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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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Roles of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Edwardsiella tarda Pathogenesis
Yu, Jong-Earn ; Oh, Young-Eun ; Lee, Tae-Ho ; Kang, Ho-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1743~1749
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1743
A research group demonstrated that the 37 kDA protein of Edwardsiella tarda, a causing causative agent of edwardsiellosis in fish, exhibited high antigenicity in Japanese flounder. The research group also showed that the N-terminus amino acid sequences of the 37 kDa protein were mapped to the N-terminus of GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). Using degenerated primer sets based on the known N-terminus sequence, the corresponding E. tarda DNA was amplified and cloned. The nucleotide sequences of the cloned gene revealed high homology with a bacterial gene for GAPDH, as we was expected. The amino acid sequence of E. tarda GAPDH (etGAPDH) revealed a <70% similarity with GAPDH proteins in other Enterobacteriaceae. With the application of artificial protein overexpression system in Escherichia coli, the recombinant etGAPDH (rGAPDH) was produced and purified. In this study, Using the purified rGAPDH, the etGAPDH specific polyclonal antibody has been was generated using the purified rGAPDHin this study. The immunoblotting analyses demonstrated that the location of the GAPDH protein is located with the association of is associated with the envelops of E. tarda. The rGAPDH was administrated into Japanese flounder via IP route for evaluation of the protective ability. Although the specific antibody titer against etGAPDH was increased about 3-fold after 4 weeks post-vaccination, the survival rates of vaccinated Japanese flounder and the control group with wild type E. tarda was were 12.5% and 0%, respectively. Our results indicated that rGAPDH is immunoreactive antigen but that it will not generate protective immunity in Japanese flounder.
Effect of Buan Mulberry on Metabolic Improvement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Lee, Ju-Taek ; Ryu, Jae-Sung ; Kwak, Dong-Hoon ; Park, Yun-Jum ; Kang, Seong-Sun ; Kim, Pyoung-Jun ; Hwang, Kyung-A ; Choo, Young-Kug ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1750~1757
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1750
This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of Buan mulberries by using an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model. Several studies have shown that mulberries have metabolism-improving, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In this study, Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to 1 normal control group and 5 STZ-induced diabetes groups: rats that had STZ-induced diabetes and did not receive any agents (diabetic group; negative control), rats that had STZ-induced diabetes and received insulin (insulin group; positive control), rats that had STZ-induced diabetes and received 0.5% mulberry extract (0.5% mulberry group), rats that had STZ-induced diabetes and received 1.0% mulberry extract (1.0% mulberry group), and rats that had STZ-induced diabetes and received 2.0% mulberry extract (2.0% mulberry group). Mulberry extracts were administered to the diabetic animals for 4 weeks. The rats that received mulberry extracts showed lower body weights and insulin levels, as well as higher kidney weights, blood glucose levels, urine quantities, and water intake in comparison with the normal controls. Further, the insulin concentrations in the mulberry-fed animals were higher than those in the diabetic group, and the kidney weights, blood glucose levels, urine quantities, and water intake in the mulberry-fed animals were lower than the corresponding values in the diabetic controls. These results suggest that mulberry may be an effective functional food to prevent diabetes-related complications.
The Genetic Variations of SQSTM1 Gene are Associated with Bone Density in the Korean Population
Jin, Hyun-Seok ; Eom, Yong-Bin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1758~1763
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1758
Osteoporosis is a complex systemic skeletal disease and a major public health concern worldwide. It is a heritable disorder characterized mainly by low bone density and/or low trauma osteoporotic fractures, both of which have strong genetic determination. However, the specific genetic variants determining risk for low bone density are still largely unknown. Here, we performed association analysis to elucidate the possible relationship between genetic polymorphisms in the SQSTM1 gene and low bone density. By examining a total of 7225 (men: 3622, women: 3603) subjects from the Korean population in the Korean Association REsource (KARE) study, we discovered that SQSTM1 gene polymorphisms were associated with bone density. The results of the BD-RT (bone density estimated by T-score at distal radius) showed that three SNPs (rs513235, rs3734007, and rs11249661) within the SQSTM1 gene were significantly associated with bone density. The results of the BD-TT (bone density estimated by T-score at midshaft tibia) showed that four SNPs (rs513235, rs3734007, rs2241349, and rs11249661) were significantly associated with bone density. The three SNPs (rs513235, rs3734007, and rs11249661) had common significance in both BD-RT and BD-TT. In summary, we found statistically significant SNPs in the SQSTM1 gene that are associated with bone density traits. Therefore, our findings suggest SQSTM1 gene could be related to pathogenesis of osteoporosis.
Phylogenetic Relationships and Genetic Diversity in Collected Resources of Carthamus tinctorius by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers
Sung, Jung-Sook ; Cho, Gyu-Taek ; Lee, Gi-An ; Baek, Hyung-Jin ; Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1764~1771
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1764
Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae) is an herb primarily distributed throughout in the world. The species is regarded as ecologically important in the world. Safflower was used for medicines, as well as making red (carthamin) and yellow dyes. We have used the RAPD technique to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of C. tinctorius. We obtained 123 bands from all the 26 cultivars. The average number of bands was 9.5 per primer. The genetic diversity of safflower is found among cultivars and there is a high among-cultivar differentiation. The OPC18-01 band is the specific marker for Syria cultivar, whereas no products were detected in individuals from other country cultivars. We found seven phenetic bands for determining the specific marker of cultivars with SCAR markers. Though the number of individuals sampled for analysis was small and probably not fully representative of the total available diversity in C. tinctorius, this study demonstrates that the regions (Morocco, Syria, and Turkey) of the Mediterranean Sea were more variable than other regions with the exception of India. In this result, although only simple result of RAPD is difficult to assert the center of species diversity of C. tinctorius, the regions of the Mediterranean Sea may be the most probable candidate for the origin of safflower. India was also the candidate of the center or secondary center of species diversity of C. tinctorius. RAPD markers were effective in classifying cultivar levels of safflower.
Auranofin Downregulates Nuclear Factor-κB Activation via Nrf2-Independent Mechanism
Kim, Nam-Hoon ; Park, Hyo-Jung ; Kim, In-Sook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1772~1776
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1772
Transcription factors Nrf2 and NF-
are important regulators of the innate immune response, and their cross-talks in inflammation have been reported. Previously, we demonstrated that gold(I)-compound auranofin, an inhibitor of NF-
signal, induced Nrf2 activation in human synovial cells and monocytic cells. To investigate whether the Nrf2 activation is involved in the mechanism of the auranofin-attenuated NF-
signaling, we examined the effects of Nrf2 knockdown on NF-
activation using rheumatic synovial cells. When the cells were transfected with a specific siRNA for Nrf2, the gene expression was perfectly blocked. However, the Nrf2 knockdown did not cancel the suppressive effect of auranofin on TNF-
degradation. Treatment with a specific siRNA for HO-1, which is a target of Nrf2 and plays a role in anti-inflammation, also did not affect the blocking activity of auranofin on
degradation. In addition, auranofin-inhibited ICAM-1 expression was not restored by Nrf2 knockdown. These findings indicate that the activated Nrf2 and HO-1 are not associated with the suppressive action of auranofin on the pro-inflammatory cytokines-stimulated NF-
activation. This suggests that Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-
signals, which are regulated by auranofin, participate in the anti-inflammatory action of auranofin via independent pathways in rheumatic synovial cells.
Working Mechanism of Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) and Sulphiredoxin1 (Srx1) in Arabidopsis thaliana
Kim, Min-Gab ; Su'udi, Mukhamad ; Park, Sang-Ryeol ; Hwang, Duk-Ju ; Bae, Shin-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1777~1783
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1777
Plants generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of normal aerobic metabolism or when exposed to a variety of stress conditions, which can cause widespread damage to biological macromolecules. To protect themselves from oxidative stress, plant cells are equipped with a wide range of antioxidant proteins. However, the detailed reaction mechanisms of these are still unknown. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous thiol-containing antioxidants that reduce hydrogen peroxide with an N-terminal cysteine. The active-site cysteine of peroxiredoxins is selectively oxidized to cysteine sulfinic acid during catalysis, which leads to inactivation of peroxidase activity. This oxidation was thought to be irreversible. Recently identified small protein sulphiredoxin (Srx1), which is conserved in higher eukaryotes, reduces cysteine.sulphinic acid in yeast peroxiredoxin. Srx1 is highly induced by
-treatment and the deletion of its gene causes decreased yeast tolerance to
, which suggest its involvement in the metabolism of oxidants. Moreover, Srx1 is required for heat shock and oxidative stress induced functional, as well as conformational switch of yeast cytosolic peroxiredoxins. This change enhances protein stability and peroxidase activity, indicating that Srx1 plays a crucial role in peroxiredoxin stability and its regulation mechanism. Thus, the understanding of the molecular basis of Srx1 and its regulation is critical for revealing the mechanism of peroxiredoxin action. We postulate here that Srx1 is involved in dealing with oxidative stress via controlling peroxiredoxin recycling in Arabidopsis. This review article thus will be describing the functions of Prxs and Srx in Arabidopsis thaliana. There will be a special focus on the possible role of Srx1 in interacting with and reducing hyperoxidized Cys-sulphenic acid of Prxs.
Inhibition of Cell Invasion by Ethyl Alcohol Extracts of Hizikia fusiforme in AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells
Choi, Yung-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1784~1791
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1784
In this study, we investigated the effects of ethyl alcohol extracts of Hizikia fusiforme (EHF) on the correlation between tightening of tight junctions (TJs) and anti-invasive activity in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells. Inhibitory effects of EHF on cell proliferation, motility, and invasiveness were found to be associated with increased tightness of the TJs, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance. Activities of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and -9 in AGS cells were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with EHF, and this was also correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins; however, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2 mRNA levels were increased. Additionally, immunoblotting results indicated that EHF repressed the levels of claudin proteins (claudin-1, -3, and -4), major components of TJs that play key roles in control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Furthermore, EHF decreased expression of insulin such as growth factor-1 receptor proteins, while concurrently increasing that of thrombospondin-1 and E-cadherin. In conclusion, these results suggest that EHF treatment may inhibit tumor cell motility and invasion, and therefore act as a dietary source to decrease the risk of cancer metastasis.
Structure Determination of Macrolactin Compounds with Antibacterial Activities Isolated from Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2
Kim, Dong-Hee ; Kang, Kyung-Ran ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Yoon, Si-Yeol ; Kim, Chun-Gyu ; Yamaguchi, Tokutaro ; Sohng, Jae-Kyung ; Kang, Jae-Seon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1792~1800
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1792
In this study, we isolated five macrolactin compounds from a fermentation broth of Bacillus polyfermenticus KJS-2. The macrolactin compounds were structurally identified as macrolactin A (MA), 7-O-malonyl macrolactin A (MMA), 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A (SMA), macrolactin E (ME) and macrolactin F (MF) via a variety of NMR techniques, COZY, DEPT, HMQC and HMBC, and mass and specific rotation assays. The three macrolactin compounds, MA, MMA and SMA, profoundly inhibited the growth of both vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VREs) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the inhibition of which were estimated via a disc agar diffusion bioassay. MA, MMA, and SMA exhibited antibacterial activities superior to those of vancomycin and teicoplanin.
Isolation, Purification and Characterization of the β-Xylosidase from Klebsiella sp. Sc.
Lee, Yong-Seok ; Park, In-Hye ; Ahn, Soon-Cheol ; Choi, Yong-Lark ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1801~1806
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1801
-xylosidase encoding gene from Klebsiella sp. Sc was cloned in Escherichia coli. The
-xylosidase gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1,680 nucleotides and encodes 559 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 63 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the
-xylosidase from Klebsiella sp. Sc exhibits 90% identities and 95% positives compared to those from Klebsiella oxytoca (KOX), Lactobacillus lactis (LAC, 82%, 90%), Bacillus longum (BLON, 69%, 81%) and Escherichia coli (ECOLI, 47%, 63%). The
-xylosidase was purified by GST-fusion purification system. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 6.6 and
, respectively. The
-xylosidase hydrolyzes xylobiose to xylose.
Verification of the Fractions with Strong Estrogenic Activities from Brown Algae
Lee, Seung-Woo ; Jang, Min-Kyung ; Kim, Nam-Young ; Jang, Hye-Ji ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Kim, Yuck-Young ; Kim, Sung-Gu ; Yoo, Byung-Hong ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1807~1811
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1807
In order to evaluate estrogenic compounds in brown algae, an in vitro test system for the verification of estrogenic activity was applied. Fractions from ethanol extracts of each brown alga were prepared by a systematic fractionation procedure with solvents such as
, hexane, butanol and methanol. Aqueous fractions of brown algae showed the highest estrogenic activities. Estrogenic activities of
aqueous fractions of Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica showed almost the same strength as that of
standard solution (
-estradiol). Furthermore, estrogenic activities of
aqueous fractions of Ecklonia stolonifera and Porphyra suborbiculate represented higher activities than that of
-estradiol. These observations suggest that aqueous fractions of all these brown algae are expected to possess estrogenic compounds and could be developed as estrogenic agents for postmenopausal disorder.
The Influence of Breakfast Size to Metabolic Risk Factors
Kim, Yun-Jin ; Lee, Jeong-Gyu ; Yi, Yu-Hyeon ; Lee, Sang-Yeoup ; Jung, Dong-Wook ; Park, Seon-Ki ; Cho, Young-Hye ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1812~1819
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1812
Skipping breakfast is a risk factor closely related to metabolic syndrome and obesity. We analyzed the relationship between breakfast size, metabolic syndrome and obesity. The study included 5,548 adults who visited a health promotion center at Pusan National University from January to November of 2006. Subjects were divided into four groups according to breakfast size - skipper group (no breakfast), small intake group, medium intake group and large intake group. 959 (17.3%) of the 5548 subjects were included in the Skipper group. Intake of daily calories, proteins, carbohydrates and fats was the lowest in the Skipper group. Breakfast size increased linearly with an increased intake of daily calories, proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Body mass index (
) and waist circumference (79.6 cm) were the lowest in the Small intake group. In the Small intake group, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were the lowest, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were the highest. The number of metabolic risk factors was the lowest in Small intake group. Odds ratio of metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio=0.612) was the lowest in Small intake group. Along with increasing breakfast size, the odds ratio also increased. In this study, breakfast size was found to influence metabolic risk factors. Skipping breakfast worsened metabolic risk factors, while a small breakfast size had a favorable effect on metabolic risk factors.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response and Apoptosis via the CoCl
-Induced Hypoxia in Neuronal Cells
Kim, Seon-Hwan ; Kwon, Hyon-Jo ; Koh, Hyeon-Song ; Song, Shi-Hun ; Kwon, Ki-Sang ; Kwon, O-Yu ; Choi, Seung-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1820~1828
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1820
Cobalt(II) chloride, a chemical compound with the formula
, has been widely used in the treatment of anemia, as a chemical agent for the induction of hypoxia in cell cultures, and is known to activate hypoxic signaling. However, excessive exposure to cobalt is associated with several clinical conditions, including asthma, pneumonia, and hematological abnormalities, and can lead to tissue and cellular toxicity. It is also known to induce apoptosis. One of the questions was that of whether
might induce apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in neurons. To address this question, first, the level of DNA fragmentation was measured for assay of apoptotic rates using
with neuron PC12 cells. After confirmation of apoptosis inductions, under the same conditions, the expression levels of ER stress associated factors [ER chaperones Bip, calnexin, ERp72, ERp29, PDI, and ER membrane kinases (IRE1, ATF6, PERK)] were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. These results indicated that apoptosis is induced through activation of ER membrane kinases via ER stress. In conclusion, during induction of apoptosis through
-induced hypoxia in neuron PC12 cells, ER membrane kinase of IRE1 was dominantly up-expressed, and, consecutively, TRAF2, which has been suggested to be one of the links connecting apoptosis and ER stress, was strongly up-expressed.
Flavor Modification of Mideoduck (Styela clava) Drips by Maillard Reaction
Kang, Seok-Joong ; Jung, Sung-Ju ; Choi, Yeung-Joon ; Choi, Byeong-Dae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1829~1837
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1829
Mideoduck drips were mixed with amino acids (Met, Tau, Gly, Ala, Thr, Cys), thiamine and sugars (Glucose, Ribose) for flavor modification and evaluation using the Maillard reaction. To mask the seafood flavor, onions, spring onions, garlic, ginger, citric orange and green tea were mixed with Mideoduck drips at
for 2.5 hr in a stainless still reaction bomb. The glucose/thiamine model reaction system was estimated to be lower than the ribose/thiamine model system, and an extreme case is the ribose/Met model system. Mixed system of glucose, ribose and taurine containing sulfur compounds showed fair results. Among the Mideoduck drips mixed with sugars and amino groups, only thiamine model systems were estimated to be normal. The flavor composition of Mideoduck drips/sugars model system, and long chain fatty acids were composed of 31.32~62.71% total flavor content. The 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid dibutylester contents made up more than 20% of the model system in groups A, B and C. From the model system in this study, drip/glucose, drip/ribose, drip/glucose/citric orange, and drip/glucose/glycine/cystine groups showed most intense good flavor.
Anti-Wrinkle Effects of Korean Rice Wine Cake on Human Fibroblast
Yoo, Jung-Min ; Kang, Yeo-Jin ; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae ; Choung, Eui-Su ; Park, Shin-Young ; Choi, Ji-Ho ; Han, Gwi-Jung ; Lee, Choong-Hwan ; Kim, Tack-Joong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1838~1843
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1838
Skin aging is related to genetic and environmental factors (e.g., gene mutation and UV radiation respectively). To develop a new anti-wrinkle cosmetic or functional food by using Korean rice wine cake, we examined the effects of Korean rice wine cake, a brewery byproduct, on antioxidant effect, collagen synthesis and expression of MMP-1. Interestingly, we found that Korean rice wine cake has the ability to promote scavenging activity of DPPH radical. We also found that the cell proliferation and synthesis of collagen in HS27 cells was increased by Korean rice wine cake in a concentration-dependent manner. However, elastase inhibitory activity was not changed. In addition, the expression of MMP-1 was inhibited by Korean rice wine cake in a concentration-dependent manner. All these results suggest that Korean rice wine cake can be effectively used for the prevention of wrinkles in human skin.
Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Fat Reduction and Physical Exercise Enhancement of Obese Male Middle School Students
Ha, Yeong-L. ; Jeong, So-Bong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1844~1850
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1844
Body fat reducing and physical-activity enhancing effects, along with artherosclerosis improving effects, of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were elucidated on obese male middle school students with more than 30% body fat. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly divided into control (placebo, n=12) and CLA treatment (n=12) groups. Subjects were daily fed 6 g CLA (6 capsules, twice a day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, body composition, blood lipid composition and exercise capacities of subjects were measured. CLA significantly reduced body fat content and body mass index (BMI) along with body weight, while the placebo did not have any such effects. Similarly, CLA significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, but elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol content in blood. Meanwhile, in terms of exercise capacity, there were significant enhancements of trunk flexion, closed-eyes foot balance, standing long jump, shuttle run, and sit-up activities in the CLA treatment group. These results indicate that CLA consumption reduced body fats, improved atherosclerosis factors in blood and improved physical activity of young male obese middle school students, and suggest that CLA could be a useful material for the heath care of obese young men.
The Effect of Ecklonia stolonifera Extracts on Blood Flow and Serum Lipid Level in Ovariectomized Rats
Kim, Young-Kyoung ; Jeon, Min-Hee ; Park, Yong-Soo ; Hwang, Hyun-Jung ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Kim, Sung-Gu ; Kim, Yuck-Young ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1851~1858
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1851
Estrogen deficiency in peri- and postmenopausal women results in variety of neurovegetative, psychic and somatic symptoms, and may contribute to severe diseases within the aged female population. Ecklonia stolonifera (ES) is an edible brown algae traditionally used in fishery towns in Far East Asia. This study was performed to investigate the effects of ES extracts on blood flow and serum lipid concentration in ovariectomized rats. Weight-matched female Sprague-Dawley strain rats were assigned to four groups. Three groups were surgically ovariectomized (OVX). The fourth group was sham operated. Rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated rats (Sham), ovariectomized control rats (OVX-CON), ovariectomized rats supplemented with ES extract at 50 mg/kg bw/day (OVX-ES50) and ovariectomized rats supplemented with ES extract at 200 mg/kg bw/day (OVX-ES200). Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride contents decreased in the sham group compared to the OVX-CON group. Six weeks feeding of ES extract resulted in a significant (p<0.05) lowering of serum triglyceride and a lowering tendency of total cholesterol level. The level of Hdl-cholesterol in serum increased by supplementation of ES extracts at 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg bw/day (p<0.05). Blood passage time of the ES extracts-supplemented group was higher than the OVX-CON group. The ability of platelet aggregation of groups treated with ES extracts was less than that of the OVX-CON group. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of ES extract may be used to possibly improve on the metabolic syndrome of menopausal women.
Molecular Identification of Deer Antlers using Nucleotide Sequences of Mitochondrial Displacement Loop Region
Yoo, Hyun-Sook ; Lee, Gi-Nam ; Lee, Jin-Sung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1859~1866
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1859
It is reported that about 80% of deer antlers (Cervi Pantotricuhum Cornu) produced in the world are consumed in Korea. Fraudulent replacement or mislabeling of costly deer antlers with cheaper ones, however, is one of the most common problems in the Korean deer antler market. Therefore, there is a continuous need for the development of genetic markers to discriminate between genuine and fraudulent deer antlers. This study was performed to develop a method for the identification and authentication of deer antlers using nucleotide sequence analysis against displacement loop of mitochondrial genome among four deer antlers, Cervus eleaphus sibericus, Cervus eleaphus bactrianus, Cervus eleaphus Canadensis, and Cervus eleaphus, originated from Russia, China, North America and New Zealand, respectively. As a result, multiple-alignment of mitochondrial displacement (D) loop region in 1.2 kb showed that, among the four deer antlers, a deleted sequence of about 70 bps was only found in Cervus elaphus bactrianus from China. Finally, Cervus elaphus bactrianus among nine samples of deer antlers were successfully identified by PCR using primer amplifying deleted D-loop. Cervus elaphus bactrianus was also confirmed from cloning the PCR products and their nucleotide sequence analyses were confirmed. However, no marker to identify Cervus eleaphus sibericus, Cervus eleaphus canadensis and Cervus eleaphus were found in the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial D-loop. Our results suggest that PCR for deleted D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA are useful for identification and authentication of deer antlers of Cervus elaphus bactrianus originating from China.
The Effect of Abdominal Breathing Exercise on Weight and Body Fat, BMI, Waist Hip Ratio in Obese College Student
Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Kim, Young-Il ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1867~1871
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1867
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of abdominal breathing exercises, through AB spur, on weight and BMI, % body fat, and waist-hip ratio in healthy college students. The subjects consisted of 20 obese young college students, and all of whom had no other health complications. The subjects were shown in detail the proper way to utilize the equipment and practice abdominal breathing in a laboratory setting. They were told to wear the AB spur for at least six hours a day in order to induce abdominal breathing exercise. Because the subjects were students, most of the abdominal breathing exercises took place while they were sitting in lectures at school, and they wore the equipment for 12 weeks. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the subjects started using the AB spur, there were significant decreases in weight, % body fat, BMI, and waist-hip ratio (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the stud suggest that abdominal breathing exercise may be a good weight loss method, as well as a beneficial way to decrease obesity factors, in obese college students.
Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanol Extracts of Fermented Agabeans in AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells
Kim, Sung-Ryeal ; Lee, Hye-Hyeon ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Seo, Min-Jeong ; Hong, Su-Hyun ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ; Kang, Byoung-Won ; Park, Jeong-Uck ; Joo, Woo-Hong ; Rhu, Eun-Ju ; Jeong, Yong-Kee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1872~1881
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1872
Extracts of soybeans fermented by Bacillus subtilis have a wide variety of functions, such as enhancing the body's immune function, fibrinolysis activity, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, estrogen function and anti-infection effects. Recently, it was reported that the extracts of fermented beans exhibit strong anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties by suppressing the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and induction of apoptosis, respectively. However, the mechanisms of their cytotoxicity in human gastric cancer cells are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl alcohol extracts from fermented soybean (FS) and yellow agabean (FYA) on cell growth and apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells. A treatment of FS and FYA inhibited the growth of AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. FS- and FYA-induced apoptosis were associated with down-regulation of XIAP and cIAP-2, and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression. Moreover, a treatment of FS and FYA not only triggered an increase in the levels of death receptor (DR)4, DR5, Fas and FasL, but also induced the activation of casepase-3, -8 and -9. These findings illustrate that FS and FYA may have a therapeutic potential in human gastric AGS cells and as a functional food.
Biological Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus rhamonosus GG-4 Isolated from Infant Feces
Kang, Jin-Hae ; Kim, Dae-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Kim, Hong-Chul ; Cho, Young-Un ; Gal, Sang-Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1882~1888
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1882
To develop probiotics, a kind of Lactobacillus sp. was isolated from infant feces. The bacterium was identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus through 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain was a facultative anaerobe which grew better in aerobic conditions. The bacterium lowered the pH of the culture solution down to 2.4 during 48 hr in the MRS medium. The strain inhibited the growth of 6 pathogens - S. aureus, L. monocytogens, S. typhimurium, E. coli O-157, V. parahaemolyticus and P. aeruginosa. When the Lactobacillus were fed to chickens, along with commercial feed, for one month, amounts of
in the feces of the chicken decreased to 50% and 70%, respectively, compared to those of control group chickens. Amounts of other bad smells such as
were not much different in the Lactobacillus-fed chickens compared to the control group. On the other hand, egg weights of the chickens fed Lactobacillus were higher by about
than those in the control group.
Effects of Exhaustive Exercise and Aged Garlic Extract Supplementation on Weight, Adipose Tissue Mass, Lipid Profiles and Oxidative Stress in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats
Lee, Hyun-Mi ; Seo, Dae-Yun ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1889~1895
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1889
The purpose of this present study was to investigate the effects of long-term treadmill running and aged garlic extract supplementation on weight, adipose tissue mass, lipid profiles and oxidative stress after exhaustion in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 weeks old) were used as subjects. High fat diets were fed to all subjects for 6 weeks in order to induce obesity. The subjects were divided into five groups - N (normal diet group), HD (high fat diet group), E (exercise group), EA (exercise with AGE diet group) and A (AGE diet group). Aerobic exercise was performed through treadmill running and AGE at a dosage of 2.86 kg/g was administered to rats 30 min before every exercise for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, all groups completed acute treadmill running (speed increasing gradually to 25 m/min, 15% uphill grade) until exhaustion. Immediately after exhaustive treadmill exercise, the weight, adipose tissue mass, lipid profiles and oxidative stress of the rats were assayed. At the end of 6 weeks of high fat diets, body weight and body weight gain were significantly higher in the high fat diet groups than in the normal diet group (p<0.001). At the end of treadmill exercise with AGE intake for 4 weeks, body weight gain, visceral and epididymal fat of the E and EA groups were significantly decreased compared to other groups (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in gastrocnemius and soleus. T-C, HDL-C, TG and LDL-C were not significant in any of the groups. TBARS was significantly lower in the A group than in the E group (p<0.05). These results indicated that body weight gain, visceral and epididymal fat decreased in the E and EA groups, and TBARS levels were lower in the A group than the E group. Regular aerobic exercise intervention with AGE supplementation may also modify the adipose weight and improve the oxidant stress in obese rats.
Quantitative Real-time PCR using Lactobacilli as Livestock Probiotics
Choi, Yeon-Jae ; Kim, Sun-Ho ; Gu, Min-Jeong ; Choe, Han-Na ; Kim, Dong-Un ; Cho, Sang-Bum ; Kim, Su-Ki ; Jeon, Che-Ok ; Bae, Gui-Seok ; Lee, Sang-Seok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1896~1901
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1896
This study was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR using Lactobacilli as probiotics. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT PCR) was conducted via a method involving SYBR Green 1 and a probe. Plasmid DNA was cloned using the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic species region. Gene clones were diluted from
. Standard curves were constructed via Ct values obtained from the results of Real-time PCR via the aforementioned SYBR Green 1 and probe method. Plasmid DNA was also cloned using the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic species region and the gene clones were diluted from
copy numbers via the probe method. Using RT PCR, a standard curve of plasmid DNA copy numbers was also determined. The slope value for the Y-axis intercept and
value were measured as -3.346, 33.18, and 0.993, respectively, via the first method. For the second method, the slope value for the Y-axis intercept and
were -3.321, 31.10 and 0.995, respectively. The PCR inhibitor could not express the detection curve at a copy number over
via either method, owing to high DNA density. The DNA extract from probiotics was diluted without pre-culturing, and 16 products were amplified via both methods. The Ct value was 11.06~18.12 in the first method and 16.74~22.11 in the second method. Measured probiotics and log copy values were largely similar among the methods used. It was concluded that both methods are effective for analysis, but further research will be required to verify the optimal method.
Production of All-Female using Sex-Reversal Gynogenetic Diploid in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
Lee, Cheul-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Jung ; Jeong, Chang-Hwa ; Choi, Gyeong-Cheol ; Lee, Chae-Sung ; Kim, Dong-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1902~1905
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1902
This study was conducted to increase the efficiency of farming practice in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by sex reversal and chromosome-set manipulation techniques. Induction of sex-reversed gynogenetic diploid rainbow trout males and mass production of all-female rainbow trout by genetic sex reversal was performed. Phenotypic males in the gynogenetic diploid group were induced successfully by dietary administration of 5 mg of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone per kg diet for 82 days. All females were produced by crossing between normal female and sex-reversed gynogenetic diploid male rainbow trout.
Acid and Nucleophile Catalysed Hydrolyses of Benzenesulfinamides
Lee, Jong-Pal ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 12, 2010, Pages 1906~1909
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.12.1906
Acid and halide ion catalyses for the hydrolysis of benzenesulfinamides were kinetically investigated. The rates of hydrolysis increased with increasing concentration of both acid and halide ions and also showed to speed up as the electron donating ability of the benzenesulfinyl moiety and the electron withdrawing ability in the leaving group increased. The reactivity of halide ions was in the order of
. The reaction mechanism may be accommodated by including a hypervalent intermediate and sulfonium cation.