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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2010
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2010
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2010
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2010
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2010
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
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Sudden Death Caused by Clostridium perfringens Type D Enterotoxemia in Feedlot Cattle
Jang, Seong-Jun ; Do, Sun-Hee ; Ki, Mi-Ran ; Hong, Il-Hwa ; Park, Jin-Kyu ; Cho, Yu-Jeong ; Ji, Ae-Ri ; Park, Se-Il ; Park, Sang-Joon ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Kwak, Dong-Mi ; Jeong, Kyu-Shik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 639~643
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.639
Sudden deaths have occurred in feedlot cattle with marked necro-hemorrhagic enteritis of the jejunum, ileum and colon. Suckling beef calves are the most frequently affected. Over-consumption of large amounts of milk, inadequate colostrum intake, chilling and stress are conducive to the development of enterotoxemia. Enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D mostly occurs following a sudden change of diet, particularly to feeds made richer in order to grow the cattle to market weight in feedlots. During July 2006, sudden deaths of cattle occurred in the Youngcheon regional area of Gyeongbuk province. There were no significant clinical signs except anorexia, depression, intermittent diarrhea and mild respiratory failure. Histological findings revealed a prominent intranuclear inclusion as well as infiltration of the globular leukocytes in various organs including the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. Spleen and lymphatic tissues showed lymphatic necrosis and a starry sky appearance. In the submucosa of the small intestines, basophilic aggregation was detected with massive infiltration of the globular leukocytes and eosinophils. Gram staining for the tissue sections containing inclusions of the small intestines revealed a positive histochemical reaction. Taken together, we suggest that Clostridium perfringens type D-induced enterotoxemia is determined to be the cause of sudden death of feedlot cattle.
Influence of Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, on the Growth of Endoparasitic Fungus Esteya vermicola
Wang, Chun-Yan ; Lee, Chung-Ha ; Lee, Mi-Ra ; Yun, Beom-Sik ; Liu, Lei ; Wang, Zhen ; Fang, Zhe-Ming ; Zhang, Dong-Liang ; Li, Zheng ; Sung, Chang-Keun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 644~648
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.644
The influence of nematodes on nematophagous fungi has seldom been investigated. In the present study, the influence of pinewood nematode on its endoparasitic fungus, Esteya vermicola, was investigated systemically. Although both nematodal metabolite and nematodal homogenate could stimulate and speed up the growth of E. vermicola, the impact of nematodal metabolite was slightly higher than that of nematodal homogenate. In addition, a method was developed to investigate the influence of volatiles, discharged by pinewood nematodes in their metabolic process, on the growth of E. vermicola. Reproductive results were given and confirmed that nematodal volatiles have no influence on the cell growth of E. vermicola. This study may provide information for the application of E. vermicola as biological control agent of pinewood nematode.
RAPD Analysis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Isolated from Thoroughbred Horses
Choi, Seong-Kyoon ; Park, Yong-Soo ; Cho, Kwang-Hyun ; Cho, Gil-Jae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 649~654
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.649
A total of 68 samples were collected including vaginal mucosa (n=66) from Jangsu stud farm, an equine aborted fetus (n=1), and uterine contents (n=1) from Jeju island. Seventeen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) strains isolated from horses in Korea were identified as S. zooepidemicus by biochemical tests and sodA.seeI specific multiplex PCR. All isolated strains were divided into 4 clusters: group 1 (No. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15), group 2 (No. 4, 9), group 3 (No. 10, 16, 17), and group 4 (No. 1, 8) by RAPD typing. In group 3, No. 10 isolate that was isolated from vaginal mucosa was indistinguishable from No. 16 and 17 isolates, which were isolated from the equine uterine contents and the equine aborted fetus, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a limited epidemiological relationship exists between the strains from Jangsu (No. 10) and Jeju (No. 16 and No. 17). All isolates showed a high susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, cephalothin, florofenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, oxacillin, penicillin, tiamulin, tylosin and vancomycin in antimicrobial susceptibility tests. These results may provide the basic information needed to establish strategies for the treatment and prevention of reproductive diseases in mares in Korea.
Suppression of Human GD3 Synthase (hST8Sia I) Expression Induced by Retinoic Acid in Human Melanoma SK-MEL-2 Cells
Kwon, Haw-Young ; Kang, Nam-Young ; Lee, Young-Choon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 655~661
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.655
To elucidate the mechanism underlying the suppressive regulation of hST8Sia I expression in retinoic acid (RA)-induced SK-MEL-2 cells, we characterized the promoter region of the hST8Sia I gene. Functional analysis of the 5‘-flanking region of the hST8Sia I gene by the transient expression method showed that the -1146 to -646 region, which contains putative binding sites for transcription factors c-Ets-1, CREB, AP-1 and NF-kB, functions as the RA-repressive promoter in SK-MEL-2 cells. Site-directed mutagenesis and ChIP analyses indicated that the NF-kB binding site at -731 to -722 is crucial for the RA-induced repression of hST8Sia I in SK-MEL-2 cells. In addition, the transcriptional activity of hST8Sia I suppressed by RA in SK-MEL-2 cells was strongly inhibited by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GO6976, as determined by RT-PCR and luciferase assay of hST8Sia I promoter containing the -1146 to -646 regions. These results suggest that RA markedly modulates transcriptional regulation of hST8Sia I gene expression through the PKC/ERK signal pathway in SK-MEL-2 cells.
Isolation and Identification of Lipolytic Enzyme Producing Pseudomonas sp. OME and Optimization of Cultural Conditions
Kumar, G.Satheesh ; Reddy, T. Kiran ; Madhavi, B. ; Teja, P.Charan ; Chandra, M.Subhosh ; Choi, Yong-Lark ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 662~669
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.662
Lipolytic enzyme-producing bacteria were isolated from edible oil mill effluents on tributyrin agar medium. The shake-flask-scale studies yielded a promising isolate and it was identified as Pseudomonas sp. An OME using various microbiological observations such as cultural, microscopic, and biochemical tests was undertaken and confirmed using PIBWIN bacterial identification software. Lipolytic enzyme production was screened with oils such as sunflower, caster, coconut, tributyrin, and olive. Amongst these, olive oil showed an increased lipase production 6.1 U/ml. In view of the highest lipolytic enzyme production with olive oil, further optimizations were carried out using olive oil as a carbon source. Lipolytic enzyme production was optimized by a conventional 'one variable at a time' approach and the significant factors were further analyzed statistically using response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of physical factors such as incubation time, temperature, initial medium pH, and nutritional factors such as concentration of olive oil and yeast extract were examined for lipase production. Lipolytic enzyme secretion was strongly affected by three variables (incubation time, concentration of yeast extract and olive oil). Therefore, the interaction of these three factors was further optimized using response surface methodology. The optimized conditions of lipase production using response surface methodology yielded a maximum of 9.62 U/ml with optimum conditions for incubation, yeast extract and olive oil concentrations were found to be 48 hr, 0.3 g. and 0.9 ml. respectively.
Autoimmune Regulator Gene (Aire) is Expressed in Lymph Node Fibroblastic Reticular Cell, BLS4
Moon, Kyoung-Mi ; Seo, Hee-Ju ; Oh, Ji-Youn ; Lee, Jae-Seol ; Kim, Hae-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Choi, Woo-Bong ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Kim, Kwang-Hyeon ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 670~675
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.670
Autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) is expressed in the thymus and controls the expression of peripheral self-antigens, known as promiscuous genes. Aire and promiscuous genes are involved in T cell tolerance and autoimmunity in the thymus. Here, we identified Aire-expressing fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC), which was derived from mouse lymph node and also expressed in insulin promiscuous antigen. The expression of insulin was increased in cultured FRC over-expressed with Aire. These data suggest that Aire regulates promiscuous gene expression in FRC, and that this function might be under peripheral selection control.
Types of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Produced in Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Sewage Plant Drain Water
Kim, Gun-Do ; Lee, Hun-Ku ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 676~682
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.676
This study focused on typing of the extended-spectrum
-lactamase (ESBL) produced in organisms isolated from a natural environment, rather than a clinical setting. Samples were collected from drain water issuing from a sewage plant in Kwanganri (Busan, Korea). Following double disk synergy testing, 29 strains were selected as potential ESBL positive strains. Of these, 15 strains were transconjugants of the sodium azide resistant recipient strain Escherichia coli J53 and analyzed biochemically including indole, methyl-red, Voges-Proskauer, Simmon's citrate, decarboxylase-dihydrolase and sugar-fermentation tests. The tests classified the 15 strains as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=13) and Escherichia coli (n=2). The type of ESBL from each strain was deduced by isoelectric focusing point analysis and DNA sequencing. The results indicated that the types of ESBL were SHV-12 (n=4) and SHV-12/TEM-1 (n=9) from K. pneumoniae and TEM-1 (n=2) from E. coli strains.
Characterization of Sporulation-Specific Glucoamylase of Saccharomyces diastaticus
Kim, Eun-Ju ; Ahn, Jong-Seog ; Kang, Dae-Ook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 683~690
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.683
The yeast strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus produce one of three isozymes of an extracellular glucoamylase I, II or III, a type of exo-enzyme which can hydrolyse starch to generate glucose molecules from non-reducing ends. These enzymes are encoded by the STA1, STA2 and STA3 genes. Another gene, sporulation-specific glucoamylase (SGA), also exists in the genus Saccharomyces which is very homologous to the STA genes. The SGA has been known to be produced in the cytosol during sporulation. However, we hypothesized that the SGA is capable of being secreted to the extracellular region because of about 20 hydrophobic amino acid residues at the N-terminus which can function as a signal peptide. We expressed the cloned SGA gene in S. diastaticus YIY345. In order to compare the biochemical properties of the extracellular glucoamylase and the SGA, the SGA was purified from the culture supernatant through ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sephadex C-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The molecular weight of the intact SGA was estimated to be about 130 kDa by gel filtration chromatography with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. Sodium dedecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed it was composed of two heterogeneous subunits, 63 kDa and 68 kDa. The deglycosylation of the SGA generated a new 59 kDa band on the SDS-PAGE analysis, indicating that two subunits are glycosylated but the extent of glycosylation is different between them. The optimum pH and temperature of the SGA were 5.5 and
, respectively, whereas those for the extracellular glucoamylase were 5.0 and
. The SGA were more sensitive to heat and SDS than the extracellular glucoamylase.
Antioxidative Effect of So-Dang-Tang in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Jung, Jin-Ki ; Park, Yong-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 691~696
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.691
In this study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of So-Dang-Tang (SDT) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (45 mg/kg body weight) into Sprague-Dawley rats. The SDT (200 mg/kg) and the reference drug, glibenclimide (1mg/kg), were orally administered once a day for 28 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, including those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the levels of glutathione (GSH) and production of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the liver, kidney, and pancreas of diabetic rats. Treatment with SDT in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH levels in the liver, kidney, and pancreas when compared to those of the STZ-control group. SDT also significantly decreased lipid peroxidation product and MDA levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results indicate that SDT has an antioxidative action in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 in Pigs
Jung, Byeong-Yeal ; Byun, Jae-Won ; Kim, Ha-Young ; Shin, Dong-Ho ; Park, Choi-Kyu ; Jung, Suk-Chan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 697~702
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.697
Ten farrow-finish farms participated in this seromonitoring that was conducted to investigate the porcine brucellosis situation in Korea. In total, eight (80.0%) of the 10 farms and 139 (24.0%) of 578 pigs tested showed a positive response in the Rose Bengal test (RBT). Seroprevalence levels were determined using RBT according to age; 35 (14.6%) of 239 piglets, 36 (31.3%) of 115 growing pigs, and 68 (30.4%) of 224 finishing pigs and sows were positive, respectively. All positive samples in RBT were tested with the tube agglutination test (TAT) and competitive ELISA (C-ELISA), simultaneously. Although 48 samples came up positive in the TAT, all samples tested with C-ELISA were negative. Among 26 rectal swab samples from the TAT positive-pigs, Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was isolated from seven samples (26.9%). Therefore, we speculated that the positive reaction of RBT and TAT in this study might be induced by the serologically cross-reacting bacteria with Brucella abortus.
Deletion Polymorphism of UGT2B17 and Its Relation to Lung Cancer
Lee, Se-Ra ; Ahn, Myoung-Hyun ; Seol, So-Young ; Lee, Ji-Sun ; Chung, Chung-Nam ; Leem, Sun-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 703~709
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.703
Glucuronidation is a major pathway for NNAL [4-(methylnitrosamno)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol] and UGT2B17 (UGT, uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase) is from the UGT2B family that glucuronidates carcinogens. UGT2B17 deletion was associated with decreased levels of NNAL and with increased risk of some cancers. The UGT2B17 gene varies in copy number from zero to two per individual in humans. To examine whether UGT2B17 gene deletion is associated with the risk of lung cancer, we investigated copy number variants (CNV) in 271 cancer-free controls and 176 cases of lung cancer in Koreans by a PCR-based method. The frequency of the UGT2B17 deleted alleles was much higher than in other Caucasian and African-American groups which have already been reported. While only up to 10% of Caucasians have zero copies of the gene, up to 74% of Koreans in this study showed that both copies of the gene were deleted. Furthermore, the overall frequency of this dual deletion in female groups was higher than in male groups. However, there was no association between CNV in UGT2B17 and lung cancer. This result suggested that the UGT2B17 deletion allele was not associated with the susceptibility of lung cancers in the Korean group. However, this UGT2B17 CNV polymorphism may be a useful marker for evolutionary analysis among races.
The Effect of Makgeolli on Blood Flow, Serum Lipid Improvement and Inhibition of ACE in vitro
Shin, Mi-Ok ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ; Bae, Song-Ja ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 710~716
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.710
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Makgeolli (MG) and Makgeolli GiGemi (MGG) on blood flow, serum lipid improvement in vivo, and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro. The activities of serum AST and ALT were increased by ovariectomy. Serum AST levels were decreased to
in the OVX-MG50 and OVX-MGG50 groups compared to the OVX-control group (
). Serum ALT levels were decreased to
in OVX-MG50 and OVX-MGG50 groups compared to the OVX-control group (
). Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride contents decreased in the sham group compared with OVX-control group by ovariectomy. Six weeks feeding of MG and MGG resulted in a decrease to
compared to the OVX-control group (
) in serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were decreased to
in the OVX-MG50 and OVX-MGG50 groups compared to the OVX-control group (
). The level of HDL-cholesterol in the OVX-control group was significantly reduced to
compared to the sham group (
), but it was increased to
with MG and MGG supplementation. Furthermore, the effect of the MG group was higher than the MGG group. Microscopic observation showed that whole blood passed smoothly through the micro channels in the MG and MGG supplemented groups. The platelet aggregation ability of the groups treated with MG and MGG was less than that of the OVX-control group. In vitro assay, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was significantly inhibited by MG and MGG (82.6% and 68.9% inhibition at 0.4 g/ml). These results suggest that the beneficial effects of MG and MGG may be used to improve on the lipid metabolic syndrome of menopausal women. In addition, MG and MGG might improve blood homeostasis mediated activities via antiplatelets and MG and MGG may be used as antihypertensive functional foods and nutraceuticals.
Contamination Analysis of Heavy Metals in Commercial Feed for the Production of Safe-Animal Products
Kang, Jung-Mi ; Cho, Sang-Buem ; Kim, Soo-Ki ; Lee, Sang-Suk ; Lee, Si-Kyung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 717~722
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.717
The safety of animal feed was evaluated by analyzing the levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, As, Se and Ag) in cattle, swine, and poultry feeds and the levels of Cu, Zn and P in swine feed. Feeds used in the analysis were produced in Korea from 2004 through the first half of 2007. The results of the study revealed that, with the exception of Cd, the concentration of heavy metals were much lower than the Minimum Regulation Levels (MRLs). However, the Cd concentration exceeded the MRL in 1 of 987 swine feed samples in 2005, as well as in 4 of 1,239 swine feed samples and 1 of 778 poultry feed samples in 2006. The levels of Cu, Zn and P in swine feed were compared with the swine breeding standard. The results of this analysis revealed that the Cu concentrations in the samples exceeded the MRL for growing pigs by 0.97%, and that for finishing and breeding pigs by 9.9%. In addition, the Cu levels (80.98 ppm for piglet, 44.82 ppm for growing pigs, 19 ppm for finishing and breeding pigs) in swine feed showed higher levels compared to 3.5-6.0 ppm, which is the Cu requirement for swine. Furthermore, the results of the Zn analysis revealed that the samples exceeded the MRL for piglets, growing pigs, and finishing and breeding pigs by 5.7%, 7.7%, and 9.3%, respectively. Finally, the average concentration of P in swine feed was 0.74%, which is almost the same as the phosphate requirement for swine.
Effect of Abdominal Respiration on the Electrical Axis of ECG in Young Adults
Youn, Ryea-Min ; Kim, Young-Sik ; Yoon, Im-Sil ; Jung, Han-Na ; Nam, Jeong-Su ; Yoon, Joong-Soo ; Lee, Won-Joon ; Choi, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 723~728
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.723
The effect of abdominal respiration on electrocardiogram readings was examined using a 12-lead ECG in healthy young adults. Ten males and ten females without any cardiac and/or pulmonary problems participated in this study. ECG readings during periods of abdominal respiration and thoracic respiration were compared using a paired t-test. Results showed that the PR interval was longer in males compared to females during the period of abdominal respiration (p<0.05). There were no differences in amplitudes of the P, R, T waves, QTc, and degree of P axis between abdominal respiration and thoracic respiration in both male and female subjects. However, degrees of QRS axis in male subjects (p<0.05) and T axis (p<0.05) in female subjects were increased during the abdominal respiration. Therefore, abdominal respiration may cause positive electrical axis changes in the depolarization and relaxing re-polarization of the ventricles.
A Study on the Gene Expression of Adipogenic Regulators by an Herbal Composition
Lee, Hae-Yong ; Kang, Ryun-Hwa ; Bae, Sung-Min ; Chae, Soo-Ahn ; Lee, Jung-Ju ; Oh, Dong-Jin ; Park, Suk-Won ; Cho, Soo-Hyun ; Shim, Yae-Jie ; Yoon, Yoo-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 729~735
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.729
In our previous study, it was reported that an herbal mixture, SH21B, inhibits fat accumulation and adipogenesis both in vitro and in vivo models of obesity. SH21B is a mixture composed of seven herbs: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Prunus armeniaca Maxim, Ephedra sinica Stapf, Acorus gramineus Soland, Typha orientalis Presl, Polygala tenuifolia Willd, and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Ratio 3:3:3:3:3:2:2). The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms of the effects of SH21B on various regulators of the adipogenesis pathway. During the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells, SH21B significantly decreased the expression levels of central transcription factors of adipogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)
and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)
. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism of the anti-adipogenic effects of SH21B, we examined the expression levels of the various pro-adipogenic or anti-adipogenic regulators of adipogenesis upstream of
. The mRNA levels of Krox20 and Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 15, which are pro-adipogenic regulators, were significantly down-regulated by SH21B treatment, whereas the mRNA levels of C/
and KLF5 were not changed. KLF2 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which are anti-adipogenic regulators, were significantly up-regulated by SH21B treatment. These results suggest that the molecular mechanism of the anti-adipogenic effect of SH21B involves both the down-regulations of pro-adipogenic regulators, such as Krox20 and KLF15, and the up-regulations of anti-adipogenic regulators, such as KLF2 and CHOP, which results in the suppression of central transcription factors of adipogenesis including
Inhibitory Effect of Aged Black Platycodi Radix Extract on Expression and Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Oxidative-stressed Melanoma Cells
Chae, Yong-Byung ; Lee, Soo-Jin ; Jang, Ho-Jung ; Park, Jung-Ae ; Kim, Moon-Moo ; Chung, Kyung-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 736~744
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.736
The root of Playtcodon grandiflorum, called Platycodi radix, has been a favorite edible plant in Asia and contains a large amount of saponins. Melanoma cells (B16F10) were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of aged black Platycodi radix extract (ABPRE) on oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Platycodon radix has been known to have a variety of medicinal effects such as prevention of gastric ulcers, antiallergenic activities, histamine release inhibition, and antioxidant effects. However, the mechanism of its action remains unclear in humans. ABPRE was prepared using ethanol extraction of aged black Platycodi radix. In an antioxidant effect study of ABPRE, it was observed that ABPRE specifically exhibited the scavenging activity of DPPH radical, but did not inhibit the production of malondialdehyde from lipid peroxidation. DNA oxidation was also blocked in the presence of ABPRE. In addition, ABPRE decreased the expression and activation of MMP-2 stimulated by phenazine methosulfate. Furthermore, ABPRE revealed the inhibitory effect on melanin production induced by L-dopa via antioxidant effect and the reduction of tyrosinase expression. Especially, the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD-1 and SOD-2 regulated by Nrf2 was increased in the presence of ABPRE. Therefore, it appears that ABPRE may be a possible chemopreventive agent for the prevention of metastasis related to oxidative stress.
Effect of Benzyladenine on the IAA-Induced Ethylene Production in the Primary Roots of Maize
Song, Seong-Hee ; Park, Ji-Hye ; Kim, Soon-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 745~749
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.745
This study was conducted to examine the effect of cytokinin (
-benzyladenine; BA) and/or an IAA on ethylene production of maize (Zea mays) primary roots. When the two hormones were applied exogenously, both hormones synergistically increased ethylene production, which was greater than the sum of the level of each hormone's effect. For example, the ethylene production was stimulated between about 87% and 170% of the control by
IAA for 8 hours respectively, whereas the ethylene production was increased by about 480% of the control when the two hormones were treated simultaneously. Such a synergistic effect was also found in changes in the activity and gene expression level of ACC synthase. However, in the case of ACC oxidase did not show any observable effects. Based on our results, it is possible to conclude that BA and IAA stimulated the ethylene production synergistically by affecting the ACC synthase in maize roots.
Bioactive Materials and Biological Activity in the Extracts of Leaf, Stem Mixture and Root from Angelica gigas Nakai
Heo, Jin-Sun ; Cha, Jae-Young ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Ahn, Hee-Young ; Eom, Kyung-Eun ; Heo, Su-Jin ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 750~759
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.750
The bioactive materials (phenolic compounds, flavonoids, minerals, decursin and decursinol angelate) and biological activities (DPPH [
-picrylhydrazyl] free radical scavenging capability, reducing power, and tyrosinase activity) in the extracts of leaf, stem mixture (AGLS), and root (AGR) from Angelica gigas Nakai were examined by using water, hot water and ethanol solvent. The highest extract yield (21.89%) was found in the water extract of AGR. The highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of AGLS and AGR were 14.99% and 14.79%. Major minerals of AGLS and AGR were K, Mg, Fe, Na and Ca. Decursin and decursinol angelate were the major ingredients of Angelica gigas, detected at 18.71 and 18.89 min of retention time by HPLC analysis, respectively. The highest concentrations of decursin and decursinol angelate in the Angelica gigas ethanol extract were found in root (
) and leaf (
). The highest free radical scavenging activity was found in the hot water extracts of AGLS and AGR, and its activity was stronger in all extracts of AGLS than AGR. The highest reducing power was found in the ethanol extracts of AGLS and AGR and this was dependent on the sample concentration. The hot water extracts of AGLS and AGR revealed the highest inhibition activity on tyrosinase. Overall, these results may provide the basic data needed to understand the biological activities of bioactive materials derived from Angelica gigas.
In vitro Inhibitory Effect of Aged Black Garlic Extract with Antioxidant Activity on MMP-2 and MMP-9 Related to Metastasis
Lee, Soo-Jin ; Nam, Hyang ; Kim, Moon-Moo ; Jang, Ho-Jung ; Park, Jung-Ae ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Chung, Kyung-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 760~767
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.760
The oxidative damage of lipids, protein, and DNA is known to be involved in not only chronic inflammations such as arthritis, hepatitis, nephritis, gastritis, colitis, and periodontitis but also metastasis. It has given impetus to searching for natural compounds without toxicity, which prevent the development of these diseases. The direct scavenging effects of aged black garlic extract (ABGE) were evaluated in vitro on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and genomic DNA damage related to oxidative stress. Furthermore, its antioxidant effect on lipid peroxidation was investigated in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080), which were exposed to the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction. It was observed that ABGE exhibited a greater inhibitory effect on hydrogen peroxide than other reactive oxygen species, and also blocked DNA oxidation and lipid peroxidation induced by the hydroxyl radical. The oxidative stress in live cells was also inhibited in the presence of ABGE. In addition, its inhibitory effects on the activity and expression of MMP-2 and -9 related to metastasis were determined using gelatin zymography and western blot. The data showed that it inhibited MMP-2 and -9 in PMA-stimulated HT1080 cells. Therefore, these results suggest that ABGE show potential as an excellent agent for prevention of metastasis related to oxidative stress.
Nitrite Scavenging and Alcohol Metabolizing Activities of Hot Water Extract from Makgeoly and Its Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Effect
Cho, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Hee-Yeon ; Byeon, Hyeon-Ji ; Kim, Soo-Won ; Choi, Young-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 768~774
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.768
In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activities, alcohol metabolizing activities, nitrite scavenging ability, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and elastase inhibitory effects of hot water extract from Makgeoly (HWM). Antioxidant activities were measured by using 2,2.diphenyl.1.picryl.hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and SOD (superoxide dismutase).like activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD.like activity of HWM were remarkably increased in a dose.dependent manner and were 48.0% and 98.7% at 10 mg/ml, respectively. To determine the influence of HWM on alcohol metabolizing activity, the generating activities of reduced.nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were measured. The facilitating rates of ADH and ALDH activity by HWM were remarkably increased in a dose.dependent manner and were 70.2% and 64.1% at 10 mg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory activity against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) of HWM was increased in a dose.dependent manner and was 74.2% at 10 mg/ml. The nitrite scavenging ability of HWM showed the most remarkable effect at pH 1.2 and 2 mg/ml. These results indicated that HWM may have valuable biological properties owing to their antioxidant activities, ADH and ALDH activity, nitrite scavenging ability, and ACE inhibitory activity.
Antioxidants Activity of Aged Red Garlic
Lee, Soo-Jung ; Shin, Jung-Hye ; Kang, Min-Jung ; Jung, Woo-Jae ; Ryu, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Ra-Jeong ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 775~781
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.775
The antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from fresh, red and black garlic processed in low temperatures were compared. The chromaticity value of browning garlic was between that of fresh and black garlic. Red garlic was similar in browning intensity to fresh garlic. Also, total phenol, flavonoids, total pyruvate and thiosulfate contents were similar between fresh and black garlic. DPPH, ABTs, NO radical scavenging activity and reducing power of red garlic were significantly higher than fresh garlic, but lower than those of black garlic.
-Glucosidase inhibitory activity in red garlic was similar to that in black garlic. Antioxidant activities of red garlic were higher than fresh garlic but lower than black garlic, and it was confirmed that antioxidant activity by production of browning material through the thermal process was the main parameter of the biological activity in the aged red garlic.
Optimal Level for the Protection of Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Sprague-Dawley Rat Liver Damage by Mycelial Cultures of Lentinus edodes
Jang, Wook-J. ; Kim, Young-S. ; Ha, Yeong-L. ; Park, Cherl-W. ; Ha, Young-K. ; Kim, Jeong-O. ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 782~788
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.782
The protective effects of a powder mixed with solid-cultured and liquid-cultured Lentinus edodes mycelia (2 : 1, w/w) (designate LED) with different doses of carbon tetrachloride (
) on induced hepatotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. The rats were divided into seven groups (6 rats/group) and the following substances were administered orally to each group: Vehicle (0.2 ml distilled water), Control (0.2 ml distilled water), LED (LED 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg BW in 0.2 ml distilled water), and Silymarin (200 mg/Kg BW in 0.2 ml distilled water). After two weeks of daily administration, all groups except for the Vehiclegroup were subjected to abdominal injection with
: corn oil, 1 : 1 v/v; 0.5 ml/kg BW). One day later, blood and liver samples were collected to analyze biomarkers. All LED treatments elevated hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase) activities, and reduced thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), tumor necrosis factor-
) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), resulting in the reduction of glutamate-oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in plasma. These results indicate that LED effectively protected SD rat hepatotoxicity induced by
through its antioxidative activity and reduction of some cytokines. The highest efficacy was found in LED 200 mg/kg BW, showing potential as a useful material for protection from hepatotoxicity in humans.
Development of Simultaneous YAC Manipulation-Amplification (SYMA) system by Chromosome Splitting Technique Harboring Copy Number Amplification System
Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 789~793
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.789
Artificial chromosome manipulation and amplification of single-copy yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) are usually required in order to use YACs for applications such as physical mapping and functional analysis in eukaryotes. We designed and implemented a Simultaneous YAC Manipulation-Amplification (SYMA) system that combines the copy number amplification system of YAC with a convenient YAC manipulation system. To achieve the desired split and to amplify a YAC clone-harboring plant chromosome, a pBGTK plasmid containing a conditional centromere and thymidine kinase (TK) gene was constructed as a template to amplify the splitting fragment via PCR. By splitting, new 490-kb and 100-kb split YACs containing the elements for copy number amplification were simultaneously generated from a 590-kb YAC clone. The 100-kb split YAC was then successfully amplified 14.4-fold by adding 3 mg/ml sulfanilamide and
methotrexate (S3/M50) as inducing substances.
Analysis of Anti-Allergic Activities by Extracts from Persimmon Sap-Stained Rayon and Cotton Fabrics
Lee, Sang-Han ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 794~798
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.794
Allergic dermatitis is one of the most prevalent diseases in young/juvenile children worldwide. In this research, extracts with persimmon sap-stained fabrics (rayon and cotton) exhibited an elevation in
cell numbers. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and immunohistochemistry revealed that the expressions were decreased by addition of the extracts. The present results collectively suggest that the active ingredients of persimmon sap-stained fabrics play an important role in inhibition of DNFB-induced-atopic symptoms in vivo.
Association Study between Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2C19 Gene and Essential Hypertension in Koreans
Park, Ah-Ram ; Shin, Eun-Soon ; Son, Nak-Hoon ; Jang, Yang-Soo ; Shin, Dong-Jik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 799~804
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.799
In humans, CYP2C19, a member of the cytochrome P450 subfamily, metabolizes arachidonic acid to produce epoxyicosanoid acids, which are involved in vascular tone and regulation of blood pressure (BP). Recent findings suggest that CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms might be considered as a novel candidate gene for cardiovascular disease. We thus focused on the Korean population to explore the association of two polymorphisms (
) in this gene and essential hypertension (EH). A total of 1,241 participants (537 hypertensive subjects and 704 healthy controls) were recruited from the Yonsei Cardiovascular Genome Center in Korea. The CYP2C19 polymorphisms were genotyped using the
assay. The allele and genotype frequencies of
showed significant difference between hypertensives and normotensives (P=0.019 and P=0.023, respectively). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the
A allele carriers were significantly associated with EH (OR, 0.723; 95% CI, 0.538-0.972, P=0.032) under a dominant model. In addition, CYP2C19 G-A haplotype (
A combination) was found to significantly reduce EH risk (OR, 0.714, P=0.015). We believe this provides evidence that
polymorphism may contribute to a protective effect in the development of EH.
The Effect of Sea Tangle Supplementation and Exercise Training on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats
Hwang, Hye-Jin ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Kim, Hyang-Suk ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Kwon, Hyun-Ju ; Yoon, Byung-Kon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 20, issue 5, 2010, Pages 805~810
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2010.20.5.805
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Sea Tangle supplementation and exercise training on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats. Twenty seven, 4-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the control group (C, n=9), sea tangle group (D, n=9) and sea tangle+exercise group (D+T, n=9). Exercise training was performed 5 days a week using a treadmill running program for 6 weeks (5 m/min, 0% grade, 30 min). There was no difference in blood glucose (C:
) and triglyceride (C:
) among the groups. Total cholesterol value of the D+T group (
) was significantly lower than that of the C (
) and D (
) groups. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly high in the D+T (
) group compared with the C (
) group and D (
) group. The value of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for the D (
) group was statistically lower than the C(
) group, and higher than the D+T (
) group. In conclusion, sea tangle injection and exercise had a positive effect on blood lipid profiles.