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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
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Effects of Seaweeds on Matrix Metalloproteinases Derived from Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Human Fibrosarcoma Cells
Park, In-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Se-Kwon ; Ngo, Dai-Nghiep ; Jeon, You-Jin ; Kim, Moon-Moo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1501~1510
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1501
In recent years novel potential pharmocological candidates have been looked for in animal, seaweed, sponge, fungi and marine bacteria resources. In this study, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play an important role in metastasis, arthritis, chronic inflammation and wrinkle formation were used as target enzymes to screen therapeutic agents. The inhibitory effects of several marine algae including green algae (5 species), red algae (18 species) and brown algae (4 species) methanolic extracts on MMPs were investigated in human dermal fibroblasts and human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080 cells) using gelatin zymography. In human dermal fibroblasts, the inhibition of MMP-2 was observed in Laurencia okamurae, Polysiphonia japonica, Grateloupia lanceolate and Sinkoraena lancifolia of red algae. In contrast, MMP-2 activation was enhanced in Enteromorpha compressa and E. linza of green algae, and Peltaronia bighamiae and Sargassum thunbergii of brown algae. In human fibrosarcoma cells, MMP-9 activation was decreased in the presence of S. thunbergii of brown algae, Polysiphonia japonica in red algae and E. compressa and E. linza of green algae. The interesting finding is that E. compressa and E. linza of green algae, and S. thunbergii of brown algae exhibited a positive effect on MMP-2 in normal cells, but a negative effect on MMP-9 in cancer cell lines. These results suggest that E. compressa and E. linza of green algae, and S. thunbergii of brown algae contain potential therapeutic ingredients for cancer treatment.
Sphingobacterium sp. SW-09 Effectively Degrades Phenanthrene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, in a Soil Microcosm
Son, Seung-Woo ; Chang, Hey-Won ; Kim, Sung-Kuk ; Chang, Jong-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1511~1517
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1511
We isolated a potent phenanthrene-degrading bacterium from oil-contaminated soils of Suzhou, China, and assessed the potential use of these bacteria for bioremediation of soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a microcosm. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing, we identified this bacteria as Sphigobacterium sp. SW-09. By PCR amplification, we also identified catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes (nahH genes) mediating PAH degradation. Staphylococcus sp. KW-07, which has been identified in our previous study, showed potential for use in bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils. In this experiment, we compared the rate of phenanthrene-degradation between Staphylococcus sp. KW-07 and Sphingobacterium sp. SW-09 in a microcosm condition. Newly isolated Sphingobacterium sp. SW-09 showed a higher phenanthrene-degradation rate than that of Staphylococcus sp. KW-07 in soil microcosms. Together, our results suggest that the Sphingobacterim sp. SW-09 strain isolated from the Suzhou area may also be useful in bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils.
Drug Interaction between Ginseng Extract (GE) and Sorafenib
Lee, Nam-Hee ; Park, Ho-Jae ; Rho, Ja-Sung ; Kim, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Yu-Kyoung ; Cho, Eun-A ; Heo, Jeong ; Cho, Mong ; Hwang, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1518~1525
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1518
Sorafenib is the only approved systemic, therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The use of Ginseng Extract (GE) in cancer patients is growing worldwide; however, drug interaction between sorafenib and GE has not been illuminated. Four different human cancer cell lines including HepG2 were used and immunocompetent mice were implanted subcutaneously with a mouse HCC cell line. Treatment with low dose GE stimulated cell growth, while a high dose inhibited growth. pERK (phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase) was concomitantly increased and decreased respective of different doses of GE. Antitumoral effect of sorafenib decreased in non-proliferating phase cells but was sensitized after low dose GE (LDG) treatment. PD98059 (ERK phosphorylation inhibitor) efficiently blocked ERK phosphorylation, resulting in loss of sorafenib sensitization even after LDG treatment. In the HCC mouse model, LDG alone slightly increased tumor size while sorafenib alone significantly decreased it. However, a combination of LDG and sorafenib significantly decreased tumor size compared with sorafenib alone. Increase of pERK was observed in some normal mice organs and mild inflammatory change was observed in some of these organs, suggesting pERK activation by LDG may cause unexpected toxicity in normal cells. GE, dose-dependently, induced stimulation or inhibition in some human cancer cell lines. Combinational use of GE and sorafenib possibly potentiated an antitumoral response to sorafenib. pERK level has been provided as a potential predictive marker for sorafenib. Our result may suggest GE's dual effects in relation to pERK level in HCC cancer cell lines, and that certain doses of GE can sensitize sorafenib.
Localization of Translation Initiation Factors to the Postsynaptic Sites
Choi, Myoung-Kwon ; Park, Sung-Dong ; Park, In-Sick ; Moon, Il-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1526~1531
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1526
Local protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites is important for site-specific regulation of synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated whether translation initiation factors (eIFs) are present at the postsynaptic sites. High resolution confocal microscopy showed that the eIF4E and eIF4G (which bind the 5'-terminal mRNA cap), eIF5 (which is important during the 3' direction scanning to find an initiation codon), eIF6 (which mediates upregulation of translation by external stimuli), and eIF5A (which mediate translation upregulation under adverse conditions) were localized to the post-synaptic sites. Immunoblot and detergent extraction experiments also indicated that these eIFs were present in the synapse in association with the postsynaptic density (PSD). Our data provide evidence for the strategic positioning of eIFs at the postsynaptic site for initiation of translation in diverse situations.
Effects of Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle GLUT-4 Protein and LDH Isozyme Expression in Rats
Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Hak ; Kim, Jong-Oh ; Seo, Tae-Beom ; Kim, Young-Pyo ; Back, Kyoung-A ; Yoon, Jin-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1532~1540
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1532
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of climbing resistance training on GLUT-4 protein and LDH isozyme activities of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Each experimental group was randomly divided into a control group (n=6) and a resistance exercise (n=6) group. Sprague-Dawley rats were made to climb a 180 cm tower for 12 wk. Weight changes in the resistance exercise group were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.05). GLUT-4 protein expression of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the resistance exercise group than in the control group. There was no difference in soleus tissue LDHA4 isozyme activity between the groups. In the case of other LDH isozyme, when compared with the control group, the resistance exercise group showed a significantly higher activity (p<0.05). LDHA4 activity of gastrocnemius muscle tissue was not different between the groups. However, the activity of the resistance exercise group of all the other LDH isozymes was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In summary, based on the results of this study, over 12 weeks of resistance training, the total body weight of the rats was reduced and the GLUT-4 activity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was increased. In addition, except for LDH A4 all of the other LDH isozymes activities were increased. These results suggest that climbing resistance training affects the balance of body composition, increases LDH B-type isoenzymes and glucose metabolism capacity, and improves mitochondrial function.
Effect of Feeding Cordyceps with Fly Pupa on Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens
Park, Byung-Sung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1541~1548
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1541
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the addition of different levels of CFP (Cordyceps with fly pupa) on growth performance in broiler chickens. 400 broiler chicks (Ross 308, 1 day old) were sorted randomly into 4 treatment groups and fed experimental diets for 35 days. The treatment groups were divided into a control group not fed with CFP (T1), and treatment groups fed with CFP 2.0% (T2), CFP 3.5% (T3), and CFP 5.0% (T4). Although the broilers' weight gain and feed efficiency were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the T3 group throughout the entirety of the test period, no statistically significant differences were noted among the T1 and T2, T4 groups. Triglyceride in the blood, total cholesterol, and LDL-C were significantly lower in the CFP treatment groups than in the control group (p<0.05). The blood lipid reduction rate ranged from 5.32 to 10.63% for triglycerides, from 9.23 to 12.62% for total cholesterol, and from 44.67 to 53.81% for LDL-C in the CFP treatment groups relative to the control group. The abdominal fat weight ratio was reduced significantly in the CFP treatment groups (p<0.05) compared with the control group, with a reduction rate range of 17.67-21.68%. Broiler carcass weight, carcass rate, and ratios of breast muscle, skin and thigh muscle weights to carcass weight were significantly higher in the T3 group, and statistically significant differences were noted among the T1 and T2, T4 groups (p<0.05). Enteropathogenic E.coli and Salmonella were lower in the CFP treatment groups than in the control group, whereas the beneficial bacteria Bifidobacteria were significantly higher in the CFP treatment groups than in the control group (p<0.05). These findings suggest that the Cordyceps with fly pupa can improve the carcass characteristics and body weight gain in broiler chickens.
Enhancement of TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis by Genistein in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hep3B Cells: Roles of p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway
Jin, Cheng-Yun ; Park, Cheol ; Park, Sang-Eun ; Hong, Sang-Hoon ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1549~1557
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1549
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively induce apoptosis in many types of transformed cells; however, some human hepatocellular carcinoma cells are particularly resistant to the effects of TRAIL. Although genistein, a natural isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, has been shown to have pro-apoptotic activity against human cancer cell lines, little is known about the mechanism of genistein in terms of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In the present study, it was investigated whether or not combined treatment with genistein and TRAIL synergistically induced apoptosis in Hep3B hepatocarcinoma cells. Results indicate that treatment with TRAIL in combination with nontoxic concentrations of genistein sensitized TRAIL-resistant Hep3B cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Further, the inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation markedly decreased genistein and TRAIL-induced cell viability and apoptosis by enhanced truncation of Bid, increase of pro-apoptotic Bax, decrease of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Activation of caspases and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase induced by the combined treatment was also markedly increased by the inhibition of p38 MAPK, through the mitochondrial amplification step. In conclusion, our data suggest that genistein sensitizes TRAIL-induced-apoptosis via p38 MAPK-dependent pathway.
Screening of Potential Anticancer Compounds from Marketed Drugs: Aripiprazole, Haloperidol, Miconazole, and Terfenadine Inhibit Cytochrome P450 2J2
Liu, Kwang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1558~1564
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1558
Cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) plays important roles in the metabolism of endogenous metabolites such as arachidonic acid as well as therapeutic drugs. CYP2J2 is overexpressed in human cancer tissues and cancer cell lines, as well as in epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and CYP2J2-mediated metabolites, and prevent apoptosis of cancer cells. This study aimed to screen marketed drugs for inhibitory potential on CYP2J2 isoforms using human liver microsomes. The initial screen isolated 4 compounds, from 120 marketed drugs, that inhibited the CYP2J2-mediated astemizole O-demethylation more than 50% in the following the order: haloperidol (75%) > terfenadine (56%) > aripiprazole (55%) > miconazole (52%). Miconazole strongly inhibited CYP2J2-mediated ebastine hydroxylation (
) and terfenadine hydroxylation (
), and terfenadine also inhibited CYP2J2-mediated ebastine hydroxylation (
) in a dose dependent manner. The present data suggest that these drugs are potential candidates for further evaluation for their anti-cancer activities.
Purification and Characterization of Eye-Specific Lactate Dehydrogenase C
Isozyme in Greenling (Hexagrammos otakii)
Cho, Sung-Kyu ; Yum, Jung-Joo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1565~1572
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1565
Eye-specific lactate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168, LDH)
isozyme in the eyes of greenlings (Hexagrammos otakii) was successfully purified by affinity chromatography and continuous-elution electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified eye-specific LDH
isozyme was 154.8 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Optimal pH for enzymatic reaction of the eye-specific LDH
isozyme was pH 8.5.
value of the purified eye-specific LDH
M using pyruvate as a substrate. These results indicate that we must consider pH when measuring eye-specific LDH
isozyme activity. The eye-specific LDH
isozyme had a higher binding affinity for the substrate as a pyruvate than LDH A4 isozyme. Antibodies produced against the purified eye-specific LDH
isozyme may be used in the diagnosis of several human diseases and in comparative physiological studies of fishes.
Silibinin Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis through Cell-cycle Arrest in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells
Kim, Sang-Hun ; Kim, Kwang-Youn ; Yu, Sun-Nyoung ; Jeon, Hyun-Joo ; Jin, Young-Rang ; Lee, Chang-Min ; Ahn, Soon-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1573~1578
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1573
Milk thistle (silybum marianum) is a famous dietary supplement widely used in the United States and Europe. Silbinin is a major biologically active compound of milk thistle and has strong antioxidant and radical scavenger activities. Anticancer activities, as well as chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines, including prostate, lung, colon, skin, and bladder, have also been reported in silbinin. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of silibinin and apoptosis through cell cycle arrest on prostate cancer cell PC-3. We performed cell viability by MTT assay and western blotting to confirm cell cycle check point proteins such as cyclin A/D1/E and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2/4/6. To quantify silibinin-induced apoptotic cell death of PC-3, Annexin V and PI double staining was performed by flow cytometry, by which its cell distribution was determined. As a result, silibinin inhibited the cell growth of PC-3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and its treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Also the level of cell cycle check point proteins (cyclin, CDK) was decreased by silibinin in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, we suggest that apoptosis of prostate cancer cell line PC-3 induced by silibinin is associated with cell cycle arrest through decrease of cell cycle check point proteins, caspase-3 activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
Inhibition of α-Glucosidase by a Semi-Purified Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Submerged-Liquid Culture of Agaricus blazei Murill
Jung, Kwan-Ju ; Moon, Yeon-Gyu ; Kwon, Jung-Min ; Ahn, Chae-Rin ; Kim, Jeong-Ok ; Ha, Yeong-Lae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1579~1585
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1579
Natural anti-diabetic semipurified ethyl acetate fraction was isolated from the submerged-liquid culture of Agaricus blaze Murill (AB) in a medium containing soybean flakes. Hot-water extract of AB (HEAB) was prepared by extraction at
for 60 min, followed by filtering through a filter presser filled with diatomate. The
-glucan-free HEAB, which was a supernatant fraction from HEAB by precipitation in an 80% ethanol solution, was fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The inhibition of the
-glucosidase activity by fractions was 59.0, 17.0, 61.6, and 37.9%, respectively, suggesting that ethyl acetate fraction was the most active. A subfraction having a strong
-glucosidase inhibitory activity (80.4%) was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. This subfraction contained isoflavones (genistin and daidzin) and their conjugates with sugars as potent inhibiters of
-glucosidase activity. These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction or HEAB containing isoflavones and their sugars conjugates could be useful sources for controlling blood sugar levels in humans.
Anti-Obesity Effect of Crataegus Fructus Extract from Chinese Cultivation
Gal, Sang-Wan ; Choi, Young-Jae ; Cho, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1586~1591
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1586
This study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effects of Crataegus fructus in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice fed a high fat diet (high fat 45% cal). The inhibitory effect of methanol extract from Crataegus fructus on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was quantified using Oil red O staining. Compared with the control, lipid accumulation was significantly decreased by 10-25% with treatment with Crataegus fructus extract at a concentration of 600-2,000 ug/ml. Three-week old ICR mice (n=24) were randomly divided into four groups (T0: normal diet, T1: high fat diet, T2: high fat diet and 50 ug of Crataegus fructus extract, T3: high fat diet and 100 ug of Crataegus fructus extract) and were fed an experimental diet for 5 weeks. At the end of the experiment, body weight gain in the T1 group (3.9
0.24 g) was higher than that in the T0 group (2.56
0.14 g), while body weight gain in the T2 (3.02
0.25 g) and T3 (2.58
0.16 g) groups was significantly reduced as compared with that of the T1 group. Moreover, liver weight in the T1 (4.8
0.17 g) and T2 (4.8
0.16 g) groups was significantly higher than that of the T0 (4.05
0.16 g) and T3 (4.57
0.10 g) groups, while kidney weight was significantly lower than that of the T0 and T3 groups (p<0.05). The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride in serum in the T2 and T3 groups were significantly decreased compared to the T1 group. These results suggest that Crataegus fructus can be used as functional materials in food and medicine.
Quality Properties and Anti-allergic Effect of Makgeolli Added with Garlic
Ko, Yu-Jin ; Kang, Sang-Dong ; Kang, Sang-Tae ; Ryu, Chung-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1592~1598
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1592
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is well known for its antibacterial, antioxidant, and hypotensive activities, as well as its antiaging bioactive properties. This study investigated the physicochemical properties and anti-allergic effects of garlic in order to develop a method to produce Makgeolli using garlic. Levels of total sugar, reducing sugar contents, total acid and amino acid contents of garlic Makgeolli were higher than those of the control (normal Makgeolli without garlic), and its alcohol content was 7.0%. Polyphenol contents, DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity and total thiosulfate contents of garlic Makgeolli were a bit higher than those of the control. The main organic acids of garlic Makgeolli were lactic, citric, malic, oxalic and succinic acids. Especially, lactic acid content was 16 fold higher than the control. According to MTT assay, garlic Makgeolli had no significant effect on the viability of human mast cells, and secretion of histamine was more effectively inhibited by garlic Makgeolli than by the control. Garlic Makgeolli was superior to the control in all results of sensory characteristics except in color. Therefore, the anti-oxidant activity and anti-allergic effect of garlic Makgeolli could improve the quality of Korean Makgeolli.
Evaluation of Petroleum Oil Degrading Mixed Microorganism Agent for the Bioremediation of Petroleum Oil Spilled in Marine Environments
Sohn, Jae-Hak ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1599~1606
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1599
To evaluate the effects of microorganism agents on oil biodegradation, treatability and microcosm studies were conducted. Petroleum oil degrading bacteria were isolated from enriched cultures of oil-contaminated sediment samples using a mineral salts medium (MSM) containing 0.5% Arabian heavy crude oil as the sole carbon source. After a 5 day-incubation period using MSM, mixed microorganisms of three species (strains BS1, BS2 and BS4) degraded 48.4% of aliphatic hydrocarbons and 30.5% of aromatic hydrocarbons. Treatability and microcosm tests were performed in the three different treatment conditions (AO: Arabian heavy crude oil, AO+IN: Arabian heavy crude oil+inorganic nutrient, AO+IN+MM: Arabian heavy crude oil+inorganic nutrient+mixed microorganism agents). Among these, significantly enhanced biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed in AO+IN and AO+IN+MM conditions, without showing any different biodegradation rates in either condition. However, the degradation rates of aromatic hydrocarbons in an AO+IN+MM condition were increased by 50% in the treatability test and by 13% in the microcosm test compared to those in an AO+IN condition. Taken together, it can be concluded that mixed microorganism agents enhance the biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in laboratory, a treatability test, and a microcosm test. This agent could especially be a useful tool in the application of bioremediation for removal of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Expression of Bombyx mori Transferrin Gene in Response to Oxidative Stress or Microbes
Yun, Eun-Young ; Kwon, O-Yu ; Hwang, Jae-Sam ; Ahn, Mi-Young ; Goo, Tae-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1607~1611
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1607
To analyze the role of Bombyx mori transferrin (BmTf) in response to microbes or oxidative stress, we investigated the level of BmTf transcripts in B. mori treated with various microbes and oxidative stress inducers. BmTf mRNA was mainly expressed in the epidermis and fat in the bodies of B. mori injected with Escherichia coli, and up regulated in response to microbes such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, but was hardly altered in response to oxidative stress inducers such as
, Cu, or
. We also confirmed that BmTf mRNA expression was increased in Bm5 cells treated with ERK, PLC, PKA, PI3K, MAPK, or JNK inhibitors, respectively. To identify the major inducer of BmTf expression, we analyzed the amount of serum iron in the hemolymph of B. mori after injection or feeding with E. coli or
. The results showed that the amount of serum iron was not changed by injection and feeding with E. coli, although BmTf mRNA was increased by injection with E. coli. On the contrary, injection and feeding with
significantly increased the amount of serum iron, although they did not alter the BmTf mRNA level. On the basis of these results, we assume that up-regulation of BmTf in B. mori is closely related to the defense of microorganism, and BmTf may be expressed at the basal constitutive level when it plays a role in iron metabolism by maintaining iron homeostasis and in the insect defense mechanism against oxidative stress.
The Effects of Different Types of Treatment on EPOC and Anti-Oxidant Systems after Horseback Riding Exercise
Kim, Cheol-Woo ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1612~1618
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1612
The present study was undertaken to analyze the effects of different types of treatment on excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), flexibility, free radical and antioxidants in women using a horseback riding therapeutic device. Subjects were trained in regular horseback riding exercises for 12 weeks (3 times/wk). The effects of this exercise were examined by means of a single session of horseback riding that lasted for 30 min. 21 women were recruited from a public health center and divided into 3 groups (passive recovery group, passive+massage recovery group, and dynamic recovery group). 3 types of recovery patterns were determined after a single trial of horseback riding exercise. Their flexibility were determined pre-and post-training by Paired T test, and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The results were as follows: Among the 3 groups, the dynamic recovery group showed the highest levels of EPOC compared to the other groups, and also showed higher levels of anti-oxidants, as did the passive+massage recovery group compared to the passive recovery group. Moreover, horseback riding exercise greatly increased flexibility in the women. In conclusion, regular horseback riding training is recommended to enhance the flexibility of women and dynamic recovery is recommended to enhance EPOC and anti-oxidants after a single bout of exercise. Further study is needed in this area.
Plant Growth-Promoting Activity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from the Roots of Native Plants in Dokdo Islands
You, Young-Hyun ; Yoon, Hyeok-Jun ; Woo, Ju-Ri ; Seo, Yeong-Gyo ; Kim, Mi-Ae ; Choo, Yeon-Sik ; Kim, Jong-Guk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1619~1624
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1619
Endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the roots of six species plants in the Dokdo islands. Native plant samples, such as Artemisia japonica, Chenopodium album and Solanum nigrum were isolated from Dongdo, and those such as Cyrtomium falcatum, Dianthus longicalyx and Tetragonia tetragonoides were isolated from Seodo. In total, thirty two fungal strains were isolated from these native plants. To identify the fungal strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of internal transcribed spacer (ITS: containing ITS1, 5.8s and ITS2 region) regions was done with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4. Endophytic fungi of four species were isolated from A. japonica, eight species from C. album, three species from S. nigrum, three species from C. falcatum, three species from D. longicalyx and eleven species from T. tetragonoides. Culture filtrates (CF) of isolated endophytic fungi were used to treatwaito-c rice seedlings to test plant growth-promoting activity. As a result of bioassay, Ca-5-2-2 strain isolated from C. album expressed highest plant growth-promotion activity. Of all the endophytic fungi isolated, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the most abundantly distributed fungal strains in the six plants used in this study.
Effect of NADPH Oxidase Inhibition on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Human Hepatoma Cell Line HepG2
Lee, Sang-Kwon ; Kim, Kang-Mi ; Park, Kwang-Hoon ; Park, Young-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1625~1630
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1625
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive protein that is known to regulate cellular functions such as cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase on the expression of HO-1 in human liver hepatoma cell line HepG2. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, markedly inhibited HO-1 expression and the nuclear translocation of transcription factor Nrf2 in cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or hemin-treated HepG2 cells. Similarly, the knockdown of
, a cytosolic factor for NADPH oxidase activity, by siRNA inhibited the CoPP-induced expression of HO-1. In addition, GSHmee, an intracellular antioxidant, blocked the expression of HO-1 in CoPP-treated cells. Based on these results, we conclude that the blockage of NADPH oxidase with DPI or
siRNA inhibits CoPP-induced HO-1 expression in HepG2 cells, and also suggest that the expression of HO-1 in CoPP-induced HepG2 cells is associated with increase of intracellular ROS by NADPH oxidase activity.
Enzymatic Synthesis of Polyphenol Glycosides by Amylosucrase
Park, Hyun-Su ; Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Park, Young-Don ; Park, Cheon-Seok ; Cha, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1631~1635
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1631
The capability of synthesizing polyphenol glycosides was examined using recombinant amylosucrase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Based on the action mode of amylosucrase, sucrose and twenty-one polyphenols were used as a donor and acceptors respectively. The transglycosylation reaction by amylosucrase produced one or two major polyphenol glycosides depending on the type of polyphenols used. The synthesized polyphenol glycosides were detected by thin-layer chromatography. The structures of the newly synthesized polyphenol glycosides were predicted based on the transglycosylation mechanism of the enzyme. According to the acceptability of the polyphenols, the structural characteristics of polyphenol as an efficient acceptor were evaluated. The results indicate that amylosucrase is an efficient catalyst for the enzymatic synthesis of polyphenol glycosides, which have high potentials in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.
Amyloid-β Levels in Mice Hippocampus According to the ALDH2 Enzyme Activity followed Ethanol Exposure for 8-Weeks
Moon, Sun-In ; Eom, Sang-Yong ; Yim, Dong-Hyuk ; Song, Sun-Ho ; Kim, Yong-Dae ; Kim, Heon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1636~1640
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1636
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, resulting in the loss of cognitive function. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) has been proposed to be a risk factor for the development of AD, but there is still controversy about that. In this study, we demonstrated the role of ALDH2 enzyme activity on amyloid-beta (A
) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-
) expression in mice brain following ethanol exposure for 8 weeks. Five male Aldh2 (+/+) and Aldh2 (-/-) mice, 8 weeks-old of age (C57BL/6J strain), in each group were exposed to ethanol for 8 weeks (2 g/kg wt./day) using gavage. Those in the control groups received 0.9% saline alone. Results showed a difference in expression level of A
in the hippocampus after ethanol exposure according to the ALDH2 enzyme activity (p<0.05), but not in the level of NF-
). Our results suggest a possibility that ALDH2 enzyme activity may be an important role in the development of AD.
Multiple Molecular Targets of Sensitizers in Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L)-Mediated Apoptosis
Min, Kyoung-Jin ; Kwon, Taeg-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1641~1651
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1641
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) is a recently identified member of the TNF ligand family that can initiate apoptosis through the activation of their death receptors. TRAIL has been paid attention as a potential anti-cancer drug, because it selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo but not in most normal cells. However, recent studies have shown that some cancer cells including malignant renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, are resistant to the apoptotic effects of TRAIL. Therefore, single treatment with TRAIL may not be sufficient for the treatment of various malignant tumor cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance and identification of sensitizers capable of overcoming TRAIL resistance in cancer cells is needed for the establishment of more effective TRAIL-based cancer therapies. Chemotherapeutic drugs induce apoptosis and the upregulation of death receptors or activation of intracellular signaling pathways of TRAIL. Numerous chemotherapeutic drugs have been shown to sensitize tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we summarize biological agents and drugs that sensitize tumors to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and discuss the potential molecular basis for their sensitization.
Characteristics of Hematopoitic Growth Factor, G-CSF and Its Clinical Vision
Park, Jeong-Hae ; Park, Jung-Ae ; Kang, Seok-Woo ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Chung, Kyung-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 11, 2011, Pages 1652~1657
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.11.1652
The production of blood cells is regulated by more than 20 different growth factors, called hematopoitic growth factors. These factors have been produced in prokaryotic and mammalian systems for their clinical use. Glranulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is an important therapeutic factor for cancer patients as well as patients with congenital conditions. These patients do not have enough neutrophils and have a high risk of infection. Two groups of recombinant G-CSF have been used to specially treat cancer patients after chemotherapy because chemotherapy induces neutropenia, a major side effect of chemotherapy drugs. Here, structural and biological characteristics of G-CSF are presented. In addition, the relationship between chemotherapy and neutropenia, which is a severe reduction of neutrophils in the blood, and clinical application of G-CSF is discussed. Recombinant G-CSFs are grouped in two forms. Non-glycosylated G-CSF, filgrastim, is produced in Escherichia coli and glycosylated G-CSF, lenograstim, is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Differences in structure and biological activity are compared and challenges for biosimilar production are also highlighted.