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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2011
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2011
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2011
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2011
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2011
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2011
Selecting the target year
Inhibition of Cancer Cell Migration by Compounds from Garlic Extracts
Kim, Eun-Kyoung ; Yun, Sung-Ji ; Ha, Jung-Min ; Jin, In-Hye ; Kim, Young-Whan ; Kim, Sun-Gun ; Park, Da-Jung ; Choi, Young-Whan ; Yun, Sik ; Kim, Chi-Dae ; Bae, Sun-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 767~774
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.767
Cell migration plays a fundamental role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis as well as in many physiological responses. Here, we screened four different sources of garlic - water extract of normal and black garlic, as well as dried normal and black garlic - for the identification of anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activity on cancer cells. Inhibition of cancer cell migration was observed in the hexane extract of dried-garlic. Inhibitory activity was further purified to near homogeneity by thin layer chromatography and named
etastasis from garlic #27 (ICMG-27). ICMG-27 completely blocked insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced OVCAR-3 cell migration at 6
. ICMG-27 completely blocked IGF-1-induced OVCAR-3 and NIH-3T3 cell migration whereas IGF-1-induced mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell migration was not affected byICMG-27. ICMG-27 inhibited all the tested IGF-1-induced cancer cell migration such as OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, ICMG-27 could inhibit IGF-1-, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-, leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-, and angiotensin II (AngII)-induced OVCAR-3 cell migration. These results indicate that ICMG-27 inhibits cancer cell migration by blocking essential steps in many agonists-induced cancer cell migrations. Unveiling an anti-invasive mechanism of ICMG-27 on cancer cells will provide a basis for cancer therapy.
Antioxidant Capacity and Quinone Reductase Activity of Methanol Extracts and Fractions from Papaya Seed
Yu, Mi-Hee ; Lee, Sung-Gyu ; Im, Hyo-Gwon ; Chae, In-Gyeong ; Kim, Hyun-Jeong ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Lee, In-Seon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 775~782
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.775
In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts and fractions from papaya seed were investigated in vitro. Total polyphenol contents of methanol extracts and fractions from papaya seed varied from 17.74 to 125.99
and total flavonoid contents varied from 1.60 to 32.69
. Contents of polyphenol and flavonoid in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was found to be extremely high (compared with the other fractions examined). Radical-scavenging activities of methanol extracts and fractions were examined using
-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, 2,2`-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydrogen peroxide assay. As a result, ethyl acetate fraction of papaya seed showed the highest radical-scavenging activity in various antioxidant systems. The EtOAc fraction from papaya seed induced QR activity in concentrations of 12.5 to 50
with a maximum of a 3.3-fold induction at 50
of fraction. Therefore, the most effective QR inducer among these fractions can be said to reside in the EtOAc fraction, indicating that strong constituents responsible for QR induction potency in the papaya seed extract are largely contained in the EtOAc fraction.
Thaumatin Isolated from Katemfe Fruit of Thaumatococcus daiellii Inhibits 3T3 L1 Adipocytes Differenciation
Cha, Jae-Young ; Jeong, Jae-Jun ; Yang, Hyun-Ju ; Park, Jun-Seok ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Kim, Su-Hyun ; Jung, Hae-Jung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 783~787
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.783
The effects of thaumatin isolated from katemfe fruit of Thaumatococcus daiellii Benth on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation was investigated in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with various concentrations of thaumatin ranging in 0-5
. Thaumatin reduced fat accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. 3T3-L1 cell proliferation was 97.0 and 88.3% at 1 and 3
after 8 days of thaumatin treatment, respectively. Thaumatin showed a potent inhibitory effect on stained lipid droplets at a concentration of 3
. Thaumatin reduced triglyceride accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, compared with positive control cells. This study provides basic information on the anti-obesity activity of thaumatin.
Change of Sequences and Identification of Chyseobacterium indologenes in Korea by 16S rRNA
Huh, Man-Kyu ; Park, So-Hye ; Yum, Jong-Hwa ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 788~795
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.788
Accurate identification for pathogenic bacterium is an essential element in the clinical microbiology laboratory. We studied molecular analysis involving the identification of Chyseobacterium indologenes and evaluated the seventeen isolates in Korea with the 16S rRNA gene of the ribosome to estimate phylogenetic relationships within the genus Chyseobacterium in GenBank. The aligned data sets for C. indologenes were 1,176 nucleotides. Sequence variation within the C. indologenes was mostly due to nucleotide substitutions. Korean C. indologenes isolates were not strikingly different from the same species found in the other countries. However, the rates of base substitution in Korean C. indologenes isolates were higher than those of other C. indologenes isolates in GenBank. C. indologenes was placed as a sister species to C. isbiliense, C. hominis, C. hispanicum, C. molle, C. hungaricum, and C. pallidum.
Extracts of Allium fistulosum Attenuates Pro-Inflammatory Action in the Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglia Cells
Park, Shin-Hyoung ; Kim, Jung-In ; Jeong, Yong-Kee ; Choi, Yung-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 796~804
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.796
Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident professional macrophages that function as the principal immune cells responding to pathological stimulations in the CNS. Activation of microglia, induced by various pathogens, protects neurons and maintains homeostasis in the CNS, but severe activation causes inflammatory responses secreting various neurotoxic molecules such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin
) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Allium fistulosum, a member of the onion family, is mainly cultivated for consumption, as well as medicinal use in Oriental medicine. It has been reported that A. fistulosum has various biological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-fungus and anti-cholesterol synthesis, however there has been no research about the anti-inflammatory effects of A. fistulosum extracts. In this study, it was undertaken to explore the functions of A. fistulosum as a suppressor of neuronal inflammation by using BV2 microglia cells. As a result, it was found that four kinds of extracts of A. fistulosum effectively reduced the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both mRNA and protein levels, and also attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-
) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at the mRNA level in BV2 stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the extracts of A. fistulosum attenuated the release of NO markedly, as well as resulting in slight decreases of TNF-
and IL-6 production, the effects of which were most significant when treated with ethyl alcohol extract from the whole A. fistulosum. In conclusion, the data indicated that the anti-inflammatory actions of A. fistulosum against BV2 microglia cells is through the down-regulation of iNOS, COX2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-
and IL-6, and these effects are expected to help in the protection of nerve tissues by suppressions of neuronal inflammation in various neurodegenerative diseases.
Effects of Bamboo Charcoal and Bamboo Leaf Supplementation on Performance and Meat Quality in Chickens
Kim, Sung-Hwan ; Lee, In-Chul ; Kang, Sung-Su ; Moon, Chang-Jong ; Kim, Sung-Ho ; Shin, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Hyoung-Chin ; Yoo, Jin-Cheol ; Kim, Jong-Choon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 805~810
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.805
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with bamboo charcoal (BC) and bamboo leaf (BL) on growth performance, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, and meat quality in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens were fed for 30 days with a diet containing 0.5% bamboo charcoal or bamboo leaf. The results showed that the mortality rate during the study period was slightly lower in the BC and BL groups than the control group, while terminal weight and weight gain were significantly higher in the BC and BL groups than the control group. Dietary supplementation with BC or BL also improved feed conversion rate compared to chickens in the control group. Shear force was significantly lower in the BC and BL groups than that of the control group. The fat content of chickens fed with BC tended to decrease, while the ratio of unsaturated fat acid of chickens fed with BC or BL tended to increase, although without a statistically significant difference. Sensory evaluation revealed that overall acceptability was slightly higher in the BC and BL groups than the control group. There was no statistically significant change in the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters, compared with the control group in any group tested. The results of this experiment indicated that dietary supplementation with BC and BL may improve growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, and meat quality in broiler chickens.
Inhibitory Effects of Maesaengi (Capsosiphon fulvescens) Extracts on Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and α-Glucosidase
Cho, Eun-Kyung ; Yoo, Seul-Ki ; Choi, Young-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 811~818
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.811
Physiological activities of hot water (MHW) and 80% ethanol (MEH) extracts from Maesaengi (Capsosiphon fulvescens) were investigated in this study. For the evaluation of antioxidant activities for MHW and MEH, 2,2-diphenyl-1-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity were measured. DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD-like activity of MHW, and MEH were increased weekly in a dose-dependent manner, and were about 10.8, 13.8, 62.4, and 27.1% at 10 mg/ml, respectively. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of MHW and MEH were about 5.9% and 49.7% at 1 mg/ml, respectively. The
-glucosidase inhibitory effect of MHW and MEH were about 1.4% and 67.3% at 1 mg/ml, respectively. To determine the influence of MHW and MEH on alcohol metabolizing activity, the generating activities of reduced-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were measured. Facilitating rates of ADH activity by MHW and MEH were increased weekly in a dose-dependent manner and ALDH activities were not detected. Elastase inhibitory activities of MHW and MEH were 75.9% and 51.2% at 10 mg/ml, respectively.
Groundwater Contamination of Noroviruses in Busan, Ulsan, and Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea
Park, Byung-Ju ; Oh, Hae-Ri ; Kang, Ho-Young ; Jang, Kyung-Lib ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 819~828
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.819
To inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater in south eastern areas of Korea, a systematic survey of groundwater in Busan, Ulsan, and Gyeongsangnam-do was performed for two years from 2009 to 2010. For this purpose, we first optimized the nested reverse transcription-PCR condition by designing two sets of primers for the detection of norovirus genogroups, GI and GII. Of 145 samples, 21 (25.9%) and 15 (23.4%) were norovirus positive in the dry season (April to June) and wet season (July to August), respectively. The detection frequencies of norovirus in Busan, Ulsan, and Gyeongsangnam-do were 15%, 7%, and 32%, respectively, reflecting a geographical difference in their distribution. The GI and GII isolates were 5 and 31, respectively, indicating the prevalence of GII in the tested areas. According to phylogenetic analysis of their nucleotide sequences, all of the GI isolates were identified to genotype GI.5 whilst the GII isolates were divided into two genotypes, GII.3 and GII.4. Neither physical-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, and dissolved oxygen, nor microbial indicators of water quality such as total bacteria, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were statistically correlated with contamination of norovirus in the groundwater. Interestingly, however, the presence of norovirus was closely correlated with low turbidity (<0.50 NTU). The present study suggests that periodical monitoring of norovirus in groundwater is necessary to prevent epidemic waterborne diseases and to secure better sanitary conditions for public health.
Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds on Cholesterol Adsorption Capacity and UDP-Glucuronyl Transferase Activity
Song, Won-Young ; Kim, Yu-Na ; Chun, Sung-Sik ; Ku, Kyung-Hyung ; Choi, Jeong-Hwa ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 829~837
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.829
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds on cholesterol adsorption capacity and UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity. In vitro cholesterol adsorption capacity of 2%, 5% and 10% ethanol extracts from red pepper seed groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats weighing
g were randomly assigned to one normal diet N group and experimental groups fed high fat and high cholesterol diet, which were divided into HF (0.0%), HEA (0.1%), HEB (0.2%), and HEC (0.5%) groups according to the amount of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds added to their basal diet. The body weight gain in the HF group was higher than that in the N group, and those in the HEA, HEB and HEC groups were lower than that in the HF group However, there were no statistically significant differences among the all the groups. The hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in the N group was significantly lower than that in the HF group, and those in the HEA, HEB and HEC groups were lower than that in the HF group. The hepatic UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity in the N group was lower than that of the HF group and those in the HEA, HEB and HEC groups were lower than that of the HF group. The serum total cholesterol and triglyceride contents of the HF group were significantly higher than that of the N group, and those of the HEA, HEB and HEC groups were lower than that of the HF group. The serum HDL-cholesterol contents in all groups supplemented with the ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds were significantly higher than that of the HF group. The serum LDL-cholesterol contents of the HF group were significantly higher than that of the N group, and those of the HEA, HEB and HEC groups were lower than that of the HF group. The fecal total cholesterol contents were significantly higher in the HF group compared to the N group, and those of the HEB and HEC groups were lower than that of the HF group. The fecal triglyceride contents in the N group was higher than that of the HF group, and those of the HEA, HEB and HEC groups were lower than that of the HF group. This study suggested that the ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds have powerful health benefits by the UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity and lipid metabolism.
Gender-Specific Changes of Plasma MDA, SOD, and Lymphocyte DNA Damage during High Intensity Exercise
Cho, Su-Youn ; Chung, Young-Soo ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Roh, Hee-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 838~844
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.838
The purpose of this study was to investigate gender-specific changes of plasma MDA, SOD, and lymphocyte DNA damage during high intensity exercise. In this study, 17 healthy male and 18 healthy female college students ran on a treadmill at 85%
until the point of all-out. Blood-collecting was carried out five times (Rest, Ex-Exha, R0.5h, R4h and R24h), and with the collected blood, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lymphocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Plasma MDA and SOD concentration increased significantly at the Ex-Exha (p<0.05), and there were no significant differences in gender. For the degree of lymphocyte DNA damage, all %DNA in the tail, tail length and tail moment increased significantly at the Ex-Exha (p<0.05), and %DNA in the tail and tail length were significantly higher in the male group than in the female group (p<0.05). These results suggest that acute high intensity exercise not only causes oxidative stress but also brings about lymphocyte DNA damage. In addition, it was found that males showed higher DNA damage than females in terms of oxidative stress subject to high intensity exercise. Nevertheless, further subsequent studies are required in order to better understand the mechanism behind DNA damage varying with gender, in a way that takes into consideration physical fitness, hormonal level, exercise intensity and duration - additional factors which might affect DNA damage.
Study on Norovirus Genotypes in Busan, Korea
Kim, Nam-Ho ; Park, Eun-Hee ; Park, Yon-Koung ; Min, Sang-Kee ; Jin, Seong-Hyeon ; Park, So-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 845~850
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.845
Norovirus (NoV) causes major acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. NoV genus is a member of the family Caliciviridae, which is transmitted by contaminated food and water or from human to human. Many genotypes of genogroups I and II have been reported because of their high genetic diversity. To obtain molecular epidemiological information on gastroenteritis sporadic cases in Busan, Korea, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of NoV strains detected during 2008~2010. We performed one step RT-PCR amplifying the open reading frame (ORF) 2 (capsid region) followed by semi-nested PCR. Fecal samples were collected from 4,071 acute gastroenteritis, and genotypes of the 421 positive samples were determined by sequence analysis. Based on partial sequence of capsid region, 7 NoV were categorized into genogroup I and 13 into genogroup II. Prevalent genotypes among gastroenteritis patients within Busan were GII.4, GI.6, GII.5 in 2008~2010. The results of this study will contribute to the currently available epidemiological data and improve public health and hygiene via development of diagnostic methods and sustainable surveillance.
Sulforaphane-Induced Apoptosis was Regulated by p53 and Caspase-3 Dependent Pathway in Human Chondrosarcoma, HTB-94
Lee, Won-Kil ; Kim, Song-Ja ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 851~857
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.851
Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate, isolated from glucoraphanin in broccoli and other cruciferaous vegetables. Recent studies have revealed that SFN induces anti-proliferation and apoptosis by cell cycle arrest in various cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of SFN induced apoptosis in chondrosarcoma HTB-94 cells. SFN caused suppression of proliferation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as determined by cell phenotype, MTT assay and FACS analysis in HTB-94 cells. Treatment of SFN led to caspase-3 activation and p53 accumulation as determined by Western blot analysis. Also, SFN significantly induced DNA fragmentation and nuclear degradation though activation of caspase-3, as detected by DNA electrophoresis and immunostaining, respectively. Our results indicate that SFN-induced apoptosis was regulated by p53 and caspase-3 dependent pathways. Furthermore, SFN may act as a potent anti-proliferation agent, and as a promising candidate for molecular-targeting chemotherapy against human chondrosarcoma cells.
Functional Properties of Walnut in Cosmetics
Kim, Mee-Kyung ; Kim, Jin-Sung ; Jo, Bun-Sung ; Kim, Jeung-Hoan ; Lee, In-Cheol ; Lee, Myung-Sup ; Cho, Young-Je ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 858~864
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.858
The phenolic compounds of walnut extracts by various solvents were shown to be 24.3 mg/g in hot water, 34.4 mg/g in ethanol, 32.5 mg/g in methanol and 15.1 mg/g in acetone. In a comparison of phenolic compounds from hot water and different concentrations of ethanol, which are harmless, 60% ethanol extract and hot water extract were 34.7 mg/g, 24.6 mg/g. The electron donating ability (EDA) of walnut extracts in hot water and 60% ethanol were 78.1% and 80.6%. According to ABTS radical cation decolorization for antioxidant activity, hot water and 60% ethanol extract showed high antioxidant activities of 98.1% and 98.3%. Antioxidant protection factor (PF) were
PF in hot water and 60% ethanol extract. In TBARs inhibitory activity, each extract showed high antioxidant activities at 60% and 75%. Anti-inflammation effects of walnut extract were tested, and inhibition of NO was 50% in 100
phenolics. Inhibitory activity against iNOS and COX-2 were shown, through Western blot, to be 10% in 100
phenolics. Tyrosine inhibitory activity of 60% ethanol extract was 43%, and astringent effect of 60% ethanol extract was 55%. These results suggest that walnut extracts are suitable for functional cosmetics requiring skin-whitening and anti-wrinkle activity.
Screening of Genes Which are Able to Affect Kalanchoe Vegetative Reproduction
Jung, Yu-Chul ; Chung, Young-Jae ; Kim, Dong-Giun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 865~874
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.865
The genus Bryophyllum is best known for many of its species having the ability to produce plantlets on their leaves. This phenomenon is also known as vegetative reproduction. Differential expressed gene (DEG) detecting technique was applied in order to survey the genes involved in the process of asexual reproduction for plantlet formation. Based on homology search using the NCBI database after screening of genes, 38 genes were identified from a total of 69 DEGs. Most of these DEGs were related to cell division, to intercellular signal transduction, and to hormone (cytokinin and ethylene) signaling.
Recovery Effect of Garlic Extract and Vitamin B group Enhanced Diet on Swimming Fatigue
Kang, Min-Jung ; Shin, Jung-Hye ; Sung, Nak-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 875~883
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.875
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet supplemented with garlic extract and vitamin B complex on fatigue recovery from swimming load test in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a non-swimming control group (Normal) and swimming load test groups. Swimming load test groups were re-divided into swimming control group (Control), 1% of 60 brix garlic extract fed group (SG), vitamin B complex twice mixture fed group (SV) and 1% of 60 brix garlic extract and vitamin B group twice mixture fed group (SGV). Concentration of plasma lipids and glucose were determined in the rats post-swimming. Concentration of plasma glucose, total lipid, total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in the control group compared to the non-swimming control group (p<0.05), and these levels were shown to be significantly lower in the SG, SV and SGV groups than in the control group. The SGV group showed the lowest level, however, there was no significant difference between the SG and SV groups. There was no significant difference in HDL-cholesterol concentrations between the normal group and control group, but its concentration was the highest in the SG (
mg/dl) group. LDL-cholesterol concentration was the highest in the control group, but it was decreased significantly in the SGV group. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that a diet supplemented with 1% 60 brix garlic extract and vitamin B group twice mixture has beneficial effects on fatigue recovery in swimming load tests.
Effects of Aged Black Garlic Extract on Lipid Improvement in Rats Fed with High Fat-Cholesterol Diet
Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Yang, Seung-Taek ; Ryu, Beung-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 884~892
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.884
This study was performed to investigate the increase of S-allylcysteine content, a biomarker of black garlic, during its aging period, as well as the serum lipid-lowering effects of black garlic extract in high fat diet fed rats. The highest content of S-allylcysteine was observed on the 15th day of the aging period. Sensory evaluation was also estimated to be extremely good on the 15th day of the aging period. High fat diet rats with induced hyperlipidemia were fed diets containing black garlic extract of low, medium, and high doses for 6 weeks. No significant difference in body weight gain and food efficiency was observed between normal, placebo and black garlic fed groups. Liver weight was significantly higher in black garlic fed groups than in the normal group. Total serum cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower in low, medium, and high dose groups than in the normal group. Also, HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher and LDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in black garlic diet fed groups than in the normal group. Hepatic levels including total lipid and cholesterol were especially decreased in the black garlic diet fed group than in the placebo group. These results suggest that black garlic intake reduces the levels of serum and hepatic cholesterol in high fat diet fed rats. In conclusion, black garlic has a potential to be used as a functional health food ingredient with beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Roles of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Prostate Cancer
Kong, Hoon-Young ; Lee, Hak-Jong ; Byun, Jong-Hoe ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 893~900
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.893
Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is one of the widely used biomarkers in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. It was initially identified in 1935 and is the most abundant phosphatase in the human prostate. PAP is a prostate-specific enzyme that is synthesized in prostate epithelial cells. It belongs to the acid phosphatase group that shows enzymatic activity in acidic conditions. PAP is abundant in prostatic fluid and is thought to have a role in fertilization and oligospermia. It also has a potential role in reducing chronic pain. But one of the most apparent functions of PAP is the dephosphorylation of macromolecules such as HER-2 and PI3P that are involved in the ERK1/2 and MAPK pathways, which in turn leads to inhibition of cell growth and tumorigenesis. Currently, clinical trials using PAP DNA vaccine are underway and FDA-approved immunotherapy using PAP is commercially available. Despite these clinically important aspects, molecular mechanisms underlying PAP regulation are not fully understood. The promoter region of PAP was reported to be regulated by NF-
, IL-1, androgen and androgen receptors. Here, the features of PAP gene and protein structures together with the function, regulation and roles of PAP in prostate cancer are discussed.
Variations of Seed Hardness in Local Populations of Pisum sativum
Kim, Chang-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 901~906
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.901
In order to investigate the variations on the seed hardness of Pisum sativum distributed in southern area of Korean peninsula, 10 local strains (Choonseong. Ganghwa, Pocheon, Hadong, Haman, Geumneung, Yeongyang, Boseong, Gochang, Namweon), which located from
, were selected according to their latitudes and geographical distances. The seeds of these strains were collected and their contents of mannose and galactose were analyzed. Mannose contents in the seeds were variable in the range between the highest 10.351 mg/g (Ganghwa) and the lowest 5.962 mg/g (Yeongyang). The contents of galactose were also represented remarkable differences from 7.050 mg/g (Yeongyang) to 19.314 mg/g (Hadong). The local strains were classified into 3 variation types such as the south central type (Namweon, Yeongyang, Geumneung, Gochang), the central type (Choonseong. Ganghwa, Pocheon) and the southern type (Haman, Hadong) and 1 strange strains (Boseong) according to the geographical climatic type, isopleth of warmth index and the ratio of mannose to galactose, which indicate the hardness of seeds in Leguminosae, ranged from 0.46 to 0.94. The variation types are very significant genecologically as an evidence for microevolution related to natual and artificial selection in cultivated plants.
Production of Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor from Bombyx mori (Lepidopera: Bombycidae) Bm5 Cells
Han, Song-Yi ; Jin, Cho-Yi ; Kwon, Ki-Sang ; Yun, Eun-Young ; Goo, Tae-Won ; Kim, Seung-Whan ; Choi, Jong-Soon ; Yu, Kweon ; Kwon, O-Yu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 907~911
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.907
Using silkworm Bombyx mori Bm5 cells, we established a stable cell line expressing the human keratinocyte growth factor (hKGF), named by the Bm5-hKGF cell, in which the protein hKGF is synthesized in the cell and secreted in the cell culture supernatant (CCS) at approximately 15-20 ng/ml. When the Bm5-hKGF cell was co-expressed with B. mori protein disulfide isomerase (bPDI) cDNA, its secretion increased by about two times the original amount. Through wound healing migration assay, it was demonstrated that the secreted hKGF included in the CCS has a very powerful biological activity of keratinocyte proliferation. We expect to produce useful human recombinant proteins from silkworm cultured cells in large quantities at low prices.
Review of Cancer-Testis (CT) Genes
Kim, Mi-Hee ; Song, Myung-Ha ; Lee, Sang-Yull ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 21, issue 6, 2011, Pages 912~922
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2011.21.6.912
Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are immunogenic protein antigens with restricted expression in the testes and a wide range of human tumor types, eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses in cancer patients. They are considered to be ideal targets for vaccine-based immunotherapy, and more than 100 CT antigens, including MAGE, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, BAGE, LAGE, SSX2 and NY-SAR-35 have been identified to date. The CT antigens were identified through various techniques and can be divided in those that are encoded on the X chromosome, the CT-X genes, and those that are not, the non-X-CT genes. CT genes are aberrantly activated and expressed in a proportion of various types of human cancers. The biological role of CT-X in both germ line tissues and tumors remains poorly understood. Cancer vaccine trials based on several CT antigens are currently ongoing. This paper reviews recent advances in and future trends of CT antigens for cancer immunotherapy.