected from the heart, liver, kidney, lung, pleural cavities, lymph nodes and intestines of carcasses found in an abattoir. According to post-mortem examination and inspection of carcasses, tuberculosis lesions were varied in appearance and size. Tubercles of a white cream color were disseminated throughout the pleural cavity including the lymph nodes, lungs and mesentery containing pus. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen's acid-fast staining for the lung and lymph nodes revealed a highly positive histochemical reaction. The acid-fast organisms were observed histologically in the lesions under a microscope. This report demonstrated the histopathology of bovine tuberculosis based on the histological findings of Mycobacterium bovis, which is a suspected causative agent.
Profile of Plasma Estradiol-17β According to Ovarian Development of the Pike Eel, Muraenesox cinereus
Kim, Dae-Jung ; Kim, Yi-Cheong ; Son, Maeng-Hyun ; Lee, Jung-Uie ; Son, Sang-Gyu ; Han, Chang-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 12, 2009, Pages 1851~1854
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.12.1851
This study correlated changes in the plasma levels of estradiol-
(E2) with changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and ovarian development during the annual reproductive cycle of the pike eel Muraenesox cinereus, collected at the Tongyung coast region. Ovarian maturity was classified based on histological observations; the perinucleolus stage (November to February), the oil droplet stage (March to April), the early vitellogenic stage (April to May) and the late vitellogenic stage (June to October). Seasonal changes in the GSI were correlated with water temperature and reflected the degree of ovarian maturity. Plasma E2 levels were correlated with changes in the GSI, which increased from April to a peak in July, and the levels remained comparatively high until October. These data indicated that changes in the GSI and plasma E2 levels are correlated with the annual ovarian activity of the pike eel. In this study, however, female pike eels were not collected during the spawning stage. Therefore, spawning of this species seemed to be closely related to its migration toward the deep sea of offshore.