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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
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Phylogenetic Study of Genus Haliotis In Korea by Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence (ITS)
Huh, Man-Kyu ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Moon, Du-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1003~1008
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1003
Abalone (genus Haliotis) is a woody species with a long life span that is primarily distributed throughout the world, including Asia. This species is regarded as a very important marine gastropod mollusk in Korea and China, and also in food industries around the world. We evaluated a representative sample of the five species with nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) to estimate genetic relationships within the genus. Aligned nucleotide sequences of the length of the 5.8S subunit of all taxa of Haliotis were found to constant of 160 bp nucleotides. However, aligned nucleotide sequences of the length of ITS1 were varied within genus Haliotis, varying from 272 in H. diversicolor aquatilis to 292 in H. discus hannai. Aligned nucleotide sequences of the length of ITS2, especially, vary from 722 in H. diversicolor aquatilis to 752 in H. sieboldii. Total alignment length is 763 positions, of which 78 are parsimony-informative, 57 variable but parsimony-uninformative, and 459 constant characters. H. discus hannai was similar to H. discus, while H. diversicolor aquatilis was more distinct. ITS analysis may be useful in germ-plasm classification several taxa of genus Haliotis.
In vitro Anti-proliferative Characteristics of Flavonoids and Diazepam on MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells
Kim, Ji-Kwan ; Lee, Maan-Gee ; Lee, Jae-Tae ; Ha, Jeoung-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1009~1015
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1009
The beneficial use of sedatives is often required for medically ill patients. This study examined the effect of plant flavonoids and diazepam peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) activation and glucose utilization in breast cancer cells, along with their interactions. In estrogen receptor negative MDA-MB-231 cells, the anti-proliferative activity of fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) and diazepam was more prominent than in estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 cells. Unlike PBR ligands, treatment with
M concentration of diazepam for 3 days exhibited anti-proliferative effects, while similar to apigenin (4',5,7-Trihydroxyflavone) and fisetin, diazepam hardly affected the PBR mRNA expression by MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with
M concentration of flavonoids and diazepam for 3 days inhibited the glucose utilization of MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment with
M concentration of flavonoids and diazepam for 6 days showed increased cytotoxicity and reduced the PBR mRNA expression of the MDA-MB-231 cells. Apigenin enhanced diazepam-induced anti-proliferative effects on the MDA-MB-231 cells as well. All together, this study showed the in vitro anti-proliferative activity of flavonoids and diazepam on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, plus additive enhancements. In conclusion, this study provides experimental basis for advanced trials in the future.
Ultrastructural Study of Programmed Cell Death of Tapetum In Panax ginseng
Jeong, Byung-Kap ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1016~1022
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1016
Tapetum is the tissue in which nutrients are supplied to the developing microspore in angiosperm anther. At tetrad stage of microspore, the tapetal cells show maximum development, but they began to be degenerated by apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD) after sporopollenin accumulation in the pollen wall. The initial step of PCD was observed as vacuolar fusion. After that, cytoplasmic condensation and nuclear fragmentation followed. Lipid droplets are degenerated at a relatively late stage of PCD, and orbicular bodies are the last remains in tapetal cells. The cell wall was relatively resistant against vacuolar enzymes in tapetal cells; it was considered the last structure remaining during programmed cell death of tapetum in ginseng anther.
Quercetin Sensitizes Human Leukemic Cells to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis: Involvement of DNA-PK/Akt Signal Transduction Pathway
Park, Jun-Ik ; Kim, Mi-Ju ; Kim, Hak-Bong ; Bae, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Jea-Won ; Park, Soo-Jung ; Kim, Dong-Wan ; Kang, Chi-Dug ; Kim, Sun-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1023~1032
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1023
Despite the fact that many cancer cells are sensitive to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, some cancer cells show either partial or complete resistance to TRAIL. Human leukemic K562 and CEM cells also show resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Novel molecular target and treatment strategies are required to overcome TRAIL resistance of human leukemia cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to target key anti-apoptotic molecules deciding TRAIL resistance for sensitization of TRAIL-resistant K562 and CEM cells, and to evaluate the effect of quercetin as a TRAIL sensitizer on these TRAIL-resistant cells. We found that quercetin acted in synergy with TRAIL to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in K562 cells by inhibition of the DNA-PK/Akt signaling pathway, which leads to enhancement of TRAIL-mediated activation of caspases and concurrent cleavage of PARP and up-regulation of Bax. The findings suggest that the DNA-PK/Akt signaling pathway plays an essential role in regulating cells to escape from TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and quercetin could act in synergy with TRAIL to increase apoptosis by inhibition of the DNA-PK/Akt signaling pathway, which overcomes TRAIL-resistance of K562 and CEM cells. This study suggests that DNA-PK might interfere with TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human leukemic cells through activation of the Akt signaling pathway.
The Effect of Potassium Phosphate as a pH Stabilizer on the Production of Gellan by Sphingomonas paucibilis NK-2000
Lee, Nam-Kyu ; Jo, Young-Bae ; Jin, Il-Hyuck ; Son, Chang-Woo ; Lee, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1033~1038
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1033
Maximal productions of gellan by Sphingomnas paucibilis NK2000 from 20 g/l glucose and 10 g/l soybean pomace were 7.46 g/l in a flask and 7.35 g/l in a 7 l bioreactor, when the initial pH of media was 6.8. Maximal production of gellan in a 7 l bioreactor under pH control by sodium hydroxide was 8.42 g/l, whereas that under control by potassium phosphate was 8.50 g/l. The optimal concentration of potassium phosphate in a medium for production of gellan by S. paucibilis NK2000 was found to be 5.0 g/l. Maximal production of gellan in a medium containing 5.0 g/l potassium phosphate without pH control was 8.93 g/l in a 7 l bioreactor. In this study, a simple process without pH control was developed to enhance the production of gellan, with optimized concentration of potassium phosphate in the medium.
High Yield Bacterial Expression and Purification of Active Cytochrome P450 p-coumarate-3-hydroxylase (C3H), the Arabidopsis Membrane Protein
Yang, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Wan-Yeon ; Yun, Young-Ju ; Yoon, Ji-Won ; Kwon, Tae-Woo ; Youn, Hye-Sook ; Youn, Bu-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1039~1046
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1039
The cytochrome P450s (P450s) metabolizing natural products are among the most versatile biological catalysts known in plants, but knowledge of the structural basis for their broad substrate specificity has been limited. The activity of p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) is thought to be essential for the biosynthesis of lignin and many other phenylpropanoid pathway products in plants however, all attempts to express and purify the protein corresponding C3H gene have failed. As a result, no conditions suitable for the unambiguous assay of the enzyme are known. The detailed understanding of the mechanism and substrate-specificity of C3Hdemands a method for the production of active protein on the milligram scale. We have developed a bacterial expression and purification system for the plant C3H, which allows for the quick expression and purification of active wild-type C3H via introduction of combinational mutagenesis. The modified cytochrome P450 C3H (
) could be purified in the absence of detergent using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography following extraction from isolated membranes in a high salt buffer and catalytically activated. This method makes the use of isotopic labeling of C3H for NMRstudies and X-ray crystallography practical, and is also applicable to other plant cytochrome P450 proteins.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin A Induces Apoptosis in Chemoresistant YD-9 Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell Line Via Accumulation of p53 and Activation of Caspases
Kim, Gyoo-Cheon ; Gil, Young-Gi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1047~1054
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1047
Oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) cells present resistance to chemotherapeutic agents-mediated apoptosis in the late stages of malignancy. Advances in the understanding of bacterial toxins have produced new strategies for the treatment of cancers. It was demonstrated here that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PEA) significantly decreased the viability of chemoresistant YD-9 cells in the apoptosis mechanism. Apoptotic manifestations were evident through changes in nuclear morphology and generation of DNA fragmentation. PEA treatment induced caspase-3, -6 and -9 cleavage, and activation. These events preceded proteolysis of the caspase substrates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45), and lamin A in YD-9 cells. The reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and SmacjDlABLO from mitochondria to cytosol, andtranslocation of AlF into nucleus were shown. While p53, p21 and
were upregulated, cyclin Band cdc2 were downregulated by PEA treatment. Taken together, PEA induces apoptosis in chemoresistant YD-9 cells via activation of caspases, mitochondrial events and regulation of cell cycle genes.
Glutamate Receptor-interacting Protein 1 Protein Binds to the Armadillo Family Protein p0071/plakophilin-4 in Brain
Moon, Il-Soo ; Seog, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1055~1061
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1055
-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors are widespread throughout the central nervous system and appear to serve as synaptic receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by glutamate. Their modulation is believed to affect learning and memory. To identify the interaction proteins for the AMPA receptor subunit glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIPl), GRIP1 interactions with armadillo family protein p0071/plakophilin-4 were investigated. GRIP1 protein bound to the tail region of p0071/plakophilin-4 but not to other armadillo family protein members in a yeast two-hybrid assay. The "S-X-V" motif at the carboxyl (C)-terminal end of p0071/plakophilin-4 is essential for interaction with GRIP1. p0071/plakophilin-4 interacted with the Postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/Zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domains of GRIPI in the yeast two-hybrid assay, as is indicated also by Glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitated with GRIP1 antibody in brain fraction. The findings of this study provide evidence that p0071/plakophilin-4 is an interactor of GRIP1.
Protrusion of N-acetylglucosamine Kinase Clusters into the Base of Excitatory Synapses
Moon, Il-Soo ; Cho, Sun-Jung ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Seog, Dae-Hyun ; Walikonis, Randall ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1062~1066
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1062
N-Acetylglucosamine kinase (GlcNAc kinase or NAGK; EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the phosphorylation of GlcNAc to GlcNAc-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P). Despite detailed characterization of the enzyme itself, there have been few studies on the expression of NAGK in mammalian tissues. In the rat hippocampal neuron in culture, NAGK-immunoreactivity (IR) formed clusters in somatodendritic domains. In this study we characterized the NAGK clusters that protrude out the long axis of dendritic shafts. By double-labeling of the neurons with antibodies against NAGK and various synaptic proteins, we show that NAGK is positioned at the base of spines, while there were no NAGK protrusions into inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Immunoblot analysis showed that NAGK was included in synaptosomes but not in PSD fractions. Our results indicate that the NAGK clusters at the dendritic periphery protrude into spines.
Expression of Stromal Derived Factor-1 is Upregulated In Macrophages during Thymic Regeneration in Adult Rat
Park, Hyun-Joo ; Kim, Jong-Gab ; Yoon, Sik ; Bae, Moon-Kyoung ; Bae, Soo-Kyung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1067~1072
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1067
Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12), one of the CXC chemokines, is widely expressed in many tissues, including the thymus. The thymus can regenerate to its normal mass within 14 days after acute involution induced by cyclophosphamide (CY) in adult rats. Despite the established role of SDF-1 signaling in the development of T and B lymphocytes in the thymus, it has not yet been associated with the regeneration of the adult thymus. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SDF-1, which is expressed in thymic stromal cells, is modulated during thymic regeneration in adult rats. Here, we showed that SDF-1 mRNAs were expressed in high levels in the thymocyte and thymic stromal cells at day 7 of the CY model. SDF-1 protein was shown to be present at the cortex-medulla junction, paraseptum and within the thymic medulla. Double-immunofluorescence for SDF-1 and ED-1 showed that strong SDF-1 expression was detected in the macrophages of the medulla region displaying immunoreactivity for ED-1 during thymus regeneration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SDF-1 expression increased in regenerating thymic macrophages, suggesting the roles of SDF-1 as a chemo-attractant for damaged cells produced in the process of thymic regeneration after acute involution induced by CY.
Combined Treatment of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Genistein Synergistically Induces Apoptosis via Induction of NAG-1 in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells
Kim, Cho-Hee ; Kim, Min-Young ; Lee, Su-Yeon ; Moon, Ji-Young ; Han, Song-Iy ; Park, Hye-Gyeong ; Kang, Ho-Sung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1073~1080
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1073
A number of studies have demonstrated that the regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce the risks of colorectal, oesophageal and lung cancers. NSAIDs have been shown to exert their anti-cancer effects through inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. The susceptibility of tumor cells to anti-tumor drug-induced apoptosis appears to depend on the balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic programs such as nuclear factor kB (NF-kB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways. We examined the effects of pro-survival PI3K and ERK1/2 signal pathways on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to NSAIDs including sulindac sulfide and NS398. We show that simultaneous inhibition of the Akt/PKB and ERK1/2 signal cascades could synergistically enhance the potential pro-apoptotic activities of sulindac sulfide and NS398. Similar enhancement was observed in cells treated with sulindac sulfide or NS398 and 100
M genistein, an inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that are upstream of PI3K and MEK1/2 signaling. We further demonstrate that NAG-1 is induced and plays a critical role(s) in apoptosis by NSAIDs-based combined treatment. In sum, our results show that combinatorialtreatment of sulindac sulfide or NS398 and genistein results in a highlysynergistic induction of apoptotic cell death to increase the chemopreventive effects of the NSAIDs, sulindac sulfide and NS398.
Effects of Feeding Citrus Peels on Nutritional Composition of Chicken Meat
Jung, In-Chul ; Moon, Yoon-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1081~1087
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1081
In this study, the effects of feeding citrus peel on the nutritional composition of chicken meat were investigated. The samples consisted of chicken meats provided with only feed for laying hens without citrus peel (CP-0), and chicken meats fed with 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% citrus peel during the starter (initial period feed; 1
9th day), the grower (middle period feed; 10
24th day), and the finisher (latter period feed; 25
36th day), respectively. There was no significant difference between CP-0 and CP-1 regardless of feeding citrus peel in terms of chicken's moisture, protein, fat, ash or caloric content. The cholesterol content was significantly lower in the CP-1 chicken meats than in the CP-0 chicken meats (p<0.05). The K P and Ca contents were significantly higher in the CP-1 chicken meats than in the CP-0 chicken meats (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences between CP-0 and CP-1, regardless of feeding citrus peet in terms of chicken meat's Na and Mg. There were no significant differences between CP-o and CP-1 regardless of feeding citrus peet in terms of chicken meat's vitamin A, xanthophyll,
-carotene, hesperidin or naringin, but vitamins
were significantly higher in the CP-1 chicken meats than in the CP-0 chicken meats (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between CP-0 and CP-1 regardless of feeding citrus peet in terms of chicken meat's amino acid composition - most of free amino acids and fatty acid composition - but L-glutamic acid was significantly higher in the CP-0 chicken meats than in the CP-1 chicken meats, and the DL-
-amino isobutyric acid was significantly higher in the CP-1 chicken meats than in the CP-0 chicken meats (p<0.05).
An Estimated Value and Change in TDF Binding Major Minerals of Soybean Sprouts Depending on Cultivation Days and Parts
Eun, Jeong-Hwa ; Eum, Ji-Hye ; Kim, Dae-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1088~1092
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1088
This study was conducted to determine an estimated value and change in TDF (total dietary fiber) binding major minerals (Ca, P, K Mg) of soybean sprouts depending on cultivation periods of 1, 3 or 5 days, and parts of cotyledon and hypocotyl. The compositions of TDF binding major minerals in soybean sprouts were evaluated by the enzymatic-gravimetric method developed by Prosky and adopted by AOAC. The content of TDF binding P ranged between 915.28 mg and 1037.82 mg per 100 g cotyledon. Average contents of Ca, K, and Mg in cotyledon ranged between 541.67 mg and 634.34 mg, 180.91 mg and 253.98 mg, 231.90 mg and 301.01 mg, respectively, on dry matter basis. The average contents of TDF binding Ca in hypocotyl per 100 g were between 454.36 mg and 540.33 mg, and other major minerals contents were between 149.24 mg and 186.21 mg for P, 164.17 mg and 182.78 mg for K, and 152.53 mg and 161.22 mg for Mg, respectively. The proportional changes of Ca, an estimated value in cotyledon, ranged between 5.58% and 30.98%, 47.18% and 59.10% for P, 95.24% and 95.50% for K, and 58.45% and 68.64% for Mg, respectively, based on dry matter. An estimated value of Ca, P, K, and Mg in hypocotyl ranged between 6.71% and 13.52%, 91.03% and 91.76%, 96.91% and 98.92%, and 61.03% and 66.37%, respectively, on dry matter basis.
Effects of Ballet Program Training of Royal Academy of Dance on Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in College Women
Kim, Jong-Won ; Lee, Mi-Ran ; Lee, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Choi, Mun-Ki ; Kim, Do-Yeon ; Kim, Tae-Un ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1093~1103
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1093
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of ballet program training at the Royal Academy of dance (RAD) on body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF) and bone mineral density (BMD) in college women. The subjects for this study were 14 females aged 19 to 22, who were divided into the Experimental group (n=7, EG) and the Control group (n=7, CG). The RAD ballet program training was done by 7 subjects (EG), 60 minutes per day, three times a week for 12 weeks. The TBF and %fat significantly decreased and LBM increased in the Experimental group, but all the variables of Body composition in the Control group did not significantly changed. The AMS, Sit ups, STF, SLJ CFB and 1,200 m R & W in the EG significantly increased, but 1,200 m R & W in the CG decreased. The lumbar vertebra (LV), femoral neck (FN), greater trochanter (GT) and ward's triangle (WT) did not significantly change in the EG, but LV, GT and WT in the CG decreased. There was no significant difference in osteopenia for EG, but there were increases in GT and WT for the CG. There was significant correlation between BMDs and body weight, TBF, LBM, %fat, BMI, AMS. There was significant correlation between LV and FN and LV and whole body. In conclusion, regular and continuous RAD training was effective in improving the body composition, physical fitness and bone mineral density. Consequently, RAD training will be effective for preventing osteopenia and osteoporosis, and for improving the health-related fitness for college and middle-aged women.
The Effects of Medicinal Herb-made Sikhe on Damage and Lipid Levels of Liver in Rats Fed High-cholesterol Diets
Park, Hyun-Suk ; Yang, Kyung-Chun ; Yang, Kyung-Mi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1104~1111
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1104
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Sikhe made by medicinal herb on the functional level of liver. Water extract I (12.9% W/W) and II (25.8% W/W) were obtained from medicinal materials: Caragana Sinica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Atractylodes rhizoma alba, Atractylodes rhizoma alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Paeonia lactiflora Pasll., Hordeum vulgare Linne, Oryza sativa Linne, ginger, peer and jujube. Experimental groups were divided into the control diet group (C), high fat diet group (HF), high fat diet treated with 5% extract I group (HFE I ) and high fat diet treated with 5% extract II group (HFE II). In sensory evaluation, overall quality scores associated with color, aroma, flavor and taste were significantly higher in water extract II than in water extract 1. After investigating functional and lipid levels of livers in rats, we found that the administration of water extract I or water extract II to the high fat diet group (HF) did not affect the gain of body weight but mildly reduced GOT or GPT activity in the high diet group. Moreover, administration of these medicinal herbal extracts significantly decreased the levels of total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol in the high fat diet group (HF). However, administration of these medicinal herbal extracts did not affect the level of phospholipid. In conclusion, as Sikhe made by medicinal herb slightly decreased the activity of GOT or GPT and amount of lipid in liver, prevention against high fat diet is thought to be important for liver protection.
Effect of Muddy Water on the Fishes in Imha Reservoir
Shin, Myung-Ja ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Seo, Eul-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1112~1118
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1112
In the present study, the effects of muddy water were compared and examined on the fish inhabiting Imha reservoir, E. erythropterus, H. labeo and Z. platypus in Cypriniformes, S. asotus in Siluriformes and S. scherzeri in Perciformes. In the gills of fish in muddy water, the secondary lamellae of fish in Cypriniformes showed more irregular gaps and more winding than those in Siluriformes and Perciformes. Also, the edema and detachment of epithelial cells was more detected in the gills in Cypriniformes, but clubbing was frequently detected in Perciformes and Siluriformes. Also, we found that muddy debris and minute particles attached to lamellae were frequently detected in Perciformes and Cypriniformes. The glomerulus in the kidney was much more constricted in Z. platypus in Cypriniformes. As a result, it is proposed that fish in Cypriniformes are more affected by muddy water. In the changes of blood components, which might be affected by muddy water, the concentrations of TP, ALB, TG, CHOL and A/G ratio, were high in Cypriniformes, and inorganic matters were abundant in Siluriformes. In addition, AST activity was relatively higher than ALT and both activities were higher in Cypriniformes than in Siluriformes. Taken together, the change in blood plasma may be caused by the reduction in voracity in the wake of muddy water, which results in tissue damage.
The Involvement of p38 MAPK and JNK Activation in Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes
Bae, Chun-Sik ; Park, Soo-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1119~1124
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1119
Hyperlipidemia has been reported to be associated with the development of fatty liver. Palmitic acid, a major saturated fatty acid, is involved in the development of diverse diseases. The activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as Jun N-terminal kinase (INKs) and p38 MAPK is implicated in the apoptosis in diverse cells. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of palmitic acid on apoptosis and its relationship between JNK and p38 MAPK in cultured rat hepatocytes. In the present study, palmitic acid (>50 uM) decreased cell proliferation and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in hepatocytes, which was blocked by the treatment of SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). Indeed, palmitic acid decreased Bcl-2 expression but increased Bax expression in rat hepatocytes, which was blocked by the treatment of SP600125 and SB203580. In addition, palmitic acid decreased glutathione (GSH) content and increased lipid peroxide formation, which was blocked by the treatment of SP600125 and SB203580. Western immunoblotting analysis also revealed that palmitic acid increased JNK and p38 MAPK. In conclusion, palmitic acid induced apoptosis through oxidative stress via JNK and p38 MAPK activation in rat hepatocytes.
Purification and Identification of Phenol Compounds with Inhibitory Activity on Helicobacter pylori from Rhododendron mucronulatum Flos. Extracts
Ju, In-Sik ; Cho, Young-Je ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1125~1131
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1125
The antimicrobial activities of Helicobacter pylori as a functional food source with water and 60% ethanol extracts from Rododendron mucronulatum Turcz. flowers were examined. The total phenol content of 60% ethanol extracts (30.6
0.14 mg/g) from Rododendron mucronulatum Turcz. flowers was higher than that of water extracts (23.2
0.21 mg/g). The inhibitory activities of Rododendron mucronulatum Turcz. extracts on H. pylori was determined to clear zone of 15 mm in 80% ethanol extracts. Purification of inhibitory compounds was carried out in Sephadex LH-20 and MCI-gel CHP-20 column chromatography using a gradient procedure, with increasing ethanol(0
. The chemical structure of the purified inhibitory compounds of H. pylori was identified to be quercitrin (quercetin-3-O- rhamnopyranoside), myricitrin (myricetin-3-O-rhamnopyranoside), quercetin by FAB-MS, NMR and IR spectra.
The Physicochemical Stabilities and Biological Activities of Pigment Extract from Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas psicida TA20
Park, Jin-Sook ; Jeong, Dong-Woo ; Kang, Myung-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1132~1138
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1132
We investigated the physicochemical stabilities and biological activities of ethanol- extracted pigment from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas psicida TA20. This bacterial pigment was very stable at a pH range of between 4.0 and 8.0 at a temperature below
. In the presence of light, the pigment was also very stable, showing more than 90 percent remaining absorbance during 14 days at
. The stability of the pigment, when metal ions were present, showed higher stability in all examined metal ions except for
, especially in the presence of
. This pigment showed higher stability than other pigment extracts reported. The pigment has free-radical scavenging (3,495
) activity and 44% antioxidant protective effect against DNA damage of human lymphocyte cells at a concentration of 10
. The results indicate that the bacterial pigment produced a significant reduction in oxidative DNA damage. The pigment also showed antimicrobial activity against major food poisoning bacteria. Therefore, these results suggest that this bacterial pigment could be used as a natural colorant in the food industry, having the advantages of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
Effect of TIBA on the Brassiolide-induced Gravitropic Response in the Primary Roots of Maize
Kang, Byung-Hee ; Park, Jea-Hye ; Kim, Jong-Sik ; Jang, Soo-Chul ; Kim, Seung-Ki ; Kim, Soon-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1139~1144
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1139
It has been known that brassiolide (BL) increased the positive gravitropic response and ethylene production in maize roots. This study examined the relationship between the BL-induced gravitropic response and ethylene Production. The ethylene production was inhibited to about 90% of the control by the treatment of
M aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), the ethylene synthesis inhibitor. However, the gravitropic response did not show any significant changes compared to the control at
M AVG. In the case of treatment of AVG with BL, the ethylene production decreased to 60% of the control. However, the gravitropic response increased to the level which was induced by BL. Cobalt ions, another ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited ethylene production, but not gravitropic response. When roots were treated with BL and cobalt ions, they showed the inhibition of ethylene production and promotion of gravitropic response. To elucidate the possibility that the effect of BL is related to auxin transport, roots were treated with TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid), an auxin transport inhibitor. Both treatment of TIBA alone and TIBA with BL stimulated ethylene production to about 96% and 132%, respectively. However, gravitropic response was completely inhibited in both treatments. Further, roots treated with BL in the presence of TIBA and IAA showed a negative gravitropic response, which means that IAA accumulates in the upper side of horizontal roots. Root elongation was also stimulated in this treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that BL might affect the differential distribution of internal IAA on roots, causing the regulation of positive gravitropic response.
Effects of Sasa coreana Nakai on the Lipid Compositions of Serum in High Cholesterol Diet Rats
Park, Jong-Ok ; Jang, Hye-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1145~1151
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1145
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Sineui-Dae (Sasa coreana Nakai, a kind of bamboo) extracts on the improvement of serum lipid composition by using rats fed a hypercholesterol diet for 4 weeks. The experiment animals were administered with the following diets; high cholesterol diet group (HC diet) as a control and three supplemented groups with high cholesterol diets (HCW, HCM or HCH diet). Three kinds of extracts were prepared by orderly extraction with hexane, methanol, and water. We measured free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, total cholesterol LDL- and HDL-cholesterol triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum of rats in three experimental and control groups. There were no significant differences in body weights and feed intakes between the HC control group and the extract supplemented groups. The levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in the serum of extract supplemented groups were lower than that of the group fed with HC diet only. Serum HDL-cholesterol levet which is known as an antiatherosclerosis factor, was higher in all groups supplemented with bamboo extract by 17.2-21.9% compared to the HC control group. All groups supplemented with bamboo extracts showed the lowering effect of atherogenic index compared to the HC control group (HC group: 2.96
0.08, HCM group: 1.48
0.02, HCW group: 1.69
0.04, HCH group: 1.84
0.01). Furthermore, serum triglyceride and phospholipid decreased significantly in the HCM diet compared to the HC control diet. These results suggest that Sineui-Dae bamboo extract, especially methanol extract, has improving effects on hyperlipidemia of rats fed a high cholesterol diet.
The Toxicological Pathologic Study of Amanita muscaria in Sprague-Dawley Rat
Kim, Jin ; Kim, Hyeong-Jin ; Kim, So-Jung ; Kim, Byeong-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Ki ; Park, Byung-Kwon ; Park, Young-Seok ; Cho, Sung-Dae ; Jung, Ji-Won ; Nam, Jeong-Seok ; Choi, Chang-Sun ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Jung, Ji-Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1152~1158
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1152
For the toxicological pathologic study of amanita muscaria, we have investigated single and repeated dose toxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Single dose toxicity study was identified as catalepsy, incline and tail pinch methods (control 0 mg/kg, low 3.3 mg/kg, middle 16.5 mg/kg, high 33.0 mg/kg). Repeated dose toxicity study was carried out in blood tests, serum tests and histopathological methods. Neurotoxicity - muscle paralysis, and convulsion and loss of movement - was observed at 33.0 mg/kg group in the single dose toxicity study. Dysfunction of liver and kidney were shown in the repeated oral administration of the amanita muscaria at 3
4 weeks. Serum chemistry results revealed a marked increase of LDH [Lactate Dehydrogenase (3181.5 IU/L; normal 230-460 IU/l)], ALT [Alanine transaminase (124.0 IU/l; normal <40 IU/l)] but the kidney was normal. Histopathological results show interstitial edema and tubular epithelial necrosis in the kidney. These results suggest that amanita muscaria has a neurotoxic effect and causes dysfunction of liver and kidney in the SD rat.
In Silico Analysis of Gene Function and Transcriptional Regulators Associated with Endoplasmic Recticulum (ER) Stress
Kim, Tae-Min ; Yeo, Ji-Young ; Park, Chan-Sun ; Rhee, Moon-Soo ; Jung, Myeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1159~1163
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1159
It has been postulated that endoplasmic (ER) stress is involved in the development of several diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms have not been fully understood. Therefore, we characterized a genetic network of genes induced by ER stress using cDNA microarray and gene set expression coherence analysis (GSECA), and identified gene function as well as several transcription regulators associated with ER stress. We analyzed time-dependent gene expression profiles in thapsigargin-treated Sk-Hep1 using an oligonucleotide expression chip, and then selected functional gene sets with significantly high expression coherence which was processed into functional clusters according to the expression similarities. The functions related to sugar binding, lysosome, ribosomal protein, ER lumen, and ER to golgi transport increased, whereas the functions with mRNA processing, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell cycle, electron transport chain and helicase activity decreased. Furthermore, functional clusters were investigated for the enrichment of regulatory motifs using GSECA, and several transcriptional regulators associated with regulation of ER-induced gene expression were found.
5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine Inhibits the Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cell in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer
Nho, Kyoung-Jin ; Yang, In-Sook ; Kim, Ran-Ju ; Kim, Soo-Rim ; Park, Jeong-Ran ; Jung, Ji-Youn ; Cho, Sung-Dae ; Nam, Jeong-Seok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1164~1169
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1164
Aberrant DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of cancer. It has been reported recently that DNA hypermethylation is involved in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA), can inhibit the potential for maintenance of cancer stem cells. To validate this hypothesis, we used 4T1 syngeneic mouse models of breast cancer. The AZA pre-treated 4T1 cells showed a dramatic inhibition of tumorsphere formation, compared to their counterparts in vitro. In addition, the AZA treatment significantly suppressed the expression of stem regulator genes, such as oct-4, nanog and sox2, compared to counterparts in vivo. Therefore, selective inhibition of DNA methylation may be useful for stem-specific cancer therapy.
Comparison of Serological and Virological Analysis for Infection Patterns of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus to Establish a Farm Level Control Strategy
Kim, Seong-Hee ; Lee, Chang-Hee ; Park, Choi-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1170~1176
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1170
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has plagued pig populations worldwide causing severe economical impacts. In order to establish effective strategies for prevention of PRRS, infection patterns on the herd level are primarily evaluated. In the present study, therefore, serological and virological analyses were conducted in 20 pig farms suffering from PRRS. Seroprevalence levels in each farm were grouped into 3 patterns: SN (Stable sow groups/Not infected piglet groups, SI (Stable sow groups and Infected piglet groups), and UI (Unstable sow groups and Infected piglet groups). The rates of each serological pattern were 15% (n=3), 10% (n=2), and 75% (n=15), respectively. In addition, the pattern analysis was extended to virological monitoring on the same farms that further included suckling pig groups. As a result, the infection pattern was classified into 4 categories: SNI (Stable sow groups/Not infected suckler groups/Infected piglet groups), SII (Stable sow groups/Infected suckler groups/Infected piglet groups), UNI (Unstable sow groups/Not infected suckler groups/Infected piglet groups), and UII (Unstable sow groups/Infected suckler groups/Infected piglet groups). The rates of each viroprevalence were estimated at 50% (n=10), 30% (n=6), 10% (n=2), and 10% (n=2), respectively. PRRSV viroprevalence results of suckling pig groups revealed that 8 farms were considered virus positive. In 2 farms among these farms, PRRSV appeared to be transmitted vertically to suckling piglets from their sows. In contrast, piglet-to-piglet horizontal transmission of PRRSV seemed to occur in sucking herds of the remaining farms. Thus, this virological analysis on suckling piglets will provide useful information to understand PRRSV transmission routes during the suckling period and to improve a PRRS control programs. Our seroprevalence and viroprevalence data found that infection patterns between sow and piglet groups are not always coincident in the same farm. Remarkably, 15 farms belonging to the UI seroprevalence pattern showed four distinct viroprevalence patterns (SNI; 7, SII; 4, UNI; 2 and UII; 2). Among these farms, 11 farms with unstable seroprevalence sow groups were further identified as the stable viroprevalence pattern. These results indicated that despite the absence of typical seroconversion, PRRSV infection was detected in several farms, implying the limitation of serological analysis. Taken together, our data strongly suggests that both seroprevalence and viroprevalence should be determined in parallel so that a PRRS control strategies can be efficiently developed on a farm level.
Isolation and Characterization of Plant Pathogen that Cause Soft Rot Disease in Napa Cabbage
Kwon, Young-Hee ; Yoo, Ah-Young ; Yu, Jong-Earn ; Kang, Ho-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 8, 2009, Pages 1177~1182
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.8.1177
In order to establish in vitro infection model for research of plant pathogen based on tissue softening disease in napa cabbage, eighty independent bacterial strains were isolated from the softened napa cabbage tissues. Eight bacterial isolates were primarily screened with the generation of reproducible tissue softening disease to fresh napa cabbages within 24
48 hours after inoculation. Through various microbiological biochemical and morphological examinations, three Gram (-) isolates which harbor independent biological properties were finally chosen, and named as RBI, RB2 and RB6. Collective results obtained from API 20E test and analyses of VITEK 2 COMPACT and nucleotide sequences of 165 rRNA of each isolate proposed that isolates RBI and RB2 are close to the Erwinia carotovora subsp. odorifera, and RB6 is close to the Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. These isolates grew optimally at
with neutral pH culture condition. The isolates caused softening tissue disease with dose-dependent manner regardless of pre-surface damages of napa cabbage. Minimum dose to cause soft rot disease for RBI, RB2 or RB6 were
CFU/ml respectively. These isolates caused tissue softening disease to eggplant, paprika and napa cabbage out of 14 different tested vegetables, indicating that these isolates damages specific plant tissues. The bacterial isolates obtained in this research and in vitro plant infection model will be adapted in the understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis by plant pathogen.