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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
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Plant Community and Species Distribution In Both Slopes of the Mt. Neungdong
Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 693~697
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.693
The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate diversity patterns in Mt. Neungdong forested landscape. It was conducted on twelve sloping plots
in the east and west sides of Mt. Neungdong. A total of 2,157 specimins were identified as trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH)
10 em. There were a total of 135 species of 35 families present in both regions of Mt. Neungdong. Least significant differences (LSD) by post hoc analysis revealed that region A had significantly greater densities than region B. Shannon-Wiener functions differed significantly between forests (F=4.12, < 0.05), with region B forest having a significantly higher value (2.118) than region A (1.882). Pinus thunbergii and Quercus aliena were dominant on most plots of both regions, however, the P. densiflora forest of region A was distributed better in the middle plots exposures compared to the opposite ones. Q. aliena, Q. mongolica, and Carpinus laxiflora largely occupied the middle and lower exposures of region B. The spatial distribution in Neungdong's forest was very heterogeneous and reflected by most species as having micro-climate and patchy distributions.
ACE Inhibitory Lignan Glycosides Isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver
Joo, Ok-Soo ; Nam, Sang-Hae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 698~704
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.698
To evaluate a potential possibility of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver as a functional food, ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitory activities of leaf, bark, stem and 4 compounds isolated from E. ulmoides were tested. The 4 compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and reverse phase column chromatography. Compound I was pinoresinol-4,4'di-O-
-D-glucoside (PG) and compound II was dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4,
-D-glucopyranoside (DAG) originating from Eucommial Cortex. The highest amount of PC was present at raw and roasted bark as 135.13 mg% and 163.67 mg%, and the highest amount of DAG was present at raw and roasted leaf as 117.93 mg% and 133.93 mg% respectively. In an ACE inhibition test, 10 mg/ml of roasted leaf, raw and roasted bark extracts of E. ulmoides Oliver were 77.49%, 75.72% and 75.36% respectively, and 10mg/ml of PC and DAG were shown to be 78.51 and 81.20% respectively.
values of PG and DAG were 0.6
0.2 and 0.5
0.2 mg/ml respectively.
Sodium Butyrate Alters Cell-Cell Interactions through Up-Regulation of E-Cadherin in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Kwun, Hyun-Jin ; Jang, Kyung-Lib ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 705~710
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.705
Sodium butyrate (NaBt), a naturally occurring short chain fatty acid derived from carbohydrate metabolism in the gut, is known to exhibit strong anti-cancer potentials in various human cancer cells; however, its action mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that NaBt up-regulates levels of E-cadherin, a key cell adhesion molecule implicated as a tumor suppressor, in a cell type-specific manner. Although levels of p21, a potential activator for E-cadherin expression, were also up-regulated by treatment with NaBt in several types of cells, it does not seem to be associated with the activation of E-cadherin in the NaBt-treated cells. Instead, the data from promoter analysis suggest that NaBt up-regulates expression of E-cadherin at the transcription level by enhancing its promoter strength via a CCAAT-box. The elevated E-cadherin in the presence of NaBt was primarily localized at the cell-cell contacts, converting Hep3B cells into a more differentiated form.
Population Genetic Structure of Octopus minor Sasaki from Korea and China Based on a Partial Sequencing of Mitochondrial 16S rRNA
Kim, Joo-Il ; Oh, Taeg-Yun ; Seo, Young-Il ; Cho, Eun-Seob ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 711~719
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.711
We determined a portion of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences (416 bp) to investigate the genetic structure of the octopus (Octopus minor Ssaki) population in Korea and China. Samples were obtained from Korea (Yeosu, Namhae, Jindo, Muan, Geomundo and Seosan) and China (Sandong) during the period of August 2006 to September 2007. Sequence analyses of 28 individual specimens collected from 7 localities revealed 11 haplotypes, ranging in a sequence divergence of 0.2% - 1.2%. Phylogenetic analyses using PHYLIP and networks subdivided the octopus into two clades (termed clade A and B) and the nucleotide divergence between them was 0.4%. This haplotype subdivision was in accordance with geographic separation: one at Yeosu, Namhae, Muan and Jindo, and the other at Seosan, Geomundo and Sandong. On the basis of hierarchial genetic analysis, genetic distance between localities in Korea and China were also found, but a significant population differentiation was not shown in this study (p>0.05). Consequently, most of the octopus populations in Korea had considerable distribution due to the mitochondrial gene flow that resulted in a formation of a genetically homogenous structure, whereas some of the Korean and Chinese populations had different genetic structures. Gene flow among populations may be restricted due to impassable geographic barriers that promote genetic differentiation.
Soybeans Fermented with Bacillus po/yfermenticus KJS-2 Protects Oplegnathus fasciatus from Iridovirus and Pathogenic Bacterial Infection
Kim, Kang-Min ; Na, Hae-Choon ; Park, Jung-Hee ; Kang, Jae-Seon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 720~727
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.720
Lyophilized powder (BP2FS) of soybeans fermented with Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2 (B. polyfermenticus KJS-2) exhibited in vitro antibacterial activities against eight pathogenic bacteria. BP2FS was used as a fodder additive for Oplegnathus fasciatus (0. fasciatus) culture. One group (UFD) of O. fasciatus was fed a commercial fodder, while another group (FD) was fed the same fodder, but including BP2FS (
fodder), two times daily for 120 days. The mean body weight of the FD group (67.29
12.62 g) was higher than that of the UFD group (56.56
8.21 g) after 120 days. The survival rate of FD was 80% compared to 40% for the UFD group. Cumulative mortalities in the FD and UFD groups were 18.95% and 60.98% respectively. B. polyfermenticus KJS-2 was isolated from the intestines of the FD group and the number of viable colonies was estimated to be
. Iridovirus and Vibrio vulnificus was detected in the organs of the UFD group but not in the FD group. All of the infected fish showed typical clinical symptoms of hemorrhage in their tail fins. Dissection of the infected internal organs revealed liver congestion and spleen enlargement - typical symptoms caused by iridovirus infection. These results clearly show that BP2FS is highly beneficial in preventing O. fasciatus from iridovirus infection.
Isolation of Monocytes with High Purity and Yield from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flotation Density Gradient Centrifugation
Bae, Jae-Ho ; Son, Cheol-Hun ; Park, You-Soo ; Kim, Dong-Wan ; Kim, Sun-Hee ; Kang, Chi-Dug ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 728~734
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.728
In this work, a simple, inexpensive and reproducible technique of flotation density gradient centrifugation was developed to isolate monocytes with high purity and yield from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using Histopaque solution, density and osmolarity of which were modified to 1.072 g/ml and 335 mOsm with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, respectively. The average purity of monocytes was 74.75
3.84%, with the individual purity ranging from 71.44% to 82.38%. The average yield of monocytes was 32.62
11.16%, with the individual yields ranging from 21.02 to 53.63%. The monocytes isolated by floatation density gradient centrifugation could be successfully cultured into morphologically, phenotypically and functionally dendritic cells in vitro. In conclusion, the entire procedure seemed to be faster and more convenient, simple and cost-effective than other monocyte isolation methods, including plastic adherence and density gradient methods, and has the potential to be developed as a closed system for clinical scale generation of dendritic cells.
Naringin Protects Ovalbumin-induced Asthma through the Down-regulation of MMP-9 Activity and GATA-3 Gene
Lee, Chang-Min ; Chang, Jeong-Hyun ; Jung, In-Duk ; Jeong, Young-Il ; Tae, Noh-Kyung ; Park, Hee-Ju ; Kim, Jong-Suk ; Shin, Yong-Kyoo ; Park, Sung-Nam ; Park, Yeong-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 735~743
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.735
The common word flavonoids is often used to classify a family of natural compounds, highly abundant in all higher plants, that have received significant therapeutic interest in recent years. Naringin is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease, neurodegenerative disease, cancer and other chronic diseases; however the molecular basis of this effect remains to be elucidated. Thus we attempted to elucidate the anti-allergic effect of Naringin in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model mice. The OVA-induced mice showed allergic reactions in the airways. These included an increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, an increase in inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung around blood vessels and airways, airway luminal narrowing, and the development of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). The administration of Naringin before the last airway OVA challenge resulted in a significant inhibition of all asthmatic reactions. Accordingly, this study may provide evidence that Naringin plays a critical role in the amelioration of the pathogenetic process of asthma in mice. These findings provide new insight into the immunopharmacological role of Naringin in terms of its effects on asthma in mice.
Isolation and Immunomodulating Activity of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced by Bacillus sp. PS-12
Na, Ye-Seul ; Suh, Hyun-Hyo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 744~750
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.744
A bacterial strain producing highly viscous extracellular polysaccharide was isolated from soil. Through morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical studies, it was identified as a Bacillus sp. and named Bacillus sp. PS-12. The extracellular polysaccharide, named PS-12 was purified by ethanol precipitation, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation and gel permeation chromatography. The purified polysaccharide was found to consist of glucose, mannose, galactose, and fucose, with a molar ratio of approximately 7:3.2:2:1, respectively. PS-12 was investigated for its immunostimulating activity on murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells using an ELISA assay. PS-12 stimulated the production of TNF-
to a level 50 times greater than the control and also induced 1L-6 secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 cells by PS-12 was relatively low with 10% cytotoxicity at 2
/ml. These results indicate that PS-12 is less cytotoxic to immune cells and possess immunomodulating activity in which it can produce cytokines including TNF-
and 1L-6 from macrophages.
Sanitation Effect of Sprouts by Chlorine Water.
Lee, Kyung-A ; Lee, Young-A ; Park, In-Shik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 751~755
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.751
This study was attempted to provide basic data for effective sanitization of sprouts. Sanitization treatments were performed by dipping four sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, clover and red radish) into chlorine water. Microbial analyses were composed of the total plate count (TPC), coliform count, and E. coli count. All examined sprouts exhibited high levels of TPC (
CFU/g) and coliform (
CFU/g). E. coli was detected in broccoli and red radish sprouts in the range of
CFU/g. Among chlorine water sanitization, the microbial reduction was largest in 100 ppm chlorine water, and its TPC and coliform counts decreased to
CFU/g, respectively. E. coli was not detected in all sprouts that were given 100 ppm chlorine water treatment. The effective dipping time in 100 ppm chlorine water treatment was 30 min and 60 min, in which TPC were below the microbiological safety limits of
CFU/g. Coliform counts were decreased to
CFU/g when the sprouts were dipped for 30min, and kept the similar level after that time. These levels exceeded the microbiological safety limits of
CFU/g. E. coli was not detected in samples by 100 ppm chlorine water treatment.
Effects of Water-extract Mixture of Scutellariae baicalensis GEORGI, Acarus gramineus SOLAND and Gastrodia elata BLUME on Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons and Enhancement of Learning and Memory Power
Bae, Chul-Hwan ; Jung, Hyun-Jung ; Jung, Seung-Hyun ; Moon, Il-Soo ; Lee, Won-Chul ; Sin, Gil-Jo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 756~764
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.756
Scutellariae baicalensis GEORGt Acorus gramineus SOLAND and Gastrodia elata BLUME are traditional medicines used in the treatment of incipient stoke. In this study we investigated their effects on various aspects of neuronal differentiation in single or composite forms. Water-extracts of these medicines showed neuroprotective effects on cultured rat cortical neurons in normoxia and hypoxia. To understand the mechanism for neuroprotection we carried out various cell biological assays. They stimulated initial differentiation of neuronal development (transition from stage 1 to 2), and increased the number of spines and the length and number of dendritic processes. These effects were best manifested in the experimental group, which were given a mixture of the three kinds of extracts (p<0.01). To assess improvement of brain functions we carried out Morris water-maze tests for the mice that were fed on these extracts instead of water for 4 weeks. The experimental groups, especially those which were given the mixture of the three kinds of extract, showed significant (p<0.01) enhancement in memory as early as one day after the learning trial. These results indicate that these three kinds of extracts have synergistic effects on neuronal protection and improvement of brain functions.
Intratypic Variants of HPV-16 E6jE7 Oncogene Isolated from Sexually High-Risk Women in Busan.
Min, Sang-Kee ; Kim, Sung-Soon ; Choi, Byeong-Sun ; Jang, Dai-Ho ; Lee, Mee-Ok ; Choi, Seung-Hwa ; Kim, Nam-Ho ; Park, Yon-Koung ; Jeong, Yeong-A ; Kim, Seong-Joon ; Bin, Jae-Hun ; Park, Ho-Kuk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 765~769
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.765
Recent studies have reported that the distribution of HPV-16 sequence variation differs geographically, and more specifically that HPV-16 E6/E7 intratypic variants might carry a high risk for development of ICC (invasive cervical cancer) and CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) in a given population. To investigate the genetic diversities of HPV-16 E6/E7 oncogene by region, we collected nineteen HPV-16 isolates from sexually high-risk women in Busan, and analyzed the HPV-16 E6/E7 coding regions (nt 34 to 880) with HPV-16 E6/E7 specific PCR amplification. At the nucleotide levet eleven variants of the E6 genes and nine variants of the E7 genes were identified as follows: E6 T178G (n=l1), E6 T178A (n=l), E6 T350G (n=3), E6 A442C (n=2), E6 AI04T, E6 All1G, E6 C116T, E6 G145T, E6 T183G, E6 C335T, E6 G522C and E7 A647G (n=12), E7 A645C, E7 A777C, E7 G663A, E7 T732C, E7 T760C, E7 A775T, E7 T789C and E7 T795G, respectively. At the amino acid levet the isolated HPV-16 E6 and E7 genes showed eleven E6 variants: E6 D25E (n=12), E6 L83V (n=4), E6 E113D (n=2), E6 MIL, E6 Q3R, E6 P5S, E6 Q14H, E6 D25N, E6 127R, E6 H78Y, E6 C140S and three E7 variants: N29S (n=12), L28F, T72S. HPV16 E6 L83V, the dominant variant in the Caucasian population, showed relatively low frequencies in our study population. We elucidated that the dominant HPV-16 E6/E7 variants were HPV-16 E6 D25E (63.2%) and HPV-16 E7 N29S (63.2%), which were phylogenetically included in Asian lineage. Further study is needed to evaluate the risk of cervical cancer related HPV-16 E6/E7 intratypic variants in the Korean population.
The Anticancer Effect and Mechanism of Photodynamic Therapy Using 9-Hydroxypheophorbide-a and 660 nm Diode Laser on Human Squamous Carcinoma Cell Line.
Ahn, Jin-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 770~780
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.770
A new photosensitizer, 9-Hydroxypheophorbide-a (9-HpbD-a), was derived from Spirulina platensis. We conducted a series of experiments, in vitro and in vivo, to evaluate the anticancer effect and mechanism of photodynamic therapy using 9-HpbD-a and 660 nm diode lasers on a squamous carcinoma cell line. We studied the cytotoxic effects of pheophytin-a, 9-HpbD-a, 9-HpbD-a red and 660 nm diode lasers in a human head and neck cancer cell line (SNU-1041). Cell growth inhibition was determined by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. The effects of 9-HpbD was higher than those of 9-HpbD-a red or pheophytin-a in PDT. We then tested the cytotoxic effects of 9-hydroxypheophorbide-a (9-HpbD-a) in vitro. The cultured SNU-I041 cells were treated with serial concentrations of 9-HpbD-a followed by various energy doses (0, 0.1, 0.5, 3.2 J/
) and by various interval times (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 hr) until laser irradiation, then MTT assay was applied to measure the relative inhibitory effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optimal laser irradiation time was 30 minutes and the cytotoxic effects according to incubation time after 9-HpbD-a treatment increased until 6 hours, after which it then showed no increase. To observe the cell death mechanism after PDT, SUN-I041 cells were stained by Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide after PDT, and observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principal mechanism of PDT at a low dose of 9-HpbD-a was apoptosis, and at a high dose of 9-HpbD-a it was necrosis. PDT effects were also observed in a xenografted nude mouse model. Group I (no 9-HpbD-a, no laser irradiation) and Group II (9-HpbD-a injection only) showed no response (4/4, 100%), and Group III (laser irradiation only) showed recurrence (1/4,25%) or no response (3/4, 75 %). Group IV (9-HpbD-a + laser irradiation) showed complete response (10/16, 62.5%), recurrence (4/16, 25%) or no response (2/16, 12.5%). Group IV showed a significant remission rate compared to other groups (p<0.05). These results suggest that 9-HpbD-a is a promising photosensitizer for the future and that further studies on biodistribution, toxicity and mechanism of action would be needed to use 9-HpbD-a as a photosensitizer in the clinical setting.
Characteristics and Preservation of the Plain Bread Added with Onion Juice.
Lee, Hee-Jung ; Jung, Sang-In ; Hwang, Yong-Il ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 781~786
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.781
The characteristics and preservation of plain bread with 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% of onion juice added were investigated during storage at room temperature. The weight, volume and specific volume of bread with added onion juice increased, compared to those of the control bread. The color value of bread when onion juice was added had lower values of lightness and higher values of redness and yellowness than those of the control bread. The pH was lower in the bread during storage, and it decreased with an increase of onion juice. Hardness was increased and water activity was decreased in the bread during storage. With an increment of onion juice, hardness was the lowest but water activity was the highest. The addition of onion juice also inhibited the growth of aerobic bacteria and mold on bread. Taste, flavor, surface, texture and overall acceptability by sensory evaluation were the best when 3% of onion juice was added, but there were no significant differences between it and 0% bread. The results imply that addition of onion juice into plain bread will create a healthy and functional bread with an extended shelf-life.
Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Jeju Coastal Sedimentary Layer and Characterization of Their Proteases.
Kim, Man-Chul ; Jang, Tae-Won ; Kim, Ju-Sang ; Han, Yong-Jae ; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy ; Han, Song-Hun ; Oh, Duck-Chul ; Heo, Moon-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 787~792
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.787
In this study, protease-producing bacteria were isolated from the marine sedimentary layer in coastal Jeju. We isolated 2 protease producing strains (SK-2 and SK-125) and tested their protesase producing activities. Gram staining and BIOLOG of isolated strains revealed that strains SK-2 and SK-125 belong to Bacillus and Pseudoalteromonas families, respectively. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences analyses of the isolated strains showed 99% sequence homology with those of Bacillus sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.; therefore, the isolated strains SK-2 and SK-125 were named Bacillus sp. SK-2 and Pseudoalteromonas sp. SK-125, respectively. The optimum conditions for the cell growth of protease activities were obtained when the both isolates were cultured at
, 96 hrs and pH
Genetic Polymorphisms of Candidate Loci and Inheritance Ppatterns of Gray Coat Color in Jeju Horses.
Han, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Chong-Eon ; Kim, Nam-Young ; Ko, Moon-Suck ; Jeong, Ha-Yeon ; Lee, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 793~798
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.793
This study was undertaken to reveal the relationship between genetic variations and inheritance patterns and the development of a systemic white coat color frequently observed in Jeju horses. It was determined that the white coat color occurred in all basic coat colored (black, bay and chestnut) horses by combining the phenotype and MC1R genotypes. There were no polymorphisms found in Jeju horses tested for mutational loci in the KIT gene, which were previously reported as potential mutations of the congenital dominant white coat color in other horse breeds in heterogeneity. The horses that had the 4.6-kb duplication in the STX17 intron 6 specifically showed the depigmented white coat color. Based on observation and STX17 genotypes, this depigmented whitening is defined as 'Chongma' (whitening, progressive graying with age-Gray) in Jeju horses. Pedigrees showed that this is an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern distinct from the bovine albinism caused by an autosomal recessive passion eye color. Because the gray phenotype is generally not completely expressed early in Jeju horses, it often makes them indistinguishable from other horses. Further studies are recommended for classification between the gray coat color and its similar phenotypes, such as the roan with its mixed hair colors appearing since neonatal period, acquired white hairs on wounded skin by veterinary treatment, and vitiligo-like skin pigmentation. However, study results revealing the relationship between the gray phenotype and genetic background suggested that useful information may be provided in regards to molecular breeding of Jeju horses.
Evaluation of Radiation-induced Apoptosis in Seminiferous Tubule of ICR Mouse after Gamma Irradiation.
Jang, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Joong-Sun ; Kim, Jong-Choon ; Kim, Sung-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 799~803
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.799
The killing of male germ cells by radiation and other toxicants has recently been attributed to apoptosis, but a critical evaluation of the presence of the different features of apoptosis in each epithelial stage has not been performed. In this study, mouse testes exposed to radiation were examined by light microscopy and terminal transferase-mediated end labeling (TUNEL) with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains to determine whether the cells were apoptotic according to several criteria. Apoptosis was easily recognized by the presence of peroxidase-stained, entirely apoptotic bodies. In the TUNEL-positive cells or bodies, the stained products correlated precisely with the typical morphologic characteristics of apoptosis as seen at the light microscopic level. The changes that occurred from 0 to 24 hours after exposing the mice to 2 Gy of gamma-rays (2 Gy/min) were examined. The numbers of apoptotic cells reached a peak at 12 hours after irradiation and then declined. The mice that received 0-8 Gy of gamma-rays were examined 8 hours after irradiation. Dose-response relationships were generated for each stage of the epithelial cycle by counting TUNEL-positive cells. The dose-response curves were linear- quadratic [y=(-0.014
0.697)D+0.3575. Where y=the number of apoptotic cells per seminiferous tubule, and D=the irradiation dose in Gy,
=0.9] and there was a significant relationship between the frequency of apoptotic cells and the radiation dose. Although the maximum response was produced by 8 Gy, even 0.5 Gy induced marked changes. These changes were most pronounced in B spermatogonia of stage V and the spermatocyte at the mitotic cells of stage XII.
Effects of 12 Weeks Regular Aerobic Training on Hepatic Enzyme in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients.
Kim, Young-II ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 804~808
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.804
The purpose of the this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise training on hepatic enzymes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The subjects consisted of 13 middle-aged male type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, all of whom had no other complications. Subjects participated in regular aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks, in which they started to exercise for
(exercise intensity was increased gradually), per day,
times a weeks. The results after 12 weeks were compared to baseline values. Weight and BMI, %body fat, and fasting glucose significantly decreased, and
, exercise time (ET) significantly increased after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in hepatic enzymes of Albumin, Total bilirubin, Alkaline phosphatate, AST, and ALT after training compared to baseline values. Conclusively, 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training may result in a decrease of insulin resistance factors (Weight, BMI, % body fat, fasting glucose) and an increase of aerobic capacity, but hepatic enzymes did not significantly decrease in middle age T2DM patients.
Construction and Verification of Useful Vectors for Ectopic Expression and Suppression of Plant Genes.
Lee, Young-Mi ; Seok, Hye-Yeon ; Park, Hee-Yeon ; Park, Ji-Im ; Han, Ji-Sung ; Bang, Tae-Sik ; Moon, Yong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 809~817
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.809
The phenotypes associated with a gene function are often the best clue to its role in the plant. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing or suppressing a gene can provide useful information related to the gene function. In this study, we constructed three vectors - pFGL571, pFGL846 and pFGL847 - for the Agrobacterium-mediated ectopic expression of plant genes using pPZP211 and modified CaMV 35S, UBQ3 or UBQ10 promoters. The three vectors have several merits such as small size, high copy in bacteria, enough restriction enzyme sites in multi cloning sites and nucleotide sequence information. Analysis of transgenic plants containing GUS or sGFP reporter genes under the control of modified CaMV 35S, UBQ3 or UBQI0 promoter revealed that all of the three promoters showed high activities during most developmental stages after germination and in floral organs. Furthermore, we generated a RNAi module vector, pFGL727, to suppress plant gene expressions and confirmed that pFGL727 is useful for the suppression of a gene expression using rice transgenic plants. Taken together, our new vectors would be very useful for the ectopic expression or the suppression of plant genes.
Effect of Aspirin on the Acute Lung Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion.
Park, Yoon-Yub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 818~824
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.818
The mechanisms responsible for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have direct or indirect relevance to clinical lung injury after severe shock, cardiopulmonary bypass, and transplantation. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on intestinal I/R-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in A549 and RAW264.7 cells. RAW264.7 macrophages had shown greater expression of COX-2 than A549 cells. In addition, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 attenuated LPS-stimulated COX-2 expression. To induce ALI, intestinal ischemia was performed for 60 min prior to the 4 hr reperfusion by clamping the superior mesenteric artery in Sprague-Dawley rats. In order to test and compare the effect of non-specific COX inhibitor aspirin with the effect of mepacrine, a well known phospholipase
inhibitor, rats were divided into 4 groups: Sham, I/R, Mepa+I/R (mepacrine, 60 mg/kg, i.p.), ASA+I/R (aspirin, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). In the present investigation, myeloperoxidase activities in the lung and intestinal tissues were increased by I/R. These changes were reduced by single pretreatment of mepacrine (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or aspirin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before I/R. Structural studies demonstrated that the tissue injuries in the lung and intestine after I/R were also attenuated by the pretreatment of mepacrine or aspirin. These results suggest that I/R-induced ALI is mediated, in part, by the activation of COX. In addition, pretreatment of aspirin might be helpful for the prevention of ALI in ARDS-prone patients. In addition, the p38 MAPK inhibitor and apocynin also might be helpful to ALI through the inhibition of COX-2 expression.
The Influences of Immune Function and Respiratory System on Aerobic Exercise by Exposed Acute Hypobaric Hypoxic Environment.
Lee, Dong-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 825~831
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.825
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of immune function and respiratory system on aerobic exercise of 75 %HRmax intensity in an exposed acute hypobaric hypoxic environment. The subjects were 20 male college students, 10 of which were soccer players (19.6
0.8 yr, BMI 22.3
1.0, V02max 56.5
4.8 mljkgjmin) and 10 general students (22.2
2.3 yr, BMI 22.7
6.6 ml/kg/min). Items of measurement after exercise on level and high altitude were
, ventilation (VE), respiratory frequency, respiratory quotient, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Hb, Hct, reticulocyte, WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, and immunoglobulin (IgA, IgD, IgG, IgM). As the result of the verifying hypothesis, these results may suggest three new findings: first, to produce hypoxic ventilatory depression not only at level land but also at 3,000 m high altitude during 30 minute aerobics exercise of 75 %HRmax intensity, second to be more excellent for soccer players in adaptation and sensibility on response of respiratory system at high altitude, and third, to change each other by regular exercise habits or altitude in the monocyte.
Factors Involved in Rooting Response of M.9 (Malus domestica Borkh.) Dwarf Apple Rootstock to Stem Etiolation.
Kwon, Soon-Il ; Kim, Mok-Jong ; Paek, Pong-Nyol ; Nam, Jong-Chul ; Choi, Cheol ; Kang, In-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 832~835
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.832
The main objective of this research was to improve rooting of M.9 apple rootstock through layering time, shading, layering material and water content of the layering part. Among the treatments, rooting was improved by mother plant shading or an earlier covering (layering in shoot length 2 cm) of shoots. Rooting and root growth of sawdust, chaff or vermiculite treatments were significantly higher than those of the control (soil). In the study of layering material water content, -40 kPa treatment increased rooting ratio, number of roots and root growth compared to -60 kPa treatment and control. These results suggest that early-covering, layering with sawdust, chaff, or vermiculite, and keeping the water content in the layering part at -40 kPa could improve rooting and root growth in M.9 rootstock propagation.
Study on tPA-mediated MMP Regulation in Rat Neuronal Cells.
Ko, Woon-Chul ; Lee, Sun-Ryung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 6, 2009, Pages 836~838
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.6.836
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is very useful for dissolving the clots of blood, however, the use of tPA is limited to only 3-5% of ischemic stroke patients because of the narrow therapeutic time windows and negative side effects. Previous evidences suggest that limitation of tPA in thrombolytic therapy may be related to the upregulation of MMPs. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanism. In this study, we examined the role of tPA on MMP upregulation in rat neuronal cells. tPA (5
/ml) increased MMP-9 levels of neuronal cells in a time dependent manner. Hypoxia/reoxygenation amplified tPA-induced MMP-9 levels significantly. Pretreatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced the MMP-9 response. These results suggest that tPA can upregulate MMPs in neuronal cells and that JNK kinase may be involved.