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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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Production of the Antiserum against Recombinant Envelop Protein, rVP466 for the Neutralization of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)
Gong, Soo-Jung ; Kim, Yeong-Jin ; Choi, Mi-Ran ; Kim, Sung-Koo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1427~1432
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1427
This study was carried out to evaluate neutralization effects against WSSV using antiserum produced from recombinant envelop protein, rVP466 of WSSV. The VP466 gene of WSSV was cloned into pCold I expression vector and rVP466 was expressed in E. coli RIPL. The antiserum against rVP466 was produced in white rabbits (New Zealand white rabbit). The specific immunoreactivity to the antigen, rVP466, was confirmed by Western blot. The constant amounts of WSSV at
diluted stocks were mixed with various antiserum concentrations and then injected to the muscle of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis, for the neutralization challenge. The shrimps challenged with WSSV as a positive control and those with the mixture of WSSV and preimmune serum as a preimmune control showed 100% cumulative mortality at 17 days post challenge and 83% at 25 days post challenge, respectively. The shrimps challenged with 3 different mixtures of WSSV and rVP466 antiserum at ratios of 1:0.01, 1:0.1 and 1:1 showed 73%, 53% and 46% cumulative mortalities at 25 days post challenge, respectively. These results indicated that WSSV could be neutralized by the rVP466 antiserum. These results suggest that envelop protein VP466 is involved in the initial step of WSSV infection in shrimp.
Pilot-scale Optimization of Parameters Related to Dissolved Oxygen for Mass Production of Pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans HP-2001
Gao, Wa ; Kim, Yi-Joon ; Chung, Chung-Han ; Li, Jianhong ; Lee, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1433~1442
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1433
Parameters related to dissolved oxygen for the production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans HP-2001 were optimized in 7 l and 100 l bioreactors. The optimal concentrations of glucose and yeast extract for the production of pullulan were 50.0 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and its conversion rate from glucose was 37% at a flask scale. The optimal initial pH of the medium and temperature for cell growth were 7.5 and
, whereas those for the production of pullulan were 6.0 and
. The optimal agitation speed and aeration rate for cell growth were 600 rpm and 2.0 vvm in a 7 l bioreactor, whereas those for the production of pullulan were 500 rpm and 1.0 vvm. The production of pullulan with an optimized agitation speed of 500 rpm and aeration rate of 1.0 vvm was 18.13 g/l in a 7 l bioreactor. Maximal cell growth occurred without inner pressure, whereas the optimal inner pressure for the production of pullulan was 0.4 kgf/
in a 100 l bioreactor. The production of pullulan under optimized conditions in this study was 22.89 g/l in a 100 l bioreactor, which was 1.38 times higher than that without inner pressure.
Honokiol Inhibits Nitric Oxide-Induced Apoptosis in Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes via PI-3K/AKT Pathway
Lee, Won-Kil ; Kim, Song-Ja ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1443~1450
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1443
Honokiol is a small molecular weight ligand originally isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Magnolia officinalis, a plant used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine . In a previous study, the effects of honokiol were shown to have anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive and anti-proliferative activities in a variety of cancers [1,3,4,11,13,17,24,29,30]. We showed previously that direct production of nitric oxide (NO) by treatment of NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), led to apoptosis in rabbit articular chondrocytes [15,16]. This study confirmed that NO-induced apoptosis was suppressed by honokiol treatment in a dose-dependent manner as determined by cell phenotype, MTT assay, Western blot analysis and FACS analysis in articular chondrocytes. Treatment of honokiol inhibited SNP-induced expression of p53 as well as DNA fragmentation in articular chondrocytes, but increased expressionof pro-caspase-3. Inhibition of SNP-induced apoptosis by honokiol treatment was rescued by LY294002, the specific inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) in articular chondrocytes. Our results indicate that honokiol inhibits NO-induced apoptosis via PI-3K/AKT pathway in rabbit articular chondrocytes.
Protein Kinase (PKC)-ε Interacts with the Serotonin Transporter (SERT) C-Terminal Region
Moon, Il-Soo ; Seog, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1451~1457
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1451
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important mediator of cell-cell signaling in neuronal systems. The serotonin transporter (SERT) on the plasma membrane controls the extracellular 5-HT level by reuptake of released 5-HT from the synaptic cleft, but the underlying regulation mechanism is unclear. Here, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify the specific binding protein(s) that interacts with the carboxyl (C)-terminal region of SERT and found a specific interaction with protein kinase C-
), a PKC isotype that is characterized as a calcium-independent and phorbol ester/diacylglycerol-sensitive serine/threonine kinase. PKC-
bound to the tail region of SERT but not to other members of the
dependent SLC6 gene family in the yeast two-hybrid assay. The C-terminal region of PKC-
is essential for interaction with SERT. In addition, these proteins showed specific interactions in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. PKC-
phosphorylated the peptide of the SERT amino (N)-terminus in vitro. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of SERT by PKC-
may regulate SERT activity in plasma membrane.
Clinical Usefulness of Preoperative Levels of Leukocyte and D-Dimer in Predicting Perioperative Outcomes of Cardiovascular Disease
Choi, Seok-Cheol ; Kim, Yang-Weon ; Hwang, Soo-Myung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1458~1467
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1458
The present study was retrospectively designed to define whether preoperative levels of leukocytes and D-dimer are potentially useful factors in predicting perioperative outcomes of coronary heart disease (CHD). There was no relationship between preoperative leukocyte counts (Pre-OP leukocyte) and preoperative D-dimer levels (Pre-OP D-dimer). Pre-OP leukocyte counts each had positive correlation with cardiac troponin-I, creatine kinase-MB or C-reactive protein (cardiac markers) levels at preoperative and postoperative periods. Pre-OP D-dimer levels were positively associated with each cardiac marker at the same periods. Pre-OP leukocyte counts positively related with aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (liver markers), whereas Pre-OP D-dimer level positively or negatively correlated with bilirubin (liver marker), creatinine (renal marker) or glucose levels at preoperative and/or postoperative periods. Pre-OP leukocyte and Pre-OP D-dimer were inversely associated with Pre-OP high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels or left ventricular ejection fraction. Pre-OP leukocyte counts each had positive correlation operation duration and postoperative mechanical ventilation-time (PMVT), whereas Pre-OP D-dimer levels had positive relationship with PMVT, intensive care unit-staying period and hospitalization. The retrospective data suggest that Pre-OP leukocyte and Pre-OP D-dimer levels may be clinically useful factors for predicting perioperative outcomes in patients with CHD.
Sulfate Reduction of Rice Paddy, Foreshore, and Reservoir Soil
Kim, Min-Jeong ; Park, Kyeong-Ryang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1468~1475
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1468
Sulfate reduction rates (SRR) using
, sulfide producing rates (SPR) using gas chromatography, the number of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) using the most probable number (MPN) method, and soil components (moisture, ammonium, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, total carbon, total inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, and sulfate) using standard methods in the organic/conventional rice paddy soils, cleaned/polluted reservoir soils, and cleaned/polluted foreshore soils were studied with the change of seasons. The average SRR was more related to the number of SRB and soil components (especially nitrogen and phosphorus) than sulfate concentration. SRR was also recorded to be highest in October soil samples. However, SPR was higher in foreshore soils containing a high concentration sulfate than in fresh water soils, and it was also recorded to be higher in the polluted areas than in clean areas. From these results, we can conclude that the SRR and SPR of anaerobic environments were affected by the number of SRB, soil components and temperature.
The Effects of Exercise Intensity on MDA Concentration and SOD Activity in Rats
Ko, Ki-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1476~1482
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1476
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of swimming training on response of lipid peroxide (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity of hyperlipidemic rats. Twenty-five male SD rats (6 weeks old) were randomly divided into a control group and 4 swimming groups after hyperlipidemia induction for 4 weeks through a 1% cholesterol diet. Swimming groups were then divided into unloaded swimming group, low-loaded swimming group, moderate-loaded swimming group and high-loaded swimming group by swimming intensity, and made to swim for 6 weeks (6 days/week). The loaded swimming group rats among the swimming groups swam a lead weight equivalent to 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% of body weight attached to the base of the tail. All data were expressed as mean and standard deviation by using an SPSS/
program, and to evaluate the differences between groups, data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range test (
=0.05) was performed to test the significant levels of differences between groups. The conclusions obtained from this study were as follows: 1) all swimming groups had significantly lower levels of MDA than the control group (p<0.001). Among the swimming groups, the moderate-loaded group had a significantly lower level than the unloaded group, low-loaded group and high-loaded group (p<0.001). 2) all swimming groups had significantly higher levels of SOD than the control group (p<0.01). Among swimming groups, the unloaded group, moderate-loaded group and high-loaded group had significantly higher levels than the low-loaded group (p<0.01).
The Effect of 4 Weeks of Treadmill Exercise and Protein Diet on Immunoglobulin and Antioxidant Enzyme in Rats
Lee, Chan-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Sung, Gi-Dong ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1483~1489
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1483
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise and a protein diet on immunoglobulin and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 weeks old, were used. Experimental groups were divided into exercise with protein diet group (A, n=11), exercise group (B, n=11), protein diet group (C, n=11), and the control group (D, n=11). Exercise was administered through a treadmill running program (14~18 m/min,
grade, 20 min/day, 5 day/wk) and these rats were given a 40% protein diet for 4 wk. The results of this study are as follows: the protein diet group showed a significant increase in IgG of immunoglobulin compared to the exercise group and control group; the exercise with protein diet group and protein diet group showed a significant increase in SOD activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group; the exercise with protein diet group, exercise group and protein diet group showed a significant increase in GPx activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group; the exercise with protein diet group showed a significant increase in CAT activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the protein diet group and control group. In conclusion, treadmill exercise and a protein diet were found to help with immunoglobulin and antioxidant enzymes. Further research regarding the effects of exercise and protein diets is required.
Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Tissues of Carassius auratus
Shin, Myung-Ja ; Kwon, O-Chang ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Seo, Eul-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1490~1497
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1490
The present study aimed to investigate the level of accumulated heavy metal in various tissues of Carassius auratus after exposure to Cadmium (Cd), histologically and physiologically. After treating C. auratus with Cd, the accumulated Cd in gill tissues was detected to be of the highest content, and showed the lowest content in integument tissues. Also, Cd content increased in a time dependent manner and showed the highest accumulation in the tissues exposed for 20 days. Antioxidant enzyme activities showedhigher activity in the gill and integument than in the kidney and liver tissues. In the case of SOD, antioxidation activity of SOD in all Cd exposed tissues was higher than in unexposed tissues. The activities of SOD and CAT also became higher after Cd exposure. Gill tissues exposed to Cd showed an increased number of mucous cells between lamella in a time dependent manner. In addition, the gills showed morphological changes such as edema, exfoliation of epithelial cells, and fusion of the secondary lamellae. Also, exposure to Cd for 20 days had an effect on gill tissues, causing membrane damage in the mitochondria and nucleus. In kidney tissues, atrophied glomerulus was observed, and the empty space in Bowman's capsule was wider.
Identification of Polymorphisms in CAST Gene Associated with Economic Traits in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae)
Oh, Jae-Don ; Lee, Jin-A ; Lee, Kun-Woo ; Park, Kyung-Do ; Cho, Byung-Wook ; Jeon, Gwang-Joo ; Lee, Hak-Kyo ; Kong, Hong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1498~1504
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1498
A number of studies have shown that the calpain system is important in normal skeletal muscle growth. An increased rate of skeletal muscle growth can result from a decreased rate of muscle protein degradation, and this is associated with a decrease in activity of the calpain system, due principally to a large increase in calpastatin (CAST) activity. The CAST gene, mapped to BTA 7, is considered a candidate gene for beef tenderness and muscle growth. The present study used comparative sequencing of five novel polymorphisms located within exon 20 and 22 of the bovine CAST gene in Hanwoo: exon20- 109737G/A, 109749T/C, 109823T/C, exon22- 116151G/A, intron- 109926G/A. The association of the CAST SNPs with economic traits was studied. The 109926G/A showed a significant effect only on the longissimus muscle area (LMA, p<0.05) in Hanwoo. 109926G/A with the genotype GG had a significantly higher effect on LMA (75.35) than the genotype AA (69.6, p<0.05). Also, the 116151G/A showed a significant effect only on weight at 18 months (W18, p<0.05). 116151G/A with the genotype GG had a significantly higher effect on W18 (428.54) than the genotype AA (408.87, p<0.05).
Antimicrobial- and Anticarcinogenic Activities of Amphitrite albicostatu Fractions
Shin, Hye-Jung ; Shin, Mi-Ok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1505~1510
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1505
In this study, we investigated antimicrobial- and anticarcinogenic activities of Amphitrite albicostatu (AA) fractions. AA was extracted with methanol first and then further fractionated into four different types: hexane (AAMH)-, methanol (AAMM)-, buthanol (AAMB)- and aqueous (AAMA) partition layers. In the paper disk test, the antimicrobial activity of AA fractions increased in proportion to concentration. Among the various solvent fractions, only AAMB showed antimicrobial activity. We also determined the growth inhibition and quinone reductase (QR) induced effects of AA fractions on cancer cells. The growth inhibition effects of AA fractions on HepG2 and B16F10 cells were evaluated by MTT assay. AAMM showed the strongest growth inhibition effects on HepG2 and B16F10 cells. The quinine reductase (QR) induced effects of AAMM on HepG2 cells at 100 ug/ml concentration indicated it to be 2.04 times higher than the control values of 1.0. Although further studies are needed, the present work suggests that Amphitrite albicostatu (AA) could have a potential use as a food preservative and chemopreventive agent.
Isolation and Identification of Inhibitory Compounds on Helicobacter pylori from Rosa multiflora Thunberg Fruit Extracts
Park, Ki-Tae ; Kim, Jin-Sung ; Jo, Bun-Sung ; An, Bong-Jeun ; Chun, Sung-Sook ; Kim, Jeung-Hoan ; Cho, Young-Je ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1511~1518
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1511
The antimicrobial activity of 70% ethanol extracts from Rosa multiflora Thunberg fruit against Helicobacter pylori was examined. The inhibitory activity of Rosa multiflora Thunberg fruit extracts against H. pylori was determined to clear a zone of 14 mm with 70% ethanol extracts. Purification of inhibitory compounds was carried on Sephadex LH-20 and
cartridge column chromatography using a gradient procedure, with increasing ethanol (
. The chemical structure of the purified inhibitory compounds on H. pylori was identified to be protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and quercetin by FAB-MS, NMR and IR spectrum.
Studies on the Anticancer Effect of Apigenin in KB Cell Xenograft Nude Mouse Model
Lee, Jin-Seok ; Seo, Hyeong-Seok ; Kim, So-Jung ; Kim, Hyeong-Jin ; Kim, Jin ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Park, Young-Seok ; Park, Byung-Kwon ; Kim, Byeong-Soo ; Kim, Sang-Ki ; Jung, Ji-Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1519~1524
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1519
Apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a common dietary flavonoid abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, has shown remarkable anti-proliferative effects against various malignant cell lines. To observe the anti-proliferative effects, oral cavity cancer cell lines,
cells/well (96 well plate) of KB oral cavity tumor cells were plated and 24 hr later treated with apigenin for one day, after which MTT assay was performed. Apigenin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner after incubation. Cell viability was significantly decreased in the group treated with 100
apigenin for 24 hr (p<0.05) compared to the control group. To assess apoptosis, the nuclei of KB cells were stained with DAPI. The presence of chromatin condensation in the apigenin treated cells was detected on a fluorescent microscope (
). We investigated the in vivo growth inhibitory effects of apigenin on oral cavity cancer KB tumor xenograft subcutaneously implanted in male nude mice. Apigenin was administered to mice by gavage at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day in 0.2ml of PBS. Tumor volume was significantly decreased in 25 and 50 mg/kg apigenin-administration groups compared to the control group. For apoptosis analysis, TUNEL staining was performed. A significant increase in TUNEL positive cells was found in the 25 mg/kg apigenin administration group compared to the non- apigenin administration group. Histopathological changes were not observed. These results indicate that apigenin inhibits oral cavity cancer cell growth through the induction of apoptosis.
Influences of Silkworm Sericin on the Improvement Actions of Lipid Metabolism in Dyslipidemic Rats
Kim, Han-Soo ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Guen ; Yoon, Ho-Dong ; Kang, Jin-Soon ; Xie, Cheng-Liang ; Shin, Ji-Moon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1525~1531
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1525
The principal objective of this study was to investigate the effects of silkworm sericin extract supplementation on the improvement of lipid compositions, blood glucose levels and enzyme activities in the serum of dyslipidemic rats. The rats were fed the experimental diet for 5 weeks. Concentrations of total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), phospholipid (PL), free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester ratio and blood glucose in serum were higher in the dyslipidemic group (group HCW) and cholesterol-plus-silkworm sericin extract intake group (group HCS) than those in the control group (group BW, basal diet-plus-water). However, the concentrations of total cholesterol, atherosclerotic index, LDL-cholesterol, TG, PL, free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester ratio and blood glucose level in serum were lower in group HCS than those in group HCW. On the other hand, the HDL-cholesterol level and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol in group HCS were higher than in group HCW. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransferase (AST & ALT) in serum were lower in group HCS than in the dyslipidemic group HCW. From the above results, it was suggested that silkworm sericin extract intake was effective in the prevention and improvement of lipid components, blood glucose level and enzyme activities in the sera of dyslipidemic rats.
Comparison of Effect of Various Types of Soybeans on Mutagenicity and Growth of Human Cancer Cell Lines
Lim, Sun-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1532~1537
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1532
This study compared the inhibitory effects of methanol extracts from yellow and black soybeans (black soybean, Seomoktae and Seoritae) on mutagenicity using the Ames test and growth of human cancer cells (AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma, HT-29 human colon cancer, Hep 3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells). In the Ames test system using Salmonella typhimurium TA100, aflatoxin
)-induced mutagenicity was significantly inhibited by treatments with the methanol extracts from either yellow or black soybeans in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05). The methanol extracts from various black soybeans tended to have a greater inhibitory effect compared to those from yellow soybeans. As for N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguamidine (MNNG)-induced mutagenicity, the methanol extracts (5 mg/assay) from black soybean, Seomoktae and Seoritae showed 51%, 61% and 53% inhibitory rates, respectively, indicating that Seomoktae, a type of black soybean, had a stronger antimutagenic activity against mutagens (both
and MNNG). Methanol extracts from black soybeans showed an inhibitory rate of greater than 50% on the growth of human cancer cells (AGS, HT-29 and Hep 3B) and the inhibition was more effective in the methanol extract from Seomoktae. Our results suggested that the methanol extracts from black soybeans showed stronger inhibitory effects on mutagenicity and growth of cancer cells than those from yellow soybean. It is concluded that intake of black soybean can be recommended for improving health.
Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Brassica juncea by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
Oh, Yung-Hee ; Moon, Sung-Gi ; Chae, Yang-Hee ; Hong, Hwa-Jin ; Cho, Min-Cheol ; Park, So-Hye ; Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1538~1543
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1538
This study was conducted to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of 17 Brassica juncea populations in Korea. The technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) produced 60 polymorphic loci and 18 monomorphic loci. In a simple measure of intraspecies variability by the percentage of polymorphic bands, the Jindo population of Cheonnam showed the highest (29.5%). The cultivar exhibited the lowest variation (12.8%). Mean number of alleles per locus (A) and the effective number of alleles per locus (
) were 1.221 and 1.167, respectively. As the typical populations of this species were small, isolated, and patchily distributed in their natural populations, they maintained a low level of genetic diversity of fourteen primers. On a per locus basis, total genetic diversity values (
) and interlocus variation in the within-population genetic diversity (
) were 0.347 and 0.141, respectively. On a per-locus basis, the proportion of total genetic variation due to differences among populations (
) was 0.589. This indicated that about 58.9% of the total variation was among populations. The estimate of gene flow, based on
, was very low among Korean populations of B. juncea (
=0.617). These results suggest that the geological distance dispersal of wild B. juncea is the best event. RAPD markers are very effective in classifying natural population levels of B. juncea in Korea.
Relationship between Moxifloxacin Resistance Pheno- and Genotype of Moxifloxacin-Resistant Mycoplasma hominis Obtained in vitro
Park, In-Dal ; Choi, Myung-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1544~1548
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1544
Moxifloxacin (MF) - resistant mutants of Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) were generated by stepwise selection in increasing concentrations of MF, and six strains of MF resistant M. hominis mutants - M1, M4, M8, M16, M32, and M64 - in which MICs of MF were 0.5, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
/ml, respectively, were generated. Compared to the sequence of M. hominis PG21, all mutants harbored amino acid substitutions of Arg-163 Thr in GyrA, and Pro-445 Gln in ParE. While the concentrations were getting higher, an additional amino acid substitution was found at Ser-153 Lys in GyrA (
), Ser-91 Ile in ParC (
), and Val-450 Phe (
) in GyrB. These substitutions seem to have an impact on resistance to MF, and GyrB change was found only in the highest concentration and seems to be associated with high-level resistance to MF. This, as far as we know, is the first description of a relationship between MF resistance phenotype and genotype.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biochemical Characteristics of Streptococcus suis Isolated from Diseased Pigs in Gyeongbuk Province
Choi, Seong-Kyoon ; Kim, Seong-Guk ; Kim, Young-Hoan ; Choi, Jeong-Hye ; Jo, Min-Hee ; Cho, Gil-Jae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1549~1555
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1549
Streptococcus suis is a worldwide pathogen of a variety of porcine infection and has also been described as a pathogen for humans. We studied biochemical characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and identification of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of S. suis isolated from diseased pigs in Gyeongbuk province from 2004 to 2009. Sixty-one isolates were identified as S. suis by biochemical characteristics and PCR from 40 farms. The biochemical characteristics of S. suis isolates were production of VP-negative, hippurate, esculin, and arginine decarboxylase-positive, and fermentation of carbohydrate was variable lactose, trehalose, inulin, and raffinose, which was typeable 11 phenotype. In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, the majority of isolates were highly susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoperazone and florfenicol, while being highly resistant to streptomycin, kanamycin, amikacin, neomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. The isolates were divided into 11 phenotypes of biochemistry. By using PCR, the 16S-rRNA gene DNA fragment was detected at 304 bp from all of isolates. These results may provide the basic information needed to establish strategies for the prevention of S. suis infection in pigs.
Histopathologic Observation of the Aborted Fetus from Pregnant Dairy Cows Naturally Infected with Neospora caninum
Son, Jeong-Hoon ; Cho, Sung-Whan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1556~1562
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1556
This study examined the histopathologic and electron microscopic findings of aborted fetuses from pregnant dairy cows naturally infected with Neospora caninum (N. caninum) at four farms in Gongju city and Yeonki gun of Choongnam province. Systemic subcutaneous edema was observed in the aborted fetuses. The necropsy revealed considerable serosanguinous fluid in the body cavity of the aborted fetuses. Light microscopy showed the infiltration of many inflammatory cells consisting of macrophages, lymphocytes and mononuclear cells, accompanied by congestion, hemorrhage and necrosis of myocardiac cells and hepatocytes in the liver and heart of the aborted fetuses. In the liver, clusters of tachyzoites were formed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and the interstitial tissue. In the brain, many tissue cysts of various sizes were observed in the nerve cells and their adjacent areas. Tissue cysts had a round shape and contained a large amount of bradyzoite. In addition, there was diffuse gliosis accompanied by congestion and hemorrhage and focal necrosis in the brain. Infiltration of microglial cells were observed at the periphery of the focal necrosis and perivascular area in the brain. Electron microscopy showed that the tissue cyst wall had a thickness of approximately 1
with an irregular shape. On the interior side, more than 100 bradyzoites with lengths of 2-5
and widths of 1-2
were observed. The nucleus of in the bradyzoites was located approximately 1-1.5
anterior to the posterior tip of the zoite. In the cytoplasm between the nucleus and the posterior tip, there were many amylopectin granules, electron-dense small-sized and electron-thin large-sized round granules, homogeneously electron-dense rhoptries and micronemes oriented perpendicularly to the zoite pellicle. To summarize, tissue cysts were identified on electron microscopy from the aborted fetus from N. caninum seropositive pregnant cow by the ELISA. This led to the confirmed presence of N. caninum.
Increase in the Chlorophyll Contents by Over-expression of GmNAP1 Gene in Arabidopsis Plant
Park, Phun-Bum ; Ahn, Chul-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 10, 2010, Pages 1563~1568
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.10.1563
In the course of a research concerning the molecular mechanism of hypocotyl elongation that occurs during soybean seedling growth in darkness, we have generated a number of ESTs from a cDNA library prepared from the hypocotyls of dark-grown soybean seedlings. Comparison of the ESTs assigned a cDNA clone as a putative plastidic ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) protein homologue. The soybean GmNAP1 protein contains an N-terminal transit peptide which targets it into the chloroplast. The transcription level of the GmNAP1 gene was investigated under continuous red light, continuous far-red light, and complete darkness. The main function of this NAP1 protein is the transport of protoporphyrin IX which is the precursor of chlorophyll from the cytoplasm to the chloroplast. The GmNAP1 gene was transferred into the Arabidopsis under the CaMV 35S promoter. The chlorophyll level of this transgenic Arabidopsis plant was much higher than the chlorophyll level of the wild type Arabidopsis plant.