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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
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Aged Garlic Extract and Its Components Inhibit Platelet Aggregation in Rat
Choi, You-Hee ; Jeong, Hyung-Min ; Kyung, Kyu-Hang ; Ryu, Beung-Ho ; Lee, Kwang-Youl ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1355~1363
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1355
Many clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on general cardiovascular health. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is known to display diverse biological activities such as in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, few studies have been directed on the effect of AGE on cardiovascular function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AGE and its components on platelet activation, a key contributor in thrombotic diseases. In freshly isolated rat platelets, AGE and its components have shown inhibitory activities on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. These in vitro results were further confirmed in an in vivo platelet aggregation measurement where tail vein injection of garlic oil and S-Allylmercapto-cysteine (SAMC) significantly reduced thrombin and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Potential active components for antiplatelet effects of AGE were identified to be SAMC and diallyl sulphide through agonist-induced platelet aggregation assay. These results indicate that aged garlic extract can be a novel dietary supplement for the prevention of cardiovascular risks and the improvement of blood circulation.
Ethyl Acetate Extract of Korean Rice Wine Lees Inhibits IgE-Mediated Degranulation in Rat Basophilic Leukemia RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis in Mice
Kang, Yeo-Jin ; Park, Sae-Jin ; Bae, Ki-Ho ; Yoo, Jung-Min ; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae ; Choi, Ji-Ho ; Kim, Tack-Joong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1364~1369
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1364
Mast cells, the central effector cells involved in the allergic response, release histamine, arachidonic acid, and proinflammatory cytokines. We investigated the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction (EA), derived from Korean rice wine lees, on RBL-2H3 cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in an animal model. The EA fraction suppressed the release of beta-hexosaminidase, a marker of degranulation, and the mRNA expression of interleukin-3 (IL-3) and IL-13. EA also successfully suppressed the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that EA can inhibit mast cell degranulation through the inhibition of IL-3 and IL-13 mRNA expression, and that EA may potentially serve as an anti-allergic agent.
Isolation and Characterization of Pyrimidine Auxotrophs from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639
Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Cha, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1370~1376
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1370
To study the functional genomic analysis of a crenachaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, we have constructed an auxotrophic mutant based on pyrEF, which encodes the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase. S. acidocaldarius was shown to be sensitive to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), which can be selected for mutations in pyrEF genes within a pyrimidine biosynthesis cluster. Spontaneous 5-FOA-resistant mutants by ultraviolet, KH1U and KH2U, were found to contain two point mutations and a frame shift mutation in pyrE, respectively. Mutations at these sites from KH1U and KH2U decreased the activity of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase encoded by the pyrE gene and blocked the degradation of 5-FOA into toxic 5-FOMP and 5-FUMP that kill the cells. Therefore, KH1U and KH2U were uracil auxotrophs. Transformation of Sulfolobus-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pC bearing pyrEF genes from S. solfataricus P2 into S. acidocaldarius mutant KH2U restored 5-FOA sensitivity and overcame the uracil auxotrophy. This study establishes an efficient genetic strategy towards the systematic knockout of genes in S. acidocaldarius.
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effect of Astaxanthin Derived from Microalgae
Kwak, Tae-Won ; Cha, Ji-Young ; Lee, Chul-Won ; Kim, Young-Min ; Yoo, Byung-Hong ; Kim, Sung-Gu ; Kim, Jong-Myoung ; Park, Seong-Ha ; An, Won-Gun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1377~1384
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1377
Astaxanthin (ATX) is a red-orange carotenoid pigment that occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of ATX on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), proinflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-
) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, we tested the superoxide radical scavenging activity of ATX by scavenging assay. iNOS and NF-
expressions were determined by immunoblot analysis. Interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-
) were assayed by ELISA. NO production was monitored by measuring the amount of nitrite. ROS was examined by using the 2', 7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) method. At a concentration of 100
, ATX inhibited the expression level of LPS-induced NF-
, as well as the production of LPS-induced NO and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-
), by suppressing iNOS expression. In particular, the maximal inhibition rate of IL-6 and TNF-
production by ATX (100
) was 65.2----- and 21.2-----, respectively. In addition, ATX inhibited the LPS-induced transcriptional activity of NF-
, and this was associated with suppressing the translocations of NF-
from the cytosol to the nucleus. Moreover, at various concentrations (25-100
), ATX inhibited the intracellular level of ROS. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the superoxide radical scavenging activity of ATX was 1.33 times higher than
-tocopherol of the same concentration. These results showed that ATX inhibited the expression of iNOS and the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines resulting from ROS production and NF-
activation in macrophages. Furthermore, ATX was found to be more effective in superoxide radical scavenging activities compared to
-tocopherol. These findings are expected to strengthen the position of ATX as anti-inflammatory medicine and antioxidant.
Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I on Expression of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 in C2C12 Myotube
Kim, Hye-Jin ; Lee, Won-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1385~1392
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1385
It is well known that both insulin-like growth factor-I and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) are known to modulate various aspects of physiology in skeletal muscle cells. Furthermore, although SOCS-3 expression is related to insulin resistance in non-skeletal muscle cells and is known to interact with insulin-like growth factor-I receptor, the effect of IGF-I on SOCS-3 gene expression in skeletal muscle cells is presently unknown. C2C12 myotubes were treated with different concentrations (0-200 ng/ml) of IGF-I or for various periods of time (3-72 hr). Immunofluorescent staining image revealed that IGF-I induced SOCS-3 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot data also showed that SOCS-3 proteins were induced by IGF-I (200 ng/ml) in C2C12 myotubes in a time-dependent manner. The level of SOCS-3 mRNA was also significantly increased after 3hr of IGF-I (10-100 ng/ml) treatment. However, the levels of SOCS-3 mRNA were significantly decreased after 24 and 48 hr of IGF-I (10-100 ng/ml) treatment compared to the control. In conclusion, SOCS-3 protein is induced by IGF-I treatment in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and this induction is regulated pretranslationally. The modulating effect of IGF-I on SOCS-3 expression may be an important regulator of gene expression in skeletal muscle cells.
Mineral Content and Antioxidants Activity of Portulaca oleracea
Kim, Mi-Joo ; Lee, Soo-Jung ; Kim, Ra-Jeong ; Jeong, Bo-Young ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1393~1400
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1393
We investigated the mineral content and antioxidant activity of Portulaca oleracea for biological properties. Total mineral content was 6025.80 mg/100 g, and potassium was the highest at 3846.99 mg/100 g. Water and 80% ethanol extract yields were 14.84% and 24.93%, respectively. The contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids of ethanol extract were 58.16 mg/g and 20.08 mg/g, and were significantly higher than that of its water extract (49.09 mg/g and 14.98 mg/g, respecitvely). Antioxidant activities and nitrite scavenging activity was significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner, and that of ethanol extract was higher than that of the water extract.
-Glucosidase inhibition activity of ethanol extract was significantly higher than the water extract as well. We suggest that the biological properties of Portulaca oleracea are due to its mineral and phenolic contents.
Involvement of F-Actin Cytoskeleton for Microvilli Formation of Jurkat T Lymphocyte
Lee, Jae-Seol ; Kim, Hae-Young ; Son, Gi-Ae ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Moon, Kyoung-Mi ; Kim, Kwang-Hyeon ; Choi, Woo-Bong ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1401~1406
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1401
Morphological changes in immune cells occur due to pathogen infection and natural circulation. T cells produce uropod, filopodia, lamellipodia, and microvilli for inflammation, immunosurvelliance, migration, and diapedesis. Short finger-like microvilli cover the surfaces of circulating mammalian immune cells. The surface features of monocytes and neutrophils are quite different, containing membrane ruffles as their predominant structure. In this study, we present the involvement of actin cytoskeleton regarding T lymphocyte microvilli. From analysis of scanning electron micrographs, Jurkat T lymphocyte microvilli was observed to rapidly disassemble when exposed to the actin-sequestering molecule, cytochalasin D. In contrast to cytochalasin D treatment, we found that median microvillar thickness was enlarged on Jurkat T lymphocytes treated with PMA via Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3 Kinase (LIMK) and cofilin signaling. In addition, actin cytoskeleton was involved in polarity formation in EL4 T lymphocytes. These results suggest that microvilli formation or polarity of T lymphocytes are involved in actin cytoskeleton dynamics.
Effect of Cordycepin-Enriched Cordyceps militaris Powder on Tissues Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Activity in Orotic Acid-Induced Fatty Liver Model Rats
Ahn, Hee-Young ; Cha, Jae-Young ; Heo, Su-Jin ; Kang, Min-Jeong ; Lee, Jae-Hong ; Park, Sang-Hyun ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1407~1414
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1407
This study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris (CM
) strain on orotic acid (OA)-induced fatty liver in rats. OA treatment induced the retardation of body weight gain and enlargement of the liver. The activities of liver marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Alk. phosphatase and Cholinesterase were increased when treated with OA, but these parameters were significantly decreased in the CM
group. The current study observed significant elevations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels. However, among the OA groups, the CM
group showed significantly low TBARS levels of hepatic homogenate. The OA group resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of plasma and hepatic glutathione, but these reductions were significantly increased in the CM
group. These effects were more pronounced in the CM
group than in the PJ or CM groups in Orotic acid treated rats. Accordingly, Cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris (CM
) may be an ideal candidate for hepatoprotective effects in animal models.
Effects of L-Arginine Supplementation and Regular Exercise in D-Galactose Induced Aging Rat Aorta: Study on Inflammatory Factors, Vasodilation Regulatory Factors
Lee, Jin ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Yoo, Young-June ; Park, Sok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1415~1421
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1415
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of an L-arginine supplementation and regular exercise training on NF-
, iNOS, Cav-1, eNOS and Ang II in the aortas of D-galactose (D-gal) induced aging rats. The male Strague-Dawley rats were treated with a D-galactose aging inducing agent; the D-gal injection (50 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally for 12 wk. Experimental groups were divided into five groups: (1) Young control group (Y-Con, n=8), (2) Aging control group (A-Con, n=8), (3) Aging exercise group (A-Ex, n=8), (4) Aging exercise group with L-arginine supplementation group (A-Ex+A, n=8), and (5) Aging with L-arginine supplementation group (A-A, n=8). The exercise consisted of running on a treadmill for 60 min/day at 20 m/min for 6 day/wk, at 0% gradient for 12 wk. The L-arginine supplementation was given orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg/day for 12 wk. The findings of this study were as follows: 1. NF-
, iNOS, Cav-1 and Ang II proteins in the aortas of D-gal induced rats were significantly increased, however, L-arginine supplementation and regular exercise resulted in a significant inhibition in the expression of NF-
, iNOS, Cav-1 and Ang II proteins. 2. eNOS protein in the aortas of D-gal induced rats was significantly decreased, however, L-arginine supplementation and regular exercise resulted in a significant increase in the expression of eNOS proteins. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that L-arginine supplementation alone or regular exercise alone or in combination with L-arginine supplementation for 12 wk increases anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing NF-
, and iNOS protein expressions within the aortic tissue. In addition, L-arginine supplementation alone or regular exercise alone or in combination with L-arginine supplementation may prevent endothelial function by up-regulation of eNOS protein in the aortas of D-gal induced aging rats.
Antithrombotic and Antiplatelet Activity of Extract from Prunella vulgaris
Yang, Won-Kyung ; Sung, Yoon-Young ; Kim, Ho-Kyoung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1422~1427
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1422
This study was performed to develop effective antithrombotic agents from traditional herb extracts. Prunella vulgaris L. has been used traditionally as a medical resource in cancer therapy, as well as treatment of hypertension and inflammation, and as a diuretic. However, the effects of Prunella vulgaris on thrombosis and platelet activation have not been clearly understood. Antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of oriental medicinal herbs were investigated by evaluating the effect of the aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris on the blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis. Prunella vulgaris extracts showed effective anticoagulant activity in coagulation times such as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT). Prunella vulgaris also inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, evaluation of fibrinolytic activity showed that the Prunella vulgaris extracts have high solubility. From these results, it is suggested that Prunella vulgaris can be a potential candidate for anticoagulants and antiplatelets, as well as fibrinolytic agents.
Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory and Antioxidative Activities
Park, Sung-Bo ; Kim, Jeong-Do ; Lee, Na-Ri ; Jeong, Jin-Ha ; Jeong, Seong-Yun ; Lee, Hee-Seob ; Hwang, Dae-Youn ; Lee, Jong-Sup ; Son, Hong-Joo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1428~1433
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1428
In this study, we isolated and characterized plant-associated lactic acid bacteria which are able to produce angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidative activities. Five lactic acid bacteria were isolated from plants (grape and leek), a plant-associated fermentative product (Kimchi) and Korean traditional alcohol (Dongdongju). Strains K-1 and K-21 from Kimchi, strain L-5 from leek, strain G-3 from grape, and strain D-3 from Dongdongju were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella cibaria, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, respectively, by 16S rRNA gene analysis. ACE inhibitory activities of isolated strains ranged from 44.3 to 71.9% in the MRS broth. G-3, L-5 and K-1 strains especially showed high ACE inhibitory activities (59.8-98.69%) in the MRS broth containing skim milk. DPPH radical scavenging activities of the strains were in the range of 42.5-82.7%. All strains showed varying levels of resistance in artificial gastric fluid (pH 2.5), retaining viability ranging from 42.2 to 88.1% after 3 hr of incubation. All strains showed high resistance to 0.3% oxgall after 24 hr of incubation; survival rates were in the range of 55.4-112.8%. Isolated strains were found to be antagonistic to some pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Genetic Variation in Flammulina velutipes
Kim, Jong-Bong ; Jeong, Ja-In ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1434~1442
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1434
A genetic variation within 29 strains of F. velutipes was analyzed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Seven hundred and twenty base pairs were sequenced during the analysis of the ITS region, but no significant variation was observed among the 29 strains of F. velutipes. Sixteen out of 40 random primers amplified polymorphic RAPD fragment patterns. The polymorphic levels of RAPD bands by some primers (OPA-2,4,3,9,10,20) were very high in all 29 strains, with 3,030 fragments ranging between 200 and 2,000 bp. Intraspecific genetic dissimilarity of the 29 strains was calculated to range from 3.3% to 45% by Nei-Li's method using these 3,030 RAPD bands. The genetic variation among Korean strains was relatively high, with dissimilarities ranging between 17% and 38.6%. In the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the genetic dissimilarities based on RAPD, all 29 strains were classified into 5 clusters. Strains in each cluster showed specific characteristics according to their origin and strains. These results suggested that OPA and OPB primers could be used for developing molecular genetic markers and screening of unidentified (F. velutipes) strains.
The Effects of 12-Weeks in a Combined Exercise Program on the Self-Reliance Fitness and Growth Hormone in the Obese Elderly Women
Park, Sang-Muk ; Yang, Joung-Ok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1443~1451
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1443
The purpose of this study was to observe self-reliance fitness and growth hormones in obese elderly women. Twenty-four females over the age of 65 years, who did not exercise regularly, were chosen as test subjects. All subjects were evaluated pre- and post-test. The results of this study were as follows; Results related to the experimental group revealed that there were statistically significant differences between the mean scores pre- and post-test in self-reliance fitness. Results related to the experimental group revealed that there were statistically significant differences between the mean scores pre- and post-test in growth hormone. Overall, participation in a 12-week combined exercise program had a positive impact on the self-reliance fitness and growth hormone in the obese elderly women. Based on the results of this study, obese elderly women are encouraged to participate in a combined exercises program on a regular basis.
Phylogenic Study of Genus Citrus and Two Relative Genera in Korea by trnL-trnF Sequence
Huh, Man-Kyu ; Yoon, Hye-Jeong ; Choi, Joo-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1452~1459
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1452
Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar (Burma) and the Yunnan province of China. The taxonomy and systematics of the genus are complex and the precise number of natural species is unclear, as many of the named species are clonally propagated hybrids, and there is genetic evidence that even some wild, true-breeding species are of a hybrid origin. One of the most popular sequences for phylogenetic inference at the generic and infrageneric levels in plants is the chloroplast trnL-trnF region. We evaluated the seven taxa with the trnL-trnF region to estimate phenotypic relationships within the genera Citrus, Poncirus, and Fortunella in Korea. Alignment of the DNA sequences required the addition of numerous gaps. Sequence variation within Citrus was mostly due to insertion/deletion. Within the genus Citrus, C. lomonia and C. sinensis were relatives and sistered with C. aurantium in the four phylogenetic analyses (MP, ML, ME, and NJ). However, some external nodes were poorly supported.
Effects of Total Mixed Fermentations with Bean Curd Dregs on Growth Performance of Growing Hanwoo Heifers
Woo, Jae-Seok ; Jang, Sun-Sik ; Im, Seok-Ki ; Lee, Seok-Dong ; Lee, Myeung-Sik ; Park, Jung-Yong ; Hong, Seong-Koo ; Lee, Sung-Sill ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1460~1465
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1460
This study was conducted to determine the effects of total mixed fermentation (TMF) with bean curd dregs on body weight gain, feed intake and body size of growing Hanwoo heifers. Thirty Hanwoo heifers, 6 months of age and weighing
kg, were randomly allocated to 3 experimental groups of 10 animals each for a 6-month feeding trial. The groups were T1 (rice straw offered ad libitum with restricted (1.7% BW/day) concentrate), T2 (TMF only offered ad libitum) and T3 (TMF and rice straw offered ad libitum with restricted (1.0% BW/day) concentrate). TMF feeds were composed of 60% bean curd dregs, 16.5% corn meal, 10.4% wheat bran, 5% rice straw, 7% rice hulls, 0.5% urea matter, 0.5% magnesia lime and 0.1% lactic acid bacteria. The chemical composition and pH value of TMF feeds were measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hr after storage. In TMF with bean curd dregs, there were no differences in concentrations of DM, EE, and CF according to storage periouds. The ADF and NDF at 72 hr of storage time showed a significant decrease (9.52 and 3.15 %, respectively) compared to 0h of storage time (p<0.05). The value of pH was gradually decreased during the storage periods. Body weight gain, feed intake and average daily gain were higher in the TMF groups (T2, T3) compared to the T1 group (p<0.05). Changes in body size were also higher in the TMF groups compared to the T1 group (p<0.05). Thus, the present results indicate that TMF with bean curd dregs may help improve growth performance in growing Hanwoo heifers.
Characterization of the Promoter Controling the Stage-Specific Gene Expression of Bombyx mori
Park, Seung-Won ; Choi, Gwang-Ho ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Kim, Seong-Ryul ; Kang, Seok-Woo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1466~1472
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1466
We characterized embryo early gene (EEG)-704 promoter of the silkworm Bombyx mori, which is specifically regulated in the development stages. To determine core promoter region, 10 different partial mutant clones were tested by luciferase assay in Sf9 cells. About 1.5 kb promoter shows higher luciferase activity than constitutive promoter (BmA3). Interestingly, EEG-704 shares the same DNA sequences with BmHsp20.8 by the result of BLAST analysis; its expression is also increased under heat shock condition. Development of such promoter inducible, directly or indirectly in the developmental-stage, is very useful in making recombinant proteins in transgenic silkworms.
Autotrophic Perchlorate-Removal Using Elemental Sulfur Granules and Activated Sludge: Batch Test
Han, Kyoung-Rim ; Kang, Tae-Ho ; Kang, Hyung-Chang ; Kim, Kyung-Hun ; Seo, Deuk-Hwa ; Ahn, Yeong-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1473~1480
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1473
) is a contaminant found in surface water and soil/ground water. Microbial removal of perchlorate is the method of choice since microorganisms can reduce perchlorate into harmless end-products. Such microorganisms require an electron donor to reduce perchlorate. Conventional perchlorate-removal techniques employ heterotrophic perchlorate-reducing bacteria that use organic compounds as electron donors to reduce perchlorate. Since continuous removal of perchlorate requires a continuous supply of organic compounds, heterotrophic perchlorate removal is an expensive process. Feasibility of autotrophic perchlorate-removal using elemental sulfur granules and activated sludge was examined in this study. Granular sulfur is relatively inexpensive and activated sludge is easily available from wastewater treatment plants. Batch tests showed that activated sludge microorganisms could successfully degrade perchlorate in the presence of granular sulfur as an electron donor. Perchlorate biodegradation was confirmed by molar yield of
as the perchlorate was degraded. Scanning electron microscope revealed that rod-shaped microorganisms on the surface of sulfur particles were used for the autotrophic perchlorate-removal, suggesting that sulfur particles could serve as supporting media for the formation of biofilm as well. DGGE analyses revealed that microbial profile of the inoculum (activated sludge) was different from that of the biofilm sample obtained from enrichment culture that used sulfur particles for
Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacillus sp. UJ03 from Spent Mushroom (Flammulina velvtipes) Substrates
Gal, Sang-Wan ; Cho, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1481~1486
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1481
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a by-product remained after a crop of mushrooms. About seven thermophilic strains were isolated from SMS (Flammulina velvtipes). Among them, one isolate, designated UJ03, showed the antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceous producing mycotoxin on PDA medium, potentially. The strain UJ03 produced cellulase and xylanase as extracellular hydrolases. The strain UJ03 was identified as a member of the genus Bacillus by biochemical characteristics using Bacillus ID kit and VITEK 2 system. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain UJ03 formed a distinct phylogenetic tree within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens with sequence similarity of 98.9%. On the basis of its physiological properties, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain UJ03 was classified within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus sp. UJ03 is proposed. The antifungal compound from Bacillus sp. UJ03 was similar to lipopeptide iturin A of Bacillus sp.
Effects of Salt Concentration on Motility and Expression of Flagellin Genes in the Fish Pathogen Edwardsiella tarda
Yu, Jong-Earn ; Park, Jun-Mo ; Kang, Ho-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1487~1493
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1487
E. tarda, a fish pathogen, can survive in seawater under relatively high salt conditions as well as in fish under physiological salt conditions. Bacterial growth under different salt concentrations may influence the expression of genes involved in bacterial structure and physiology. The growth rate of E. tarda culture in high salt (3.5% NaCl) was similar to that in low salt (1.0% NaCl, physiological salt concentration). Interestingly, the strain moved much faster in low salt conditions than in high salt conditions. Electron microscopic observation demonstrated that the bacterial cells grown in high salt had less or no flagellation. Obvious flagellation was observed in the parental strain E. tarda CK41 grown in low-salt condition. Two putative genes coding flagellin were identified in the E. tarda genome sequences. The amino acid sequence comparison of each gene revealed 93% identities. A flagellin gene was PCR amplified and cloned into a cloning vector. Using an E. coli protein expression system, a part of flagellin protein was overexpressed. Using the purified protein, an anti-flagellin antibody was raised in the rabbit. Immunoblot analyses with flagellin specific antibody demonstrated that E. tarda CK41 expressed falgellin in low salt conditions, which is consistent with the results seen in motility assay and microscopic observation. This is the first report of salt regulated flagella expression in E. tarda.
β-Lapachone-Induced Apoptosis is Associated with Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Activity in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells
Choi, Yung-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 10, 2011, Pages 1494~1499
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.10.1494
-lapachone, a quinone of lapachol extracted from the bark of the lapacho tree, has been found to induce apoptosis in various human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated further possible mechanisms by which
-lapachone exerts its pro-apoptotic action in cultured human lung cancer A549 cells.
-lapachone treatment resulted in inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. The induction of apoptosis by
-lapachone was associated with up-regulation of the expression of p53 and p21 in both transcriptional and translational levels, and the phosphorylation of p53. In addition,
-lapachone activated caspase-3 and -9, and induced degradation of caspase-3 target proteins such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and
-lapachone treatment caused a progressive decrease in the expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which was correlated with a decrease in prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Taken together, these results indicated that
-lapachone may have therapeutic potential in human lung cancer treatment.