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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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Retrograde Tracer Studies of Tecto-Reticulospinal Pathway and Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus on GluR1- and GluR4-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Hamster Superior Colliculus
Choi, Jae-Sik ; Lee, Jea-Young ; Jang, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Eun-Shil ; Jeon, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.001
We recently reported the distributions of AMPA (
-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) receptor subtypes glutamate receptors (GluR) 1 and GluR4 in the superior colliculi (SC) of hamsters with antibody immunocytochemistry and the effect of enucleation on these distributions. We also compared these labelings to those of calcium-binding proteins calbindin D28K, calretinin, parvalbumin, and GABA. In the present study, we investigated whether the GluR1- and GluR4-immunoreactive (IR) neurons are interneurons or projection neurons by injection of the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into one of each major ascending and descending pathways of the SC. HRP injections were made into a tecto-reticulospinal pathway (TRS) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Animals were then allowed to recover and to survive for 48 hr before perfusion. Sections containing retrograde-labeled neurons were then treated for GluR-immunoreactivity. HRP injections proved that only a small population of the GluR1-IR cells project into TRS (1.4%) and dLGN (2.6%). However, a large subpopulation of GluR4-IR cells project into TRS (32.7%). The differential compositions of inter/projection neurons, along with our previous studies on the separate distribution of the GluR subunits, its differential co-localization with calcium-binding proteins and GABA, and differential reactions to enucleations, strongly imply the functional variety of the receptor subunits in visual behavior responses.
Cutoff Values of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Measures for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Population
Lee, Hyun-Jae ; Kim, Byoung-Gwon ; Kim, Joon-Youn ; Kim, Jung-Man ; Yoo, Byung-Chul ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Hong, Young-Seoub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.009
This study investigated cut-off values of body mass index (BMI) and body fat measures for metabolic syndrome (MS) in elderly Koreas. Questionnaire surveys, anthropometric measurements, medical examinations, and body composition analyses were conducted for 10,077 subjects aged 40-65 years in the health examinee cohort in Korea between 2004 and 2006. Cut-off values were identified using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for both men and women. Stratified analyses by weight range (<60, 60-69, 70-79, and 80-89,
for men; <50, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79,
for women) were conducted. Among male subjects, the cut-off points were
for BMI with a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 72.0%, and 26.1% for body fat percentage with a sensitivity of 60.6% and a specificity of 76.4%. Among female subjects, the cutoff points were
for BMI with a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 68.8%, and 31.5% for body fat percentage with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 65.6%. Stratified analysis by weight range showed that the cutoff points of BMI and body fat measures tended to higher as weight level increased. The results of our study suggest cut-off values of BMI and body fat measure for MS were similar to the general obesity criteria in Korea.
Effect of Various Biodegradable Chelating Agents on Root Growth of Plants under Copper Stress
Lee, Sang-Man ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 17~21
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.017
Phytoextraction is a method of phytoremediation using plants to clean up metal-contaminated soils. Recently, various chelating agents were used in this method to increase the bioavailability of metals in soils. Even though phytoextraction is an economic and environmentally friendly method, this cannot be applied in highly metal-contaminated areas because plants will not normally grow in such conditions. This research focuses on identifying chelating agents which are biodegradable and applicable to highly metal-contaminated areas. Copper (Cu) as a target metal and cysteine (Cys), histidine (His), citrate, malate, oxalate, succinate, and ethylenediamine (EDA) as biodegradable chelating agents were selected. Ethylenediamine tetracyclic acid (EDTA) was used as a comparative standard. Plants were grown on agar media containing various chelating agents with Cu to analyze the effect on root growth. Cys, His, and citrate strongly diminished the inhibitory effect of Cu on root growth of plants. The effect of oxalate was weak, and malate and succinate did not show significant effects. EDTA diminished and EDA promoted the inhibitory effects of Cu on root growth. These effects of chelating agents are correlated with Cu uptake into the roots. In conclusion, as biodegradable chelating agents, Cys, His, and citrate are good candidates for highly Cu-contaminated areas, while EDA can be useful in phytoextraction for Cu.
Morphological Characteristics of the Rice (Oryza sativa L.) with Red Pigmentation
Matin, Mohammad Nurul ; Kang, Sang-Gu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 22~26
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.022
Seven rice germplasms with red pigmentation within the pericarp were isolated from a large mutant collection. These red pericarp phenotypes resulted from the functions of the Rc, Rd and RdRc genes. Among them, two brown pericarp of the Rc type, four red pericarp of the RdRc type, and one white pericarp of the Rd type were identified. Morphological and agronomic characteristics of those rice germplasms were studied. The Rc type germplasms have the faint red or brown color pericarp and the Rd types produce the white pericarp, whereas the RdRc type germplasms have the dark red pericarp. Most of the important agronomic characteristics including plant stature, tillering ability, spikelet fertility, and total grain yield were lower in the colored rice than those of the wild-type control. All of the studied colored rice germplasms had a tendency of easy seed-shattering in comparison to the control. These characteristics of newly identified germplasms will be useful for identifying the genes responsible for pericarp color phenotype determination.
Protective Effects of Fucoidan against UVB-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Fibroblasts
Ku, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Myeong-Sook ; Moon, Hee-Jung ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 27~32
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.027
Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletes stores of cellular antioxidants. Fucoidan, polysaccharides containing L-fucose and sulfate ester groups, are constituents of brown algae. In this study, the protective effects of fucoidan on UVB-induced oxidative stress in cultured human skin fibroblast HS68 cells were assessed. Pretreatment with fucoidan significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in a dose-dependent manner. With fucoidan pretreatment at a dose of
, the level of intracellular glutathione was increased by 21.5%, compared to UVB irradiation alone. Fucoidan significantly reduced UVB-induced ROS generation by 40.1% and 68.4% at 10 and
, respectively, compared to UVB irradiation alone. The positive staining rates of senescence-associated
-galactosidase were reduced by 23.1% and 16.4% with 10 and
of fucoidan, compared to UVB irradiation alone. Fucoidan may exert a photoprotective effect against UVB radiation-induced oxidative stress.
Combined Effects of L-Carnitine Supplementation and Exercise on the Body Composition, Serum Lipids and Adiponectin in the High School Obese Female Students
Shin, Won-Bae ; Seo, Dae-Yun ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 33~39
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.033
The purpose of this study was to investgate combined effects of L-carnitine supplementation and exercise on body composition, serum lipids and adiponectin in obese high school female students. Eighteen female students with 35% fat in body weight participated in the study. Students were randomly divided into the following three groups; exercise and L-carnitine supplementation group (ELG: n=5), exercise group (EG: n=6) and control group (CG: n=7), each with seven students. They underwent 10 weeks of exercise (50 min/day, 5 times/wk, 10 wk, RPE 11~16). ELG was given L-carnitine (1 g/day), EG and CG were given placebos. Before and after this period, body composition, serum lipids and adiponectin in plasma were measured. The results of the study in the three groups were as follows: Fat mass and %BF were significantly decreased in ELG. On the other hand, free fat mass was significantly increased in ELG, however, other groups showed no changes. Total cholesterol was significantly increased in the control group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not different in the three groups. Triglyceride was significantly decreased in ELG. Adiponectin was significantly increased in ELG. This study demonstrated that exercise and carnitine supplementation have a positive effect on fat mass, %BF, free fat mass and adiponetin. Thus, we can improve proper dietary and training programs for obese students.
Physicochemical Composition and Antioxidative Effects of Yacon (Polymnia Sonchifolia)
Kim, Ah-Ra ; Lee, Jae-Joon ; Jung, Hae-Ok ; Lee, Myung-Yul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 40~48
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.040
This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical and functional properties of Yacon (Polymnia Sonchifolia) powder. The proximate composition of Yacon powder as a dry matter basis was 3.53% moisture content, 1.13% crude protein, 0.40% crude fat, 0.79% crude ash, 1.63% dietary fiber and 92.52% carbohydrate. The major free sugars were identified as fructose and glucose. Analysing total amino acids, 18 kinds of components were isolated from Yacon powder. The essential amino acid contained in Yacon powder accounted for 28.40% of total amino acid, while the non-essential amino acid accounted for 73.61%. Analysing total fatty acids, only 2 kinds - palmitic acid and lauric acid - were detected. Oxalic acid was the major organic acid. The contents of vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E were 0.057 mg%, 0.670 mg% and 0.001 mg%, respectively. The mineral contents of Yacon powder were in the order of Zn
The Effect of Prunus Mume Supplementation on Energy Substrate Levels and Fatigue Induction Factors
Paik, Il-Young ; Chang, Woe-Ryong ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Cho, Su-Youn ; Jin, Hwa-Eun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 49~54
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.049
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Prunus mume supplementation on changes of energy substrate (glucose, FFA) and fatigue factors (lactate, ammonia, phosphorous) in the performance of exercise. The subjects of this study were 15 male university students. The exercise test was performed for 30 minutes at 75%
on the treadmill and conducted both before and after administering Prunus mume for 6 weeks. Through Prunus mume supplementation, the accumulation of such fatigue factors as lactate, ammonia, and phosphorous along with concentration of glucuse decreased, but the concentration of FFA increased. From the study, it can be seen that Prunus mume plays a positive role for the use of energy substrates and accumulated fatigue factors.
Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Score of Press Ham Made from Chicken Fed with Citrus Byproduct
Moon, Yoon-Hee ; Jung, In-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 55~59
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.055
In this study, the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of chicken press ham not fed with citrus byproduct (T0) and fed with citrus byproduct (T1) were compared. There was not a significant difference in moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, Hunter's
(yellowness), hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, shear force, water holding capacity and pH between T0 and T1. There was not a significant difference between T0 and T1 in terms of the chicken ham's VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) content for the first three weeks of storage, but after the fourth week of storage, the VBN content was 15.1 and 13.7 mg% for T0 and T1, respectively, which implies that feeding citrus byproduct significantly reduced the VBN content. There was not a significant difference between T0 and T1 in terms of the chicken press ham's TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value for the first two weeks of storage. However, the TBARS value was 0.31 and 0.22 mg malonaldehyde/kg for T0 and T1 during the third week of storage, and 0.49 and 0.32 mg malonaldehyde/kg for T0 and T1 during the fourth week of storage. There was not a significant difference between T0 and T1 in terms of the chicken press ham's TPC (total plate counts) for the first three weeks of storage, but after the fourth week of storage, the TPC was 4.96 and 4.72 log CFU/g for T0 and T1, respectively, which implies that T1 showed a significantly lower TPC than T0. T1 showed significantly higher aroma, taste, and palatability of the chicken press ham than T0, but there was a not significant difference in texture and juiciness between T0 and T1.
Efficiency of Silver Ion-Silica Solid Phase Extraction for Elimination of Sulfur Compounds during Pesticide Multiresidue Analysis in Allium Species
Park, Jin-Woo ; Moon, Kyung-Mi ; Choi, Young-Whan ; Lee, Young-Guen ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 60~65
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.060
Since organic sulfur compounds respond to GC/ECD sensitively, they interfere with quantitative separation of pesticides during residual pesticide analysis of Allium species. In this study, it was intended to develop a rapid and simple method for pesticide multi-residues analysis through clean-up and interferences by a solid-phase extraction (SPE). An SPE method employing silver nitrate impregnated Florosil cartridge was developed and evaluated for the elimination of sulfur compounds from the test solution of Allium species during pesticide residues analysis. The silver nitrate impregnated Florosil cartridge was prepared by efflux of 3 ml of 20% silver nitrate solution through Florosil cartridge (1 g packing, 6 ml tube). The extracts equivalent to 2, 4 6, and 10 g of each sample were loaded onto the cartridge and allowed to exude, and then the exudations were analyzed by GC/ECD. More than 95% of sulfur compounds were removed from the loaded extracts equivalent, up to 6 g in onion, 4 g in spring onion and 4 g in shallot, respectively. 40 pesticides were spiked in the Allium species and loaded onto the cartridge to determine the recoveries; from this, the recoveries of 34 pesticides were within 70~120%.
Genetic Relationship Based on RAPD Analysis of Yeosu Dolsan Leaf Mustard(Brassica juncea)
Lee, In-Ho ; Park, Jong-In ; Jeong, Oon-Sup ; Jung, Hyo-Jin ; Jung, Gun-Ho ; Nou, Ill-Sup ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 66~70
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.066
The genetic relationships of 14 Dolsan leaf mustard (Brassica juncea) lines were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Thirty nine random primers were tested and seven primers which showed polymorphism were selected. The amplified fragments ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 kb in size. The number of bands amplified in each primer showed the variations ranging from 2 to 27, with an average of 8.7. Based on the UPGMA cluster analysis, 14 lines were separated into three groups. The results showed that RAPD analysis was useful in the genetic diversity and in the cross combination of the
hybrid of leaf mustard.
The Effects of the Walking Exercise on ST/HR Slope and QRS Vector in the Middle-Aged Men
Kim, Duk-Jung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 71~76
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.071
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of long term ECG response in a company with middle-aged male employees. Subjects were 60 men who were 40~55 years old. We enrolled 30 exercise group subjects into a 3-year exercise program. In measurement index, body composition was measured by % body fat and BMI. Exercise stress test analyses were measured using ST/HR slope and QRS vector. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of repeated ANOVA. Results of this study were as follows: In ST/HR slope, the control group showed symptoms of ischemia after nine minutes of exercise. In the rest frontal axis of the QRS vector, the control group had a tendency towards right axis deviation. In the rest horizontal amplitude of the QRS vector, the control group had a tendency to show a significant decrease, but it was increased significantly in the exercise group. These findings suggest that inactive company workers was showed a decrease of exercise capacity, early diagnosis exercise-induced ST depression, and prolonged deviation of QRS vector, but that cardiac function could be elevated in active middle aged men through regular exercise program participation.
Optimal Condition to Produce Protease by Strain Separated from the Intestine of Reticulitermes speratus
Park, Min-Kyung ; Son, Hong-Joo ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ; Lee, Sang-Mong ; Kim, Keun-Ki ; Park, Hyean-Cheal ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 77~81
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.077
We separated the bacteria showing protease activity from Reticulitermes speratus which is known as the only termite species in Korea. Then, we collected the best activated strain and studied the optimal culture condition for producing the enzyme. According to the results of observing morphological and physiological characteristics, and the type of 16S rRNA of the strain, it was identified as Serratia marcescens and named S. marcescens strain TM-3215. This strain showed the best activity under conditions of 0.8% (w/v) starch, 0.4% (w/v) peptone, 0.08% (w/v)
and pH 8.0. After being cultivated under optimal conditions for 9 hr, the strain produced 19.8 U/ml of enzyme, an amount 1.8 times greater than the control.
Development of Functional Beverage (SanYa) from Fermented Medical Plants and Evaluation of Its Physiological Activities
Cho, Eun-Kyung ; Song, Hyo-Ju ; Cho, Hea-Eun ; Choi, In-Soon ; Choi, Young-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 82~89
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.082
This study was investigated to analyze the contents of flavonoid compounds and the effects of fermentation on the physiological activities of medical plants, also known as SanYa (SY). Antioxidative activity of the fermented SanYa (FSY) was measured by using DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activity. DPPH radical scavenging and SOD-like activity of FSY were 94.3% and 45.0%, respectively. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was increased 11 times through the addition of FSY. However, NO production of the macrophages RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was reduced to 56% through the addition of FSY. FSY showed fibrinolytic activity and indicated about 69.8% and 73.7% of xanthine oxidase and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities, respectively. These results suggested that FSY plays a significant role in fibrinolytic activity and have strong xanthine oxidase and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities.
Effect of Internal Organs of Todarodes pacificus Extracts on Blood Rheological Properties and Serum Lipid Concentration
Kang, Sung-Rim ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Bae, Song-Ja ; Park, Mi-Ra ; Park, Joung-Hyun ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 90~96
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.090
Menopause increases the onset of hypertension and heart disease. Whereas it increases the blood LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and total-cholesterol levels, the HDL-cholesterol concentration is reduced. Accordingly, we examined the effect of internal organs of Todarodes pacificus (IOT) on improvement in blood flow ability and changes in serum lipid content by using ovariectomized rats. For this study, the following four groups of 9-week-old Sprague-Dawley strain female rats were evaluated over 6 weeks: normal rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats (CON) and ovariectomized rats that were treated with IOT extracts. Ovary removal promoted platelet aggregability. However, IOT administration in the CON group after ovary excision resulted in a hinderance of coherence. The blood vessel passing time of ovariectomized rats was slower than the SHAM group. But the blood flow ability, which was slowed down for ovary removal, was improved by IOT administration. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly reduced by IOT administration. Moreover, blood HDL-cholesterol levels were reduced by ovary removal. However, IOT administration after ovary excision significantly increase HDL-cholesterol levels. The biological activity of IOT could be confirmed from these results. Moreover, IOT can be used in the development of functional foods which are meant to improve blood circulation and anti-platelet aggregation function. According to these results, we could know that IOT improved blood flow and anti-platelet aggregation. Therefore, it is expected that IOT can be used for the development of functional foods.
Transconjugation for Molecular Genetic Study of Streptomyces platensis Producing Transglutaminase
Bae, Se-Joung ; Jo, Yang-Ho ; Choi, Sun-Uk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.097
Streptomyces platensis YK-2, newly isolated from forest soil, produces transglutaminase (TGase), which catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between the primary grade amine and protein or
-carboxyamide group of peptide bound glutamine residues. For a molecular genetic study of S. platensis, an effective transformation method was established by using a conjugal transfer of DNA from Escherichia coli to spores of actinomycetes. The highest transconjugation frequency of S. platensis was obtained on an MS medium containing 50 mM
. coli as a DNA donor and
spores without heat treatment as a host. We also identified that S. platensis contains a single attB site within an ORF encoding a pirin-homolog, and that its attB site sequence shows high homology to that of S. logisporoflavus. In addition, it was confirmed by phenotypic analyses of exconjugants that the introduction of heterologous DNA into the attB site of the S. platensis chromosome does not affect its morphological differentiation and TGase production.
Association of Genetic Variations with Pemetrexed-Induced Cytotoxicity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Yoon, Seong-Ae ; Choi, Jung-Ran ; Kim, Jeong-Oh ; Shin, Jung-Young ; Zhang, XiangHua ; Kang, Jin-Hyoung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 103~112
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.103
Pemetrexed has demonstrated clinical activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as other solid tumors. It transports into the cells via reduced folate carrier (RFC) and is polyglutamated by folypolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS). Pemetrexed directly inhibits several folate-dependent enzymes such as thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT). We investigated the effects of genetic variations and the expression of RFC, FPGS, TS and DHFR enzymes on drug sensitivity to pemetrexed in NSCLC cells. Polymorphisms in RFC, FPGS, and DHFR were genotyped in four NSCLC cells - A549, PC14, HCC-1588, and H226. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot was performed to evaluate mRNA transcripts and protein of these genes. The cytotoxicity of pemetrexed was measured by SRB assay. In PC14 and H226 cells, increased mRNA expressions of RFC and FPGS were associated with higher cytotoxicity to pemetrexed. 2R/2R genotype of TS and its increased mRNA expression were associated with drug resistance to pemetrexed in A549 cells, whereas 3R/3R genotype in TS with decreased mRNA expression was associated with higher sensitivity in H226 cells. After pemetrexed treatment, an inverse change of DHFR mRNA and protein expression was found. The strongest linkage disequilibrium (LD) was discovered between-1726C>T and -1188A>C SNP of DHFR gene. Our findings suggest the cytotoxic effect of pemetrexed may be associated with genetic polymorphisms and the expression level of genes involved in pemetrexed metabolisms in NSCLC cells.
Changes of Volatile Compounds in Concentrated Onion Extracts (ONIWELL
) during Storage
Jeong, Yeon-Jeong ; Jeong, Eun-Jeong ; Jeon, Seon-Young ; Cha, Yng-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 113~118
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.113
The study was conducted to identify volatile flavor compounds in concentrated onion extracts (
) during storage at
for 150 days. A total of 23 compounds was detected in samples by solid phase microextraction (SPME)/GC/MSD, consisting mainly of 9 sulfur-containing compounds, 5 carbonyl compounds, 4 furans, 2 aromatic compounds and 3 miscellaneous compounds. The sulfur-containing compounds were major compounds with ranges of 75.8~67.3% of total volatiles. In particular, dimethyl trisulfide, with a cooked cabbage-like odor, was 50.1~42.1% of the total amount of sulfur-containing compounds. Two compounds, dimethyl disulfide (fresh garlic/green onion-like) and methylpropyl disulfide (garlic salt-like), were significantly increased with longer storage periods (p<0.05). Four furans (furfural, 2-acetylfurn, 5-methyl-2-furfural, furfurylalcohol), known as thermally generated flavors, ranged from 14.2~12.9% of total volatiles, and the amounts of 4 aldehydes (2-, 3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, phenylactaldehyde) derived from lipid oxidation during heat treatment were followed in that order. Accordingly, it was estimated that these 3 groups including sulfur-containing compounds, furans and aldehydes played key roles in flavors in concentrated onion extracts (
) during storage.
Analysis of Genetic Variation of Perilla frutescens var. crispa Germplasm Using RAPD
Kim, Hyeun-Kyeung ; Cho, Young-Son ; Yang, Jae-Wan ; Choi, Young-Whan ; Kang, Jun-Soon ; Lee, Yong-Jae ; Son, Beung-Gu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 119~123
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.119
Genetic variations of Chajogi (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) germplasms were investigated by using RAPD markers. Twenty-two Perilla frutescens var. crispa lines collected from various locations were subjected to RAPD analysis using 80 primers. Among them, only 22 primers showed polymorphic bands and these 22 primers provided a total of 224 bands consisting of 127 polymorphic and 97 monomorphioc bands. The polymorphic bands were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the UPGMA method. From UPGMA, similarity co-efficiency of 22 Chajogi lines ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. The dendrogram of 22 lines obtained through the UPGMA method resulted in two groups (one major group and one minor group). Although the two groups were roughly consistent with growth phenotypes (period of flowering, period of maturity, stem length, number of branches, number of nodes, number of flower clusters and number of ovaries) in detail, much inconsistency also was present
The Effects of the Intensity of Combined Training on Body Composition, HOMA-IR and HbA1c of Female Students of a Boarding High School
Kwon, Sun-Ok ; Jeong, Seon-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 124~132
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.124
Among students of 'K' boarding high school, located in 'B' city, 32 students whose % body fat was 30% or above were divided into three groups - two exercise groups and one control group. They performed Combined Training - a mix of weight training (WT) and step box training (SBT) - for 65 min a day, 3 days a week, for 8 weeks in total. Group A performed WT 70-80%
sets+SBT (RPE 11-13)
set, and group B performed WT 70-80%
set+SBT (RPE 11-13)
sets to yield data on changes of body composition (Soft Lean Mass, SLM), %fat, WHR), HbA1c, and HOMA-IR. Paired t-test was used to process data within each group. Pre- and post experiment differences rates (%diff) were used to perform one-way ANOVA (Duncan test) for group comparisons. The conclusions derived are as follows. Regarding body composition, exercise groups showed an increase in SLM, but there was no such change in the control group. WHR decreased in group A, but increased in the control group. The % body fat decreased in both exercise groups, but increased in the control group. As for the group comparisons, SLM in group A showed a greater increase than in group B and the control group. WHR in groups A and B showed a greater decrease than the control group. The % body fat in groups A and B showed a greater decrease than the control group. The exercise groups showed a significant decrease in HOMA-IR, but the control group showed a significant increase in HOMA-IR. As for the group comparisons, groups A and B showed a greater decrease in HOMA-IR than the control group. The exercise groups showed a significant decrease in HbA1c, however, the control group showed no change in HbA1c. As for the group comparisons, group A showed a greater decrease in HbA1c than the control group. These results confirm that combined training is more effective in improving body composition and metabolic factors when it includes a high proportion of resistance training, rather than aerobic exercise. The results of the study suggest that it is advisable to set a high proportion of WT when deciding the intensity of combined training.
Mycelial Culture of Lentinus edodes Alleviates Rat Liver Toxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride and Ethanol
Ha, Yeong-L. ; Kim, Young-S. ; Ahn, Chae-R. ; Kweon, Jung-M. ; Park, Cherl-W. ; Ha, Young-K. ; Kim, Jeong-O. ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 133~141
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.133
The protective effect of a mixed powder from solid-cultured and liquid-cultured Lentinus edodes mycelia (2:1, w/w) (designate LED) on the carbon tetrachloride (
)- and ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat was investigated. In the
-induced rat hepatotoxicity experiment, rats of 4 groups (6 rats/group) were administere with Normal (0.2 ml distilled water), Control (0.2 ml distilled water), LED (LED 200 mg/kg BW + 0.2 ml distilled water), and Silymarin (200 mg/kg BW + 0.2 ml distilled water), p.o., daily for 2 weeks. Afterwards, all groups except for the Normal group were subjected to abdominal injection with
: corn oil, 1:1 v/v; 0.5 ml/kg BW). For the ethanol- induced rat hepatotoxicity experiment, rats were divided into 5 groups (5 rats/group): Normal; Pair-fed control (PFC); Control (ethanol); LED (ethanol + LED 200 mg/kg BW); and Silymarin (ethanol + silymarin 200 mg/kg BW). Rats of the Normal and PFC groups were fed a basal liquid diet, and rats of the Control, LED, and Silymarin groups were fed a liquid ethanol diet containing LED or Silymarin. Eight weeks later, blood and liver samples were collected to analyze biomarkers. In
-induced SD rats, LED elevated hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase) activities and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) were reduced, resulting in the reduction of glutamate-oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in plasma. Similar results of these enzymes and biochemical markers in both liver tissues and plasma were seen in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity of SD rats. In addition, elevated alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and reduced expression of cytochrome p450 mixed monooxygenase enzyme (CYP2E1) were seen in liver tissues from ethanol-treated rats by LED treatment. These effects of LED were similar to those of Silymarin. In in vitro experiments, LED showed antioxidant activity in a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) system and mouse liver mitochondria system induced by NADPH/
and cumine hydroperoxide (CuOOH). These results indicate that LED protected SD rat hepatotoxicity, induced by
and ethanol, through its antioxidative activity and might be useful as a material for protection from hepatoxicity in humans.
Characteristics of Agronomy to Selected 3 Lines from Native Green Waxy Rice(Oryza sativa L.)
Chun, Hyun-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 142~146
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.142
In order to find out better cultivation practices for environmentally-friendly agriculture, an experiment with four fertilizer levels and one cultivar, 'Boseokchal', and three lines, GG-05-03, GG-05-04, and GG-05-07 was carried out. Those lines had been selected from native green waxy rice over a period of five years (2004~2008). The tillering numbers of both the GG-05-03 and GG-05-04 lines were similar, but GG-05-07 was less than those. Regarding plant height, both GG-05-04 and GG-05-07 were higher than 'Boseokchal', while GG-05-03 was similar to it. There was no marked difference of quantitative character amond the three lines regarding grain weight and grain number of ear. 1000-grain weights of all three lines were slightly light compared to 'Boseokchal' cultivar. Head rice yields of both the GG-05-03 and GG-05-07 lines were less than 'Boseokchal', but the GG-05-04 line was similar to it. Only total lipids of all compositions of brown rice showed a slightly different rate compared to 'Boseokchal'. These results summarize that the GG-05-07 line was shown to be better than both the GG-05-03 and GG-05-04 lines for environmentally-friendly agriculture practices.
The Review of Environment, Food and Exercise on Allergy Anaphylaxis
Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Baek, Young-Ho ; Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Il ; Yoo, Byung-In ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 1, 2010, Pages 147~152
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.1.147
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a physical allergy, sometimes severe, triggered by exertion following specific food intake. It was defined for the first time in 1980. EIA is associated with different kinds of exercise. The clinical manifestations progress from itching, erythema and urticaria to some combination of cutaneous angioedema and vascular collapse. Mast cell participation in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been proved by the findings of an elevated serum histamine level during exhaustive exercise. As predisposing factors of EIA, a specific or even nonspecific sensitivity to food has been reported. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a distinct form of food allergy induced by physical exercise. It is typified by the onset of anaphylaxis during exercise which was preceded by the ingestion of the causal food allergens. The diagnosis of FDEIA is heavily dependent on clinical history. Allergy tests may need to be performed using a broad panel of food and food additives. As with food allergies, FDEIA diagnosis is based on interview, biological test and skin test. Prophylaxis aims to prevent a recurrence; the patient should be given an emergency kit to deal with any recurrent episodes. After the food allergen has been identified, it should be avoided for at least 4 to 5 hours before any exercise. Two cases of EIA are presented (EIA to circumstances; FDEIA) in this paper, The diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapy of FDEIA are also reviewed.