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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Antidiabetic Synergistic Effects of Medicinal Plant Extract Mixtures on db/db Mice
Roh, Sang-Geun ; Choi, Won-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 165~175
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.165
This study investigates the effects of Psidium guajava L. leaf (Pg) extract, Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leaf (Ls) extract, and mixture A (Pg, Ls, Morus indica L. leaf, Pinus densiflora needles, Acanthopanax senticosus M. roots extract) on db/db mice. For four weeks, db/db mice were fed powdered extracts of Pg, Ls, and mixture A. Compared to the diabetic control, extracts of Pg, Ls and mixture A decreased body weight, glucose and insulin. The greatest decreases were caused by mixture A. These extracts decreased the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid compared to the diabetic control. The antihyperlipidemic effect of mixture A was the greatest. Mixture A also significantly decreased injuries of Langerhans' islets compared to the diabetic control. Mixture A showed a beneficial synergistic effect due to the supplementary pharmacological actions of the ingredients in contains, indicating that it improved hyperglycemia without the side effect of weight gain.
Effect of Deep Seawater on Expression of μ-Opioid Receptor in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons
Moon, Il-Soo ; Kim, Seong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 176~182
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.176
Deep seawater (DSW) generally refers to seawater at depths equal to or greater than 200 meters. DSW is rich in inorganic materials which have attracted attention for its various applications. In this study we investigated the effects of the DSW upwelled from the East Sea, offshore Yang Yang (KangWon-do, Korea), on the expression of
-opioid receptor (MOR) of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Neurons were grown in a minimal essential medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and either 25% (v/v) distilled water, or hardness (H) 800, or H 1000 DSW. Cultures grown in the presence of DSW with H 800 and H 1000 exhibited robust MOR immunoreactive signals in both neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, the increase in MOR immunoreactive signals was more dramatic in astrocytes than in neurons. Statistical analysis revealed that the relative intensities for MOR clusters increased approximately 4-fold in astrocytes cultured in H 800 and H 1000 media. These increases were statistically very significant (p<0.001). In contrast, the increase in intensities for MOR immunoreactive signals was relatively less dramatic in neurons, where only the increase in the H 1000 culture was statistically very significant (p<0.001). These results indicated that DSW promotes expression of MOR in both neurons and astrocytes, and more significantly in the latter.
Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Induced Migration and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Smooth Muscle Cells
Song, Hae-Young ; Shin, Sang-Hun ; Kim, Min-Young ; Kim, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 183~193
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.183
Migration and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells are crucial for tissue regeneration in response to injury. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that regulates a variety of biological processes, including proliferation, survival, differentiation and motility. In the present study, we determined the role of S1P in migration and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). S1P stimulated migration of BMSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and pre-incubation of the cells with pertussis toxin completely abrogated S1P-induced migration, suggesting involvement of Gi-coupled receptors in S1P-induced cell migration. S1P elicited elevation of intracellular concentration of
) and pretreatment with VPC23019, an antagonist of
, blocked S1P-induced migration and increase of
. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous
attenuated S1P-induced migration of BMSCs. Furthermore, S1P treatment induced expression of
-smooth muscle actin (
-SMA), a smooth muscle marker, and pretreatment with VPC23019 abrogated S1P-induced
-SMA expression. S1P induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and pretreatment of cells with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, or adenoviral overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of the p38 MAPK blocked S1P-induced cell migration and
-SMA expression. Taken together, these results suggest that S1P stimulates migration and smooth muscle differentiation of BMSCs through an
-p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.
The Caudal-Related Homeodomain Proteins Upregulate catalase Expression in Drosophila Hindgut and Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells
Park, Jae-Hong ; Park, So-Young ; Lee, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Young-Shin ; Yoo, Mi-Ae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 194~201
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.194
Caudal-related homeodomain proteins play critical roles in intestine development and maintenance from Drosophila to humans. The loss or reduction of CDX1 and CDX2 are known to be associated with colon cancers. It has been well known that colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with serious oxidative stress and that catalase is decreased in colon carcinomas. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that Caudal-related homeodomain proteins positively regulate catalase expression in both Drosophila and humans. We found that Drosophila caudal heterozygotes have a decreased catalase expression and increased ROS generation in the hindgut, and that the overexpression of Caudal increases catalase promoter activity and catalase mRNA levels. We also found that CDX1 and CDX2 up-regulate catalase promoter activity and protein levels in HCT116 cells - human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The level of catalase protein in several colorectal carcinoma cell lines was associated with CDX1 expression. These results suggest that CDX1 and CDX2 may be involved in intestinal homeostasis and tumorigenesis via regulation of catalase expression.
Expressional Regulation of Replication Factor C in Adipocyte Differentiation
Cho, Hyun-Kook ; Kim, Hye-Young ; Yu, Hyun-Jeong ; Cheong, Jae-Hun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 202~210
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.202
Adipocyte differentiation is an ordered multistep process requiring the sequential activation of several groups of adipogenic transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-
and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-
, and coactivators. In previous reports, we identified that replication factor C 140 (RFC140) protein played a critical role in regulating adipocyte differentiation as a coactivator. Here, we show expressional regulation of RFC140 and small RFC subunit, RFC38, following characterization of gene promoter of RFC140 and RFC38. In addition, RFC140 increases PPAR
-mediated gene activation, resulting from direct protein-protein interaction of RFC140 and PPAR
. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the regulated expression of RFC140 and RFC38 by specific adipocyte transcription factors is required for the adipocyte differentiation process.
Effects of the Red Garlic Extract for Anti-Obesity and Hypolipidemic in Obese Rats Induced High Fat Diet
Lee, Soo-Jung ; Kim, Ra-Jeong ; Ryu, Ji-Hyun ; Shin, Jung-Hye ; Kang, Min-Jung ; Kim, In-Soo ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 211~220
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.211
This study tested the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of red garlic extract in obese rats induced by a high fat diet over a period of 4 weeks. Red garlic extract of 15 brix was added in 1, 3, 5 and 7% ratios in diets. The obesity index and body fat content significantly decreased in rats fed a diet with over 3% red garlic extract compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in weight of visceral and epididymal fat in rats fed red garlic extract. Total lipid and triglyceride levels in serum were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner, and AI and CRF also fell. ALT and AST activities in groups fed red garlic extract were decreased compared to the control group. Total lipid level in liver tissue of the groups fed 5-7% red garlic extract exhibited a significant decrease compared to the control group. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in feces were significantly increased in rats fed a diet with over 5% red garlic extract. Lipid peroxide levels were significantly decreased in the groups fed diets with 5-7% red garlic and antioxidant activity in serum was significantly increased in the group fed a diet with 7% red garlic extract compared to the control group. Our results suggest that red garlic extract could have anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects for suppressing obesity index and decreasing lipid profiles.
Enzymatic Characterization of a Thermostable 4-α-Glucanotransferase from Thermotoga neapolitana
Choi, Kyoung-Hwa ; Seo, Ja-Yeong ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Cha, Jae-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 221~226
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.221
The gene encoding 4-
-glucanotransferase (mgtA) from Thermotoga neapolitana was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in order to investigate whether this enzyme was capable of producing cycloamylose for industrial applications. MgtA was purified to homogeneity by HiTrap Q HP and Sephacryl S-200 HR column chromatographies. The size of the enzyme as determined by SDS-PAGE was about 52 kDa, which was in good agreement with its deduced molecular mass of 51.9 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH for the activity of the 4-
-glucanotransferase was found to be
and 6.5, respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed the 1,4-
-glucosidic bonds in oligomeric 1,4-
-glucans and transferred oligosaccharides (maltotriose being the shortest one) to acceptor maltodextrins. However, the enzymes had no activity against pullulan, glycogen, and other di- or trioligosaccharides with rare types of
-bond. MgtA is distinguished from 4-
-glucanotransferase from Thermotoga maritima in that it can convert maltotriose into maltooligosaccharides. The treatment of glucoamylase after the reaction of MgtA with maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, or maltohexaose as sole substrate revealed that MgtA yielded linear maltooligosaccharides instead of cycloamylose.
Plant Cell Contact-Dependent Virulence Regulation of hrp Genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528
Lee, Jun-Seung ; Cha, Ji-Young ; Baik, Hyung-Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 227~234
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.227
The hrp gene cluster in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae is a key determinant of pathogenicity. Recent studies have demonstrated that specific host cell induction of the Ralstonia solanacearum hrp gene cluster is controlled by the PrhA (plant regulator of hrp) receptor. To characterize the role that P. syringae PrhA plays in the virulence of plant cells, a prhA homolog was isolated from P. syringae pv. tabaci and a
prhA mutant was constructed by allelic exchange. The
prhA mutant had reduced virulence in the host plant, and co-culture of P. syringae pv. tabaci and plant cell suspensions induced a much higher level of hrpA gene transcription than culture in hrp-inducing minimal medium. These results indicate that PrhA of P. syringae is a putative pathogen-plant cell contact sensor, therefore, we used a hrpA-gfp reporter fusion to monitor the in situ expression of PrhA. The results of this study demonstrated that PrhA induces hrp gene expression in P. syringae pv. tabaci in the presence of plant cells.
Screening and Identification of Soy Curd-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria
Kim, Ro-Ui ; Ahn, Soon-Cheol ; Yu, Sun-Nyoung ; Kim, Kwang-Youn ; Seong, Jong-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Guen ; Kim, Han-Soo ; Kim, Dong-Seob ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 235~241
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.235
The purpose of this study was to isolate soy curd forming bacterial strains. Soy curd forming bacteria were isolated from Kimchi, a traditional Korean vegetable food that is fermented using lactic acid bacteria. Among 196 bacterial strains, ten isolates (strain No. 2-2-2, 2-15-2, 2-18-1, 2-19-2, 3-4-1, 3-4-2, 3-8-1, 3-8-3, 3-17-1, 4-39-5) formed firm soy curd. The isolated bacterial strains were identified by molecular biological and biochemical analyses. The genomic DNAs extracted from the isolated bacterial strains were used as a template for PCR amplification of 16S rDNA region. By comparing the results of the 16s rDNA sequences with GenBank data, the isolated strains were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides group and Lactobacillus sakei group. The phylogenetic position of soy curd forming strains and their related taxa were investigated using neighbor-joining method. L. mesenteroides group was further identified as L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum based on biochemical properties. L. sakei group was named Lactobacillus sp., because it showed a variety of biochemical properties.
Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Induces Androgen Receptor Coactivator Expression in Skeletal Muscle Cells through the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 Pathways
Park, Chan-Ho ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Tae-Un ; Lee, Won-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 242~250
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.242
Although insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and androgen receptor (AR) coactivators are well known effectors of skeletal muscle, the molecular mechanism by which signaling pathways integrating AR coactivators and IGF-I in skeletal muscle cells has not been previously examined. In this study, the effects of IGF-I treatment on the gene expression of AR coactivators in the absence of AR ligands and the roles of the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in IGF-I-induced AR coactivators induction were examined. C2C12 cells were treated with 250 ng/ml of IGF-I in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors p38 MAPK (SB203580) or ERK1/2 (PD98059). Treatment of C2C12 cells with IGF-I resulted in increased in GRIP-1, SRC-1, and ARA70 protein expression. The levels of GRIP-1, SRC-1, and ARA70 mRNA were also significantly increased after 5min of IGF-I treatment. IGF-I-induced AR coactivator proteins were significantly blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways. However, there was no significant effect of those inhibitors on IGF-I-induced mRNA level of AR coactivators, suggesting that AR coactivators are post-transcriptionally regulated by IGF-I. Furthermore, the present results suggest that IGF-I stimulates the expression of AR coactivators by cooperative activation of the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells.
EGCG induces Apoptosis under Hypoxic State in B16F10 Melanoma Cancer Cells
Kim, Yoon-Yi ; Kim, In-Seop ; Park, Ock-Jin ; Kim, Young-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 251~256
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.251
EGCG, catechins in green tea, is a kind of phytochemical. Through the regulation of signal pathways, EGCG has been known to show anti-oxidant and anti-tumor effects in cells. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effects of EGCG through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathways, including hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-
). The experiments were performed in B16F10 melanoma cells in a hypoxic state. AMPK is activated by ATP consumption such as nutrient deficiency, exercise, heat shock, etc. The activated AMPK that plays an important role as an energy sensor inhibits proliferation of cancer cells, as well as inducing apoptosis. HIF-
, the primary transcriptional regulator of the response to oxygen deprivation, plays a critical role in modulating tumor growth and angiogenesis in a hypoxic state. The apoptotic effects of EGCG were studied in B16F10 cells in a hypoxic state. The results show that EGCG inhibits the transcriptional activity of HIF-
and induces apoptosis. These observations suggest that EGCG may exert inhibitory effects of angiogenesis and control tumor cell growth in hypoxic melanoma cells.
Toxins and Antibiotic Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens
Baik, Keun-Sik ; Ki, Gwang-Seo ; Choe, Han-Na ; Park, Seong-Chan ; Koh, Eun-Cho ; Kim, Hyung-Rak ; Seong, Chi-Nam ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 257~264
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.257
Seventy five methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains and 24 methicillin- susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were isolated from clinical specimens obtained from a hospital in Suncheon, Jeonnam province, Korea, from July to December, 2009. Antibiotic resistance was determined using the disc diffusion method. Genes encoding enterotoxin (SE), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), exfoliative toxin (ET) and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) were detected by multiplex PCR-mediated amplification using specific primers. Sixty (80%) MRSA isolates possessed either one or more toxin genes and the most common pattern that coexisted in MRSA was seb, sec, seg, sei and tst (22.7%) followed by coexistence of sec, seg, sei and tst genes (18.7%). Gene pvl encoding leukocidin was not found. Significant correlation between the production of sec, seg, sei and tst genes was found. MRSAs were resistant to erythromycin (89% of the isolates), gentamicin (70.7%), ciprofloxacin (69.3%), clindamycin (61.3%) and tetracycline (58.7%), while MSSAs were susceptible to the antibiotics with the exception of erythromycin. Toxin genes seb, sec and tst were related to the tetracycline resistance of MRSA.
The Effect of Taekwondo and Allium Tuberosum Intake on Body Composition, Blood Lipids and C-Reactive Protein
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 265~272
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.265
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of taekwondo and allium tuberosum intake on body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein in male high school students. Twenty-four male students of B city volunteered to be test subjects. Experimental groups were taekwondo with allium turberosum group (A, n=6), taekwondo group (B, n=6), allium tuberosum group (C, n=6), control group (D, n=6). The total experimental period was 10 weeks. Groups A and B practiced taekwondo 4 times a week for 10 weeks with an intensity of 60~80% HRR. Each practice was 50 minutes. Groups A and C were instructed to take an allium tuberosum pill every day before their taekwondo exercise during the 10 weeks. The results of this study are as follows: Within groups A, B and C, there was a significant decreas in % fat. Groups A and B showed a significant increase in HDL-C concentration, as well as a more significant increase in HDL-C concentration than groups C and D. Group A showed a more significant decreased in LDL-C concentration than group D. In conclusion, taekwondo and allium tuberosum intake seem to have a positive effect on % fat, HDL-C and LDL-C. Further research regarding the effect of allium tuberosum diets is required.
Phylogenetic Analysis of the Former Members of Scrophulariaceae
Bae, Young-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 273~278
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.273
Plants which had been classified to the Scrophulariaceae of the Lamiales were recently reclassified. Many of them were moved to the other families of Lamiales according to the DNA sequences of the plastid DNA. Among those, Melampyrum roseum, Phtheirospermum japonicum, Pseudolysimachion undulata, Lindernia crustacea and Mazus pumilus were chosen for phylogenetic analyses. DNA sequences of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 of those plants were determined and deposited into GenBank (accession numbers GU359046, GU359047, GU359048, GU359049, GU359050, respectively). Analyses of those DNA sequences confirmed the current classification done on the basis of the plastid DNA sequences of Melampyrum roseum, Phtheirospermum japonicum and Pseudolysimachion undulata. However, it was not possible to classify Mazus pumilus and Lindernia crustacea due to discrepancies of analyses data.
Antimelanogenic Effect of Ligularia fischeri, Solidago virga-aurea, Aruncus dioicus Extracts from Ullung Island in Murine Melanoma Cells
Kim, Dong-Hee ; An, Bong-Jeun ; Kim, Se-Gie ; Park, Tae-Soon ; Park, Gun-Hye ; Son, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 279~285
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.279
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the skin whitening effect of the extracts of 3 herbs, Ligularia fischeri, Solidago virga-aurea and Aruncus dioicus, which were collected from Ullung island. Tyrosinase inhibition activities were 33% in pre-fermented extracts and 45% in post-fermented ones. When tyrosinase activities in B16F10 murine melanoma cells were tested, activities in pre- and post-fermented extracts were 41 and 56.5%, respectively. Thus, the post-fermented extracts might have greater skin whitening effects. The protein expression of MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and tyrosinase, which are all skin-whitening related transcription factors, showed that both pre- and post-fermented herbs inhibited protein biosynthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Post-fermented herb extracts especially showed a greater decrease of protein expressions. The expression of MITF, a regulatory transcription factor, was also decreased by both extracts but was greater in the post-fermented ones. From the results, it can be concluded that the 3 herb extracts from Ullung island may inhibit melanin biosynthesis by the suppression of MITF activity in a signaling pathway. Results indicate that the post-fermented herbs tested in the present study had skin whitening activities and can be used as functional ingredients for food and cosmetic compositions.
Role of FAK Phosphorylation in Cobalt Chloride-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Like Transition
Nam, Ju-Ock ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 286~291
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.286
Hypoxia is a common condition found in a wide range of solid tumors and is often associated with metastasis and poor clinical outcomes. In the present study, we found that HIF-
was induced by cobalt chloride (500
) treatment on human lung cancer cells, A549 and H460, for 24 hr. However, cobalt chloride (500
) did not affect cell proliferation of A549 and H460 in 48 hr. Cobalt chloride (500
) additionally induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal-like transition (EMT) such as reduced E-cadherin expression and increased
-SMA expression. These results were confirmed by immunofluorecence experiment in H460 cells. E-cadherin was localized on the outer cell membrane. However, when the cells were treated with 500
cobalt chloride for 24 hr, diffuse E-cadherin staining was observed, characteristic of a migratory mesenchymal phenotype. We also found that cobalt chloride induced integrin
expression and FAK phosphorylation in human lung cancer cells using western blotting and FACS anlaysis. Our data suggest that integrin
-induced FAK phosphorylation may be developed into target molecules for blocking tumor metastasis.
Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Vinegar Beverages Derived from Fruits
Jeong, Eun-Jeong ; Jeon, Seon-Young ; Baek, Jeong-Hwa ; Cha, Yong-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 292~299
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.292
This study compared volatile flavor profiles of 4 commercial vinegar beverages (Italian vinegar beverage (IVB), Japanese vinegar beverage (JVB), Japanese Yuzu-Ponz (JYP), and Korean white wine vinegar beverage (KWVB)). Flavor components of vinegar beverages (VBs) were determined using SPME/GC/MSD. The profiles of VBs were as follows; IVB (11 acids, 17 esters, 10 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, 3 terpenes, 4 aromatic hydrocarbons, 9 ketones), JVB (7 acids, 8 esters, 9 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 13 terpenes, 7 aromatic hydrocarbons, 1 ketones, 3 miscellaneous compounds), JYP (3 acids, 12 esters, 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 63 terpenes, 6 aromatic hydrocarbons, 2 ketones, 5 miscellaneous compounds), KWVB (10 acids, 10 esters, 9 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, 2 terpenes, 5 aromatic hydrocarbons, 4 ketones, 2 miscellaneous compounds). IVB and JVB showed similar flavor compositions (acids, ketones and esters in particular), whereas major components in JYP and KWVB were terpenes (79.6%) and acids (81.0%), respectively. Five compounds including 2-phenylethyl acetate (floral, fruity, sweet odor), 2-phenylethanol (floral, rose odor), vitispirane (fruity odor), geranylacetone (fragrant odor) and acetic acid were identified as major components in balsamic vinegar beverages.
Effect of Hijikia fusiforme Fractions on Proliferation and Differentiation in Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells
Jeon, Min-Hee ; Kim, Mi-Hyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 300~308
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.300
Osteoporosis is a disease involving a decrease in bone mineral density and increased risk of fractures. Osteoblast and osteoclast activities are important for bone formation. The MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line is a well-accepted model of osteogellsis in vitro. Hijikia fusiforme is a kind of edible brown seaweed that grows mainly in the Northwest Pacific region, including the countries of Korea, Japan and China, and it has been widely used as a medicinal and health food in Korea. In this study, by using osteoblasts, the effects of Hijikia fusiforme fractions on proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis and mineralization of cells were investigated. Hijikia fusiforme were subjected to fractionation by using hexane, methanol, butanol and aqueous. Proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells that were treated with Hijikia fusiforme fractions increased by approximately 120%. Regarding effects of Hijikia fusiforme fractions on ALP activity, 1
/ml butanol fraction showed the highest activity. The synthesis of collagen increased significantly in response to treatment with Hijikia fusiforme fractions, with the exception of the hexane fraction. Moreover, mineralization in the MC3T3-E1 cells that were treated with 100
/ml butanol fraction increased by 281%. Also, when 100
/ml aqueous fraction was added, mineralization increased by 240%. These results indicate that Hijikia fusiforme fractions have anabolic effect on bone through the promotion of osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that it could be used for the treatment of common metabolic bone diseases.
Hydrolysis of Rice Syrup Meal Using Various Commercial Proteases
Kim, Chang-Won ; Park, Jin-Woo ; Choi, Hyuk-Joon ; Han, Bok-Kyung ; Yoo, Seung-Seok ; Kim, Byung-Yong ; Baik, Moo-Yeol ; Kim, Young-Rok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 309~315
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.309
Rice syrup meal (RSM) was enzymatically hydrolyzed using eight commercial proteases (Protamex, Neutrase, Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Protease M, Protease N, Protease A, Molsin F) for 4 hr at optimum pH and temperature. Proteolytic hydrolysates were examined in supernatant and precipitate using Lowry protein assay, semimicro Kjeldahl method and gravimetric method using weight difference before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Although RSM contains a high amount of protein (71.2%), only a very small amount of protein was hydrolyzed. Two proteases (Protease M and Protease N) were found to be the most effective in the hydrolysis of RSM protein. In Lowry method, 57.5 and 59.0 mg protein/g RSM were hydrolyzed after Protease M and Protease N treatments, respectively. In gravimetric method, 80.0 and 85.4 mg protein/g RSM were hydrolyzed after Protease M and Protease N treatments. In Kjeldahl method, 67.43 and 70.43 mg protein/g RSM were hydrolyzed after Protamex and Protease N treatments, respectively. For synergistic effect, two or three effective commercial proteases (Protease M, Protease N and Protease A) were applied to RSM at one time. The highest hydrolysis of RSM protein was observed in both Lowry protein assay (80.3 mg protein/g RSM) and gravimetric methods (153.2 mg protein/g RSM) when three commercial proteases were applied at one time, suggesting the synergistic effect of those proteases.
Tryptophan Metabolite 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid Augments TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Activated T Cells
Seo, Su-Kil ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 316~321
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.316
Generation of tryptophan-derived metabolites by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a potent immunoregulatory mechanism in T cell responses. However, the mechanism remains unclear. We showed that 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), the most potent metabolite, selectively induced apoptosis in activated T cells, but not in resting T cells. This was not associated with cell cycle arrest. We found that TRAIL expression was selectively induced in activated T cells by treatment of 3-HAA. Blockade of the TRAIL: DR4/DR5 pathway significantly inhibited 3-HAA-mediated T cell death. Our data suggest that TRAIL-induced apoptosis is involved in the mechanism of 3-HAA-mediated T cell death.
Green Tea Intake and Exercise Reduce Some Biochemical Markers of Obese Adolescents
Yang, Jae-K. ; Jung, Ji-Y. ; Kang, Seol-J. ; Cheong, Gang-W. ; Kim, Jong-C. ; Ko, Seong-K. ; Jeong, So-B. ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 322~327
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.322
The effects of green tea consumption and/or exercise for 12weeks on body weight and select biochemical markers in plasma were evaluated in obese adolescents with a fat ratio of greater than 25%. The subjects were randomly divided into a control group (n=9), green tea consumption group (n=9), exercise group (n=9) and green tea consumption with exercise group (n=9). Subjects in both green tea consumption group and green tea consumption with exercise group were given more than five cups of green tea extract in hot water (
) daily, equivalent to 1.5-1.7 g dry green tea, for 12 weeks. Subjects in both the exercise group and green tea consumption with exercise group participated in a training program (HRmax 60-70%, 60 min/day) for 12 weeks. Control subjects were only given water equal to the quantity of green tea being given to the subjects of green tea consumption. No significant changes body weights were seen in any of these treatments, but the waist to hip ratio was reduced with treatments of both green tea and exercise. The control group showed no significant changes in TNF-
, IL-6 and leptin levels. Green tea consumption reduced leptin (p<0.05), TNF-
, and leptin levels. Exercise lowered TNF-
(p<0.05), IL-6 (p<0.01), and leptin (p<0.05) concentrations. Meanwhile, a combination of green tea consumption and exercise lowered TNF-
, IL-6 (p<0.05) and leptin (p<0.05) levels. These results indicate that green tea consumption and exercise both had a positive effect on the reduction of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-
, IL-6 and leptin, in obese adolescents, but no synergistic effect on the reduction of these cytokines.
Supply of Tryptophan and Tryptamine Influenced the Formation of Melatonin in Viola Plants
Kim, Yeo-Jae ; Yoon, Young-Ha ; Park, Woong-June ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 328~333
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.2.328
Melatonin has been known as an animal hormone. However, melatonin exists in diverse organisms including higher plants. The biosynthesis and physiological roles for melatonin in plants is still largely unknown, although both dicot and monocot plants have melatonin and some medicinal plants even contain large amounts of melatonin. In this study we detected melatonin in diverse Viola plants, in which melatonin had not been examined so far, by reverse phase HPLC analysis, demonstrating the wide existence of melatonin in the genus of Viola. We then fed tryptophan (Trp) and tryptamine (TAM) to the incubation medium for Viola leaf sections to test their effects on melatonin formation. Trp is also the hypothesized starting material of melatonin in plants, and TAM is the following intermediate produced by the decarboxylation of Trp. Trp feeding did not affect the contents of melatonin. In contrast, TAM feeding clearly increased the level of melatonin in Viola leaves. Because TAM is derived from Trp, we concluded that the Trp-TAM pathway exists in Viola plants as well. Ineffectiveness of Trp feeding to the change of melatonin contents supports the hypothesis that the decarboxylation step from Trp to TAM is the rate-limiting step in plant melatonin biosynthesis.