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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2009
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2009
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2009
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2009
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2009
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2009
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
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Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Spiraea prunifolia for. simpliciflora by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats
Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1183~1189
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1183
85 individual Spiraea prunifolia for. simpliciflora (Rosaceae) were sampled to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of S. prunifolia for. simpliciflora populations. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) produced 65 polymorphic loci and identified 78 ISSR genotypes. Three multilocus genotypes were shared by more than one plant within a population. Total genetic diversity values (
) and inter-locus variation in the within-population genetic diversity (
) were 0.293 and 0.183, respectively. On a per-locus basis, the proportion of total genetic variation due to differences among populations (
) was 0.373. This indicated that about 37.3% of the total variation was among populations. ISSR markers are very effective in classifying natural population levels of S. prunifolia for. simpliciflora in Korea. In addition, insights into the relative gene diversity among and within populations of S. prunifolia for. simpliciflora would be useful in plant breeding and also for the development of strategies for ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources.
Differences of Wood Vinegar Ingestion and Exercise Training on Blood Lipids, MDA, and SOD Activities in Rats
Kang, Jong-Suk ; Kim, Sea-Hyun ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Lee, Dong-Woon ; Ryu, Sung-Pil ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1190~1199
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1190
The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of exercise training and oak tree wood vinegar ingestion on the blood lipids and antioxidant activities of rats. The subjects were 28 Sprague Dawley male rats, and they were assigned into four groups (n=7, respectively): the control group (CON), the exercise group (EXE), the vinegar ingestion group (VIN), and the vinegar ingestion and exercise training group (VINEXE). The diet was based on high fat and oral administration of oak tree wood vinegar. The rats that were not given oak tree wood vinegar were given the same amount of distilled water orally in order to maintain the same level of stress. They were exercise trained on motor-driven treadmills during a four-week session. Weight changes in the VINEXE were significantly inhibited in the later period of exercise, when compared to the CON (p<0.05). Fat increase was significantly suppressed in VIN and EXE (p<0.05), and a synergistic effect was discovered in the VINEXE (p<0.05). Glucose and ammonia levels were significantly reduced in the EXE, VIN, and VINEXE compared to the CON (p<0.05). In blood lipids, TC and LDL-C were significantly enhanced in the EXE, VIN, and VINEXE compared to the CON (p<0.05), while HDL-C was significantly improved in the EXE and VINEXE (p<0.05). Liver MDA contents showed significant changes in each group (p<0.05), and SOD activities were significantly enhanced in the VIN and the VINEXE when compared to other groups (p<0.05). Therefore, oak tree wood vinegar ingestion with exercise training for four weeks may result in inhibition of weight gain, improvement of blood lipids, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, contributing to health promotion.
Anti-invasive Activity of Human Breast Carcinoma Cells by Genistein through Modulation of Tight Junction Function
Kim, Sung-Ok ; Jeang, Yang-Kee ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1200~1208
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1200
Tight junctions (TJs) that act as paracellular permeability barriers play an essential role in regulating the diffusion of fluid, electrolytes and macromolecules through the paracellular pathway. In this study, we investigated the correlation between the tightening of TJs, permeability and the invasive activity of genistein - a bioactive isoflavone of soybeans - in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The inhibitory effects of genistein on cell proliferation, motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with the increased tightness of the TJs, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and a decrease in paracellular permeability. Additionally, the immunoblotting results indicated that genistein repressed the levels of the proteins that comprise the major components of TJ, claudin-3 and claudin-4, which play a key role in the control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Furthermore, genistein decreased the metastasis-related gene expressions of insulin like growth factor-1 receptor and snail, while concurrently increasing that of thrombospondin-1 and E-cadherin. In addition, we demonstrated that claudins play an important role in the anti-motility and invasiveness of genistein using claudin-3 small interfering RNA. Taken together, our results indicate a possible role for genistein as an inhibitor of cancer cell invasion through the tightening of TJs, which may counteract the up-regulation of claudins. In addition, our results indicate that this may be beneficial for the inhibition of tumor metastasis.
Quercetin Potentiates TRAIL-induced Apoptosis in Human Colon KM12 Cells
Park, Jun-Ik ; Kim, Hak-Bong ; Kim, Mi-Ju ; Lee, Jae-Won ; Bae, Jae-Ho ; Park, Soo-Jung ; Kim, Dong-Wan ; Kang, Chi-Dug ; Kim, Sun-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1209~1217
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1209
Many cancer cells are sensitive to the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. However, some cancer cells show either partial or complete resistance to TRAIL. Human colon carcinoma KM12 cells have been shown to be insensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. To overcome TRAIL resistance in KM12 cells, we targeted key anti-apoptotic molecules involved in the modulation of TRAIL resistance in the cells, and evaluated the effects of quercetin as a TRAIL sensitizer in the cells. We found that quercetin acted in synergy with TRAIL to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in KM12 cells by the down-regulation of c-FLIP and DNA-PKcs/Akt and up-regulation of death receptors (DR4/DR5), which led to the enhancement of TRAIL-mediated activation of caspases and subsequent cleavage of PARP, as well as up-regulation of Bax. These findings suggest that the DNA-PKcs/Akt signaling pathway, as well as c-FLIP, play essential roles in regulating cells in the escape from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Based on these results, this study provides a potential application of quercetin in combination with TRAIL in the treatment of human colon cancer.
Purification and Biological Characterization of Wild-type and Mutants of a Levan Fructotransferase from Microbacterium sp. AL-210
Hwang, Eun-Young ; Jeong, Mi-Suk ; Cha, Jae-Ho ; Jang, Se-Bok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1218~1225
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1218
Difractose anhydrides (DFAs) is studied as a sweetener for diabetics because of its structural property. DFAs have four types: DFA I, III, IV (degradation of levan) and V (degradation of inulin). Especially, DFA IV has been shown to enhance the absorption of calcium in experiments using rats. Levan fructotransferase is an enzyme for producing di-d-fructose-2,6':6,2-dianhydride (DFA IV). To identify structural characterization, we purified wild-type and mutants (D63A, D195N and N85S) of levan fructotransferase (LFTase) from Microbacterium sp. AL-210. These proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity column, Q-sepharose ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and detected by SDS-PAGE. They were also analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) measurements, JNET secondary structure prediction, activity measurements at various temperatures, and pH analysis. The optimum pH for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction was pH 7.5 and optimum temperature was observed at
. Along with wild-type LFTase, mutants were analyzed by CD measurement, fluorescence analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). N85S showed less
-helix and more
strand than others. Also, N85S showed almost the same curve as wild-type in their steady-state fluorescence spectra, whereas mutant D63A and D195N showed higher intensity than wild-type. The amino acid sequence of wild-type LFTase was compared to the sequences of exo-inulinase from Aspergillus awamori, a plant fructan 1-exohydrolase from Cichorium intybus, and Thermotogo maritime (Tm) invertase and showed a high identity with Exo-inulinase from Aspergillus awamori.
Biochemical Characterizations of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase and its Mutants to Develop an Enzymatic Therapy for Phenylketonuria
Kim, Woo-Mi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1226~1231
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1226
Enzyme substitution with recombinant phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 188.8.131.52) is currently being explored for treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU), an autosomal recessive genetic disorder with mutations of the gene encoding phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase (EC 184.108.40.206). However, oral administration of PAL is limited because of proteolytic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical properties of PAL and delinate the susceptibility of wild-type PAL to pancreatic proteolysis by exploring several mutants, and to develop therapeutic drugs with PAL for PKU. The specific activity of PAL was assayed and its optimal pH, temperature stability, and intestinal protease susceptibility were investigated. Its
values for phenylalanine and tyrosine were 1.77 and
/ min/mg protein, respectively, and its
, respectively. PAL showed an optimal pH at 8.5, corresponding to the average pH range of the small intestine. It showed no loss of activity at
for 5 months and possessed 93.4% of its activity under
for 4 wks. PAL was susceptible to chymotrypsin digestion and, to a lesser extent, to trypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase A, and B. The trypsin and chymotrypsin cleaving sites were mutated to investigate protection from pancreatic digestion and the specific activities of these mutants were evaluated. The six mutants displayed low specific activities compared to the wild-type, suggesting that the primary trypsin and chymotrypsin cleaving sites may be essential for catalytic reaction. The PAL mutants could therefore be applied as a pretreatment modality without susceptibility to proteolytic attack, however, additional modification for enhancing enzymatic activity is needed to reduce the Phe levels effectively.
Rim1α and Neurexin3 Regulate Synaptosomal Dopamine Release
Lee, Sang-Kyeong ; Shim, Joo-Cheol ; Kim, Young-Hoon ; Kong, Bo-Geum ; Seog, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1232~1238
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1232
Neurotransmitter release is regulated by various proteins of the active zone in the presynaptic nerve terminals. Dopamine (DA) is an essential neurotransmitter associated with the pathophysiology of diverse behavioral and mental illness such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. We measured synaptosomal DA release of knockout (KO) mice which lacked major genes related to neurotransmitter release. Synaptosomal DA uptake and release were performed and measured using [
]-DA and superfusion experiments. 3 of the 17 KO mice exhibited altered DA release compared to their littermate controls. In
]-DA release evoked by membrane depolarization significantly decreased. Both basal (physiological buffer-evoked) and membrane depolarization-evoked DA release significantly decreased in dopaminergic conditional KO of
. Dopaminergic conditional KO of neurexin3 demonstrated a significant increase of membrane depolarization-evoked DA release. These data explain the similarities and distinctions between DA and other classical neurotransmitters such as glutamate and GABA (
-aminobutyric acid) release. In conclusion,
and neurexin3 may be important regulators of presynaptic DA release and related to disorders of the nervous system.
Genetic Analysis of Flower Color Traits in Calanthe discolor, C. sieboldii, and Variants Using Molecular Linkage Map
Cho, Dong-Hoon ; Chung, Mi-Young ; Jee, Sun-Ok ; Kim, Chang-Kil ; Chung, Jae-Dong ; Kim, Kyung-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1239~1244
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1239
This study was conducted to clarify the genetic relationship between Calanthe discolor, C. sieboldii and variants, and the cause of flower color variations by using a molecular linkage map and a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for flower and lip color in Calanthe species native to Korea. Twenty plants were included in three C. discolor and three C. sieboldii, and fourteen variants were obtained from their habitat, Jeju-do in Korea. The flowers of C. discolor were brownish red, the values of Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) Lab were between 40 and 50. The flowers of C. sieboldii were yellowish, the values of CIE Lab were between 110 and 130. The variants had various mixed colors that were thought to have originated from natural hybridization between C. discolor and C. sieboldii, and the values of CIE Lab were between 50 and 70. The colors of the lips were usually divided into white and yellow. C. discolor had a white lip, C. sieboldii had a yellow one, and the variants had a white to yellow one. The CIE Lab value of each color was 90 in white and 110 to 120 in yellow lips. A molecular linkage mapping was constructed based on the segregation of 154 RAPD markers using a MAPL program. Sixteen linkage groups containing 66 markers were established. It covered a total map distance of 220.4 cM. The distance between adjacent markers ranged from 0 to 6.6 cM, with an average distance of 3.3 cM. These markers are thought to be closely associated with flower and lip color expression. Among the 16 molecular linkage groups, 3 QTLs had flower color trait loci and 1 QTL had lip color trait loci.
Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antithrombin, and Antioxidant Activity of Fritillaria thunbergii Miquel
Shin, Yong-Kyu ; Jang, Han-Su ; Kim, Jee-In ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1245~1250
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1245
Beimu (Fritillaria thunbergii Miquel), a bulbous plant of Liliaceae found in Korea, Japan and China, has been used as an antitussive and expectorant agent, and is also useful in alleviating stonsillitis and bronchiolitis. Most researches have been focused on micro-propagation and plant regeneration, component analysis, and dormancy relieving of beimu. Reports regarding the biological activity of beimu, such as anti-Helicobacter pyroli or platelet aggregation inhibition activity, are few and not widely available. In this study, methanol extract and its organic solvent fractions were prepared from Fritillaria thunbergii Miquel and their antimicrobial, antithrombin, and antioxidant activities were evaluated, respectively. The methanol extract contained lots of water-soluble materials (58.98%) and hexane-soluble oils (14.85%). The ethylacetate and butanol fraction at
/disc concentration showed strong antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, except Escherichia coli. Antifungal activity was not observed in methanol extract and its fractions. The hexane, ethylacetate and butanol fractions showed strong antithrombin activity at 4.8 mg/ml concentration. Especially, the ethylacetate fraction showed 95.4 sec of thrombin time at a concentration of 1.2 mg/ml, which is comparable to aspirin, a widely used antithrombosis agent. For antioxidation activity, the ethylacetate and butanol fraction showed good 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activity (
/ml). In superoxide dismutase-like activity and reducing power, the fractions showed
of vitamin C, and
of butyl hydroxytoluene, respectively.
Growth Inhibitory and Quinone Reductase Activity Stimulating Effects of Internal Organs of Todarodes pacificus Fractions on Human Cancer Cell Lines In vitro
Shin, Mi-Ok ; Bae, Song-Ja ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1251~1257
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1251
We investigated the growth inhibitory effect of internal organs of Todarodes pacificus (TP) on proliferation in human cancer cell lines in vitro. The internal organs of TP were extracted with methanol (TPM), which was then further fractionated into four subfractions by using a solvent partition method, resulting in hexane (TPMH), methanol (TPMM), butanol (TPMB), and aqueous (TPMA) soluble fractions. We determined the cytotoxic effect of these four fractions in three kinds of cancer cell lines - HepG2, MCF-7 and HT-29 - by MTT assay. Among the four subfractions of TPM, TPMH showed the strongest cytotoxic effects at a concentration of
/ml, displaying 91.56% on the HepG2 cell line and 85.93% on the MCF-7 cell line. Morphological changes such as membrane shirinking and blebbing of cells were also observed during TPMH treatment of HepG2 cells. In addition, we also observed quinone reductase (QR) induced effect in the methanol (TPMM) layer of HepG2 cells. TPMM showed the highest induction activity of quinone reductase on HepG2 cells among the other partition layers. The QR induced effect of TPMM was determined to be 2.7 at a level of
/ml with a control value of 1.0. Although further studies are needed, the present work suggests that internal organs of Todarodes pacificus (TP) may be a chemopreventive agent for the treatment of human cells.
Effects of Feeding TMR Feed with Dietary Citrus Byproducts on Nutritional Components of Raw Milk
Moon, Yoon-Hee ; Yang, Seung-Ju ; Jung, In-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1258~1264
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1258
In this study, effects of feeding Holstein cows with TMR feed, which includes un-dried citrus byproducts, on the nutritional components of their raw milk were investigated. Two kinds of raw milk from primipara cows and multipara cows were used for the experiment: T0 (raw milk produced by dairy cows not fed with TMR feed including citrus byproducts) and T1 (raw milk produced by dairy cows fed with TMR feed including citrus byproducts). For both primipara and multipara cows, there was no statistically meaningful difference between T0 and T1 in terms of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash contents or caloric content. T1 showed a lower amount of cholesterol in raw milk for both primipara and multipara cows, which was especially statistically meaningful in multipara cows (p<0.05). Regarding mineral contents in raw milk, T1 showed significantly higher amounts of Na and S in primipara cows, and Na, Cu, Fe, S in multipara cows, respectively. For both primipara and multipara cows, there were no statistically meaningful differences between T0 and T1 in terms of the total amount of amino acids in the raw milk, the composition of saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid, vitamin A, E,
-carotene, while T1 showed significantly higher levels of vitamin
in primipara cows than T0.
Effects of the Sarcodon aspratus on the High Level of Blood Lipid and Obesity Induced by High Fat-diet in Rat
Lee, Kyung-Suk ; Kim, Jong-Bong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1265~1270
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1265
The mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus was tested for its possibility of being a health food against corpulence. The mushroom powder was fed to rats with high-fat diet-induced corpulence for 6 weeks. To measure its effects, various factors such as obesity index, serum lipid, and organ weight were analyzed and compared. The group fed a high-fat diet showed a significant increase in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in serum. However, this increase was not shown in the group fed mushroom powder. The R
hrer index (one of many obesity indexes) was higher in the group fed a high-fat diet compared to that of control group. However, there was a significant decrease in the R
hrer index in the group fed with mushroom powder. Especially, the increased ratio of liver to body weight was observed in the group fed a high-fat diet compared to the control group. These results suggest that the significant changes in obesity index and organ weight in the group fed with mushroom powder are due to the decreased level of serum triglyceride. Thus, there is a possibility for Sarcodan aspratus to become a heath food that can prevent diseases related to corpulence.
Physico-chemical Characteristics of Dua-Chungkukjang
Park, Seok-Kyu ; Ryu, Cha-Yeol ; Lee, Sang-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1271~1276
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1271
Unlike the traditional preparation method for Chungkukjang, we prepared Dua-Chungkukjang with soybean fermented at
after the soaking, germination and steaming process, and we studied the physico-chemical characteristics of Dua-Chungkukjang. Reducing sugar content in both traditional Chungkukjang and Dua-Chungkukjang increased sharply after 10 hr of fermentation, but it decreased slightly after that. Total nitrogen content in both traditional Chungkukjang and Dua-Chungkukjang increased slowly as fermentation took place. Total nitrogen content reached 3,500 mg% and 3,700 mg%, and soluble nitrogen compound reached 750 mg% and 1,800 mg% after 40 hr of fermentation, respectively.
-Glucosidase activity increased continuously as fermentation took place, and it reached 193, 223, 235 and 248 units in Dua-Chungkukjang while it reached 125, 178, 205 and 214 units in traditional Chungkukjang after 10 hr, 20 hr, 30 hr and 40 hr of fermentation. This means that
-Glucosidase activity in Dua-Chungkukjang was
times higher than that in the control treatment, traditional Chungkukjang. Total isoflavone content was
/g for 10 hr of fermentation, and
/g for 40 hr in traditional Chungkukjang and Dua-Chungkukjang, respectively. Isoflavone content of Dua-Chungkukjang was 2-3.5 times higher than that of traditional Chungkukjang. Anthocyanin content also increased continuously as fermentation took place, and it reached 5.0 mg/g and 6.9 mg/g in traditional Chungkukjang and Dua-Chungkukjang after 40 hr of fermentation, respectively.
The Effects of Aerospace Fitness Training on ACE Gene Polymorphism of KAFA Cadets in Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Kim, Keun-Soo ; Koo, Myung-Soo ; Woo, Jin-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1277~1283
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1277
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of combined training (aerobic/anaerobic training and space perception training) on changes in body composition (weight, % body fat, % muscle mass, BMI, WHR) and cardiorespiratory fitness according to the ACE gene polymorphism (II: 7 men, ID: 8 men, DD: 6 men) in 21 senior Korea Air Force Academy cadets. The results of this study were as follows: body composition factors among ACE gene polymorphism groups and between pre-/post-training in all groups were not statistically significant. Cardiorespiratory fitness of the II and ID groups was significantly lower after training (p<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between pre-/post-training in the DD. In conclusion, this study suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness response to compound training may be affected by ACE genotypes.
Deodorization of Purified Fish Oil from Squids by Organic Acids
Jang, Min-Kyung ; Lee, Ok-Hee ; Kim, Nam-Young ; Yu, Ki-Hwan ; Jang, Hye-Ji ; Lee, Seung-Woo ; Park, Mi-Ra ; Park, Joung--Hyun ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Ha, Jong-Myung ; Bae, Song-Ja ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1284~1288
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1284
To produce high quality fish oil products, additional deodorization experiments on purified fish oil from squid using columns filled with citric acid or gluconic acid were performed. A deodorization effect on the fish oil was observed on both the citric acid and gluconic acid columns. These effects were more efficient on the columns packed with 3 g of organic acid than those with 1 g or 2 g of organic acid. In addition, a better effect was observed in the column packed with gluconic acid than that with citric acid. Peroxide value (POV) and acid value (AV) of the sample treated with citric acid was the as same as the non-treated sample. However, POV and AV of the sample treated with gluconic acid were about 10% higher than the non-treated sample. Contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of the samples treated with citric acid or gluconic acid columns were about 0.5% higher than the non-treated sample. In conclusion, deodorization of squid fish oil by organic acid could be an efficient method to produce high quality fish oil products.
TGIF Site is Involved in Expression of Human Cervical Cancer Oncogene (HCCR) 발현 조절
Cho, Goang-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1289~1293
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1289
Proto-oncogene human cervical cancer oncogene (HCCR) functions as a negative regulator of p53 and contributes to tumorigenesis in various human tissues. However, it is unknown how HCCR contributes to the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of human tumorigenesis. In this study, we showed how the expression of HCCR is modulated. The luciferase activity assay indicated that the HCCR 5'-flanking region at positions -370 to -406 plays an important role in the promoter activity. Computational analysis of this region identified one consensus sequence for the TG-interacting factor (TGIF) located at -390 to -366 (TG). Mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed that nuclear proteins from K562 bind to the TG site, but not to the mutated TG site. The reporter activity assay with promoter constructs carrying mutated TGIF sequences pGL3-mTGIF significantly increased reporter activities compared to wild type constructs pGL3-
. In this study, we characterized the HCCR promoter and found that HCCR expression was partially regulated by the transcription repressor TGIF, which bound the promoter at positions -390 to -366.
Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects by Combination Treatment of Genistein and Daidzein in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell
Son, Seong-Min ; Lim, Seung-Hyun ; Kim, Hyo-Rim ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Lee, Jong-Hwa ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1294~1298
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1294
To investigate whether isoflavone genistein and daidzein could affect cancer cell viability, human colorectal HCT116 cells were incubated with genistein or daidzein in a dose-dependent manner. Genistein decreased cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, whereas daidzein did not show dramatic cytotoxic effects. We also found that 71 genes were up-regulated more than 2-fold, whereas 64 genes were down-regulated more than 2-fold with 24 hr of
genistein treatment by our previous microarray data. Among the up-regulated genes, we selected 3 genes (DKK1, ATF3 and NAG-1) and performed RT-PCR to confirm microarray data. The results of RT-PCR were highly correlated with those of the microarray experiment. In addition, we investigated whether a combination treatment of genistein and daidzein could affect cancer cell viability. Surprisingly, the combination treatment did show synergistic cytotoxic effects detected by MTS assay. The results of RT-PCR and real-time PCR indicate that a combination of genistein and daidzein can synergistically induce NAG-1 expression in HCT116 cells. This result implies that NAG-1 induction is highly associated with synergistic cytotoxic effects induced by a combination treatment of genistein and daidzein. Overall, these results may provide a clue in explaining the anti-cancer activity of soy bean in human colorectal cancer.
The Comparison Research on Walking Pattern of Rehabilitation Training Program Participants in Stroke Patients
Jin, Young-Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1299~1303
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1299
The purpose of this study was to analyse the gait characteristics of stroke patients walking on a Zebris system, through quantitative three-dimensional biomechanical analysis. They underwent a continuous rehabilitation training program (RTP). A comparison was made between 3 month and 6 month RTP participants. Their ages were between 60 and 65. The data were analyzed by t-test. The result of comparative analysis of the two groups can be summarized as below. Temporal-spatial data, sagittal plane angular kinematics data, and peak ground reaction force and max pressure data showed that there were no significant differences between the 3 month RTP group and the 6month RTP group (Table 2, Table3, Table 4). It can be suggested that patients with hemiplegia after stroke can improve their walking function through continuous RTP participation.
Infection Patterns of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) by Sera-epidemiological Analysis in Korean Pig Farms
Park, Choi-Kyu ; Pak, Son-Il ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1304~1308
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1304
To investigate the infection patterns of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Korean pig farms, a total of 4,768 swine sera samples from 159 pig farms were taken twice, in June (n=82) and October (n=77) in 2007. In each farm selected for the survey, 10 samples from breeding pigs and 4 from each of the 5 age groups (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days) were taken, and all serum samples were tested for PEDV by the serum neutralization test. The overall seroprevalence was 62.6% (2,983/4,768), with the highest prevalence in breeding pigs (93.5%, 1,485/1,589). The prevalence showed an increasing trend with increasing age (30.8, 27.2, 44.7, 61.6, and 71.2% respectively in the 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days age groups) (p<0.0001 for
trend test). The association between age and PEDV prevalence was similar in both surveys, indicating that the infection of PEDV seemed to be occurring repeatedly in the farms surveyed. This inference could also be explained by the fact that prevalence in sows was very high despite low vaccination coverage, as they are continuously exposed to PEDV in potentially infected farms for a longer period. Based on the neutralizing antibody levels in sows and growing pigs, the majority of farms (91.8%, n=146 farms) were endemically infected with PEDV, and most of pigs seemed to be intensively infected with PEDV at around early growth (41.8%) and weaning (31.5%). On the other hand, serum neutralizing antibodies were not detected in pigs older than 30 days of age in farms classified as having no PEDV infection (n=13 farms), indicating the level of maternal antibody against PEDV is decreased on a non-detectable level before the piglet is 60 days old in the field situation. The results indicated that most farms surveyed in 2007 were affected with endemic PEDV infection. Therefore, a national monitoring and control program for the endemic type PEDV infection needs further attention.
Studies on the Toxicity of Benzophenone in the Developing Chick Embryo
Yoo, Min ; Kim, Su-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1309~1313
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1309
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can be found in our normal daily lives. Chemicals such as bisphenol A, DDT, benzophenone and phenylphenol can be easily ingested through plastic food containers and pesticides. Endocrine disruptors can be very harmful and toxic because they disrupt the normal function of the endocrine system. It has been reported that endocrine disruptions can cause fatal strikes in the cardiovascular, reproductive, and central nervous systems, and other parts of the body. Therefore we examined if benzophenone as an endocrine disruptor inhibits development in or induces malformation of chick embryos. Chick embryos which received a single injection of benzophenone (
/egg) via the yolk sac at designated times (6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days after incubation) were investigated. Body weight reduction was observed in middle doses (
/egg). High mortality rates and teratogenic signs such as abnormal wry beak and abnormal eyeballs were seen in high doses (
/egg). In conclusion, it is suggested that benzophenone induces malformation of chick embryos and seriously inhibits development.
Evaluation of Cell Death and the Reduction of ERK Phosphorylation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells after Exposure to Sodium Butyrate
Park, Ji-Eun ; Lee, Seung-Gee ; Lim, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Chung, Jin-Yong ; Kim, Yoon-Jae ; Lee, Chang-Hun ; Lee, Min-Ki ; Yoo, Ki-Soo ; Yoo, Young-Hyun ; Kim, Jong-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1314~1320
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1314
Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) is a new promising candidate as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. In order to evaluate cell death and to elucidate the related mechanism(s) in NSCLC cells after HDACI, sodium butyrate (SB), a representative HDACI, was used to treat H460 cells for 48 hrs. SB exposure resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability at concentrations below 7.5 mM, and about 50% of cell death occurred at 20 mM. The types of cell death induced by SB were both apoptosis and necrosis, evaluated by Annexin-V staining combined with propidium iodide. SB treatment significantly evoked G2/M cell cycle arrest and subsequently induced cell death with caspase-dependent manner. While ERK protein content was not altered after SB, phosphorylated forms of ERK were markedly reduced. Taken together, SB is significantly able to induce cell death in NSCLC cell line H460, and it is suggested that the reduction of ERK phosphorylation might be closely involved in the cancer cell death mechanism initiated by HDACI.
Effects of Amino Acids on the Activities of Alcohol Metabolizing Enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) and Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH)
Cha, Jae-Young ; Jung, Hae-Jung ; Jeong, Jae-Jun ; Yang, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Yong-Taek ; Lee, Yong-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1321~1327
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1321
The present study examined the comparative effects of various amino acids on the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities of yeast Saccharomyces cereviciae and rat liver homogenate in vitro. Methionine showed the highest activity in yeast ADH among the amino acids used in this study, but this was not higher than that of the hangover product, Condition-Power (CP) used as positive control. Methionine was also found to be the best amino acid in terms of the ALDH activity in rat liver homogenate among the treatment amino acids, which was comparatively higher than that of positive control CP. It was chosen for further experiments and yeast ADH activity increased in parallel with increased methionine concentration, but not rat liver ALDH activity, and it was comparatively higher than those of the positive control. Arginine showed the highest values in yeast ALDH and rat liver ADH activities among amino acids, and it was chosen for further experiments. Yeast ALDH activity increased in parallel with increased arginine concentration, which was higher than that of positive control CP, and rat liver ADH activity was also comparatively higher in all treatment concentrations of arginine than that of positive control CP. The native electrophoresis of ADH and ALDH from cell-free extracts of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured in the growth medium containing various arginine concentrations by
showed two active bands upon zymogram staining analysis, and the straining intensity of ADH and ALDH active bands in arginine treatment yeast was stronger than that of non-yeast or low treatment yeast. These results indicate that alcohol metabolizing enzyme activities can be enhanced by arginine and methionine, suggesting that arginine and methionine have potent ethanol-metabolizing activities.
Application of the 18S Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-RFLP Technique for the Differential Diagnosis of Anisakidosis
Kim, Sun-Mee ; Cho, Min-Kyung ; Yu, Hak-Sun ; Cha, Hee-Jae ; Ock, Mee-Sun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1328~1332
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1328
Anisakidosis is caused by anisakid nematodes (family Anisakidae) larvae which can cause not only direct tissue damage but also a severe allergic response related to excretory-secretion products. Lots of different species of anisakid larvae, including Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum, Goezia, Pseudoterranova, and Hysterothylacium, cause the anisakidosis. But it is difficult to diagnosis the species of larvae since the morphologies of larval anisakid nematodes are almost indistinguishable. In order to diagnosis the differential infections of larval anisakid nematodes, polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of 18S rDNA - was conducted. Three major species of anisakid larvae including A. simplex, C.ontracaecum spp, and Goezia spp. were collected from mackerel (Scomber japonicus), mullet (Mugil cephalus), founder (Paralichthys olivaceus), eel (Astroconger myriaster) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). PCR amplified 18S rDNA from each species of anisakid larvae was digested with eight restriction enzymes including Taq I, Hinf I, Hha I, Alu I, Dde I, Hae III, Sau96 I, and Sau3A I. The original sizes of PCR amplified 18S rDNA were 2.0Kb in both anisakid larvaes and Goezia. Restrction enzymes including Hinf 1, Alu 1, Hha I, Dde 1 and Hae III cut differently and distinguished the A. simplex and Contracaecum type C'. However, Contracaecum type A showed two different restriction enzyme cutting patterns by Taq 1, Hinf I, Alu 1, and Dde 1. One of the patterns was the same as those of A. simplex, Contracaecum type C' and Goezia and the other was unique. These results suggest that PCR-RFLP pattern by Hinf 1, Alu 1, Hae I, Dde 1 and Hae III can be applied to differential diagnosis of human infection with A. simplex and Contracaecum type C'. Contracaecum type A needs further study of classification by morphological characteristics and genetic analysis.
Essential Oil Components in Herb Teas (Rose and Rosehip)
Choi, Sung-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 19, issue 9, 2009, Pages 1333~1336
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2009.19.9.1333
The purpose of this study was to characterize the aromas of rose tea and rosehip tea. Aroma compounds were extracted by simultaneous distillation and extraction method using a Likens and Nickerson's extraction apparatus. The concentrated aroma extracts were analyzed and identified by GC and GC-MS. Thirty-eight compounds, including phenylethyl alcohol, citronellol, menthol, menthone, linalool and geraniol, were isolated and identified in rose tea. Thirty-six compounds, including menthol,
-terpinolene, menthone, linalool and 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one, were isolated and identified in rosehip tea. Large amounts of phenyl ethyl alcohol and citronellol were found in rose tea, while large amounts of menthol and
-anethole were found in rosehip tea.