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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Inhibition of SIRT1 Sensitizes TRAIL-Resistant MCF-7 Cells by Upregulation of DR5 and Inhibition of c-FLIP
Lee, Su-Hoon ; Kim, Hak-Bng ; Kim, Mi-Ju ; Lee, Jae-Won ; Bae, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Wan ; Kang, Chi-Dug ; Kim, Sun-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1277~1285
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1277
The tumor necrosis, factor-related, apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is regarded as a potentially useful anticancer agent with excellent selectivity for cancer cells. However, a considerable number of cancer cells are resistant to apoptosis induction by TRAIL. Developing strategies to overcome this resistance are important for the successful use of TRAIL for cancer therapy. Here, we revealed that siRNA-mediated downregulation of SIRT1 or SIRT1 inhibitor Amurensin G upregulated DR5 and c-Myc and downregulated c-
and Mcl-1, which was associated with sensitization of TRAIL-resistant MCF-7 cells to TRAIL. This result was followed by the activation of caspases, PARP cleavage, and downregulation of Bcl-2 in both TRAIL-treated MCF-7 cells transfected with SIRT1 siRNA and cells co-treated with Amurensin G and TRAIL. Our results suggest that the induction of DR5 and downregulation of c-FLIP via suppression of SIRT1 expression may be a useful strategy to increase the susceptibility of TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death.
Community Structure and Diversity across Spatial Scales of Macrobenthos in the Seomjin River
Huh, Man Kyu ; Joo, Woo Hong ; Choi, Choo Joo ; Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1286~1294
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1286
Biological assessments of the macrobenthos community were carried out in the Seomjin River from May 2009 to November 2010. Fishes from 106 species belonging to 24 families and 10 orders were collected from the survey sites. Locational dominant species differed among sites, and the numbers of species and individuals differed depending on site, although six sites were not significantly different on the same survey dates. Across sites, the average number of species was 38.3, ranging from five at site 1 to 66 at site 2 in May 2009. Site 2 had the highest number of species on November 2009, while site 3 had the lowest. Arthropods dominated the macrobenthic community at species (63.2% May) and individual (60.9% November) levels. DO, BOD, and COD were shown to have the greatest effect on the numbers of macrobenthos. Peaks in the diversity index trended downwards from upstream to downstream sites.
Enhanced Production of Carboxymethylcellulase by a Newly Isolated Marine Microorganism Bacillus atrophaeus LBH-18 Using Rice Bran, a Byproduct from the Rice Processing Industry
Kim, Yi-Joon ; Cao, Wa ; Lee, Yu-Jeong ; Lee, Sang-Un ; Jeong, Jeong-Han ; Lee, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1295~1306
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1295
A microorganism producing carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) was isolated from seawater and identified as Bacillus atrophaeus. This species was designated as B. atrophaeus LBH-18 based on its evolutionary distance and the phylogenetic tree resulting from 16S rDNA sequencing and the neighbor-joining method. The optimal conditions for rice bran (68.1 g/l), peptone (9.1 g/l), and initial pH (7.0) of the medium for cell growth was determined by Design Expert Software based on the response surface method; conditions for production of CMCase were 55.2 g/l, 6.6 g/l, and 7.1, respectively. The optimal temperature for cell growth and the production of CMCase by B. atrophaeus LBH-18 was
. The optimal conditions of agitation speed and aeration rate for cell growth in a 7-l bioreactor were 324 rpm and 0.9 vvm, respectively, whereas those for production of CMCase were 343 rpm and 0.6 vvm, respectively. The optimal inner pressure for cell growth and production of CMCase in a 100-l bioreactor was 0.06 MPa. Maximal production of CMCase under optimal conditions in a 100-l bioreactor was 127.5 U/ml, which was 1.32 times higher than that without an inner pressure. In this study, rice bran was developed as a carbon source for industrial scale production of CMCase by B. atrophaeus LBH-18. Reduced time for the production of CMCase from 7 to 10 days to 3 days by using a bacterial strain with submerged fermentation also resulted in increased productivity of CMCase and a decrease in its production cost.
Effect of Dietary Benzoic Acid on Beneficial Microflora and Immune Response in the Intestine of Weaning Pigs
Oh, Hee Kyung ; Choi, Young Hwan ; Jin, Ying Hai ; Kim, Yoo Yong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1307~1315
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1307
We evaluated the effect of dietary supplements with benzoic acid on intestinal beneficial bacteria concentration and immune response of weaning pigs. Supplementation with benzoic acid at 0.5% or control diet for 35 days resulted in a higher Lactobacillus casei concentration in the cecum. Supplementation with benzoic acid at 0.5% increased concentration of L. plantarum in the cecum. Pigs with the control diet and 0.5% benzoic acid had significantly increased concentration of B. subtillis in the cecum compared to the antibiotic group, while the concentration of B. subtillis in the rectum increased in pigs given 0.3 and 0.5% benzoic acid (p<0.05). Compared with the control group, the level of interleukin-
mRNA showed a significant decrease in the proximal small intestine in pigs fed diets supplemented with benzoic acid at 0.5% or antibiotic. Feeding 0.5% benzoic acid resulted in a marked reduction in the expression of IL-6 mRNA in the middle small intestine (p<0.05). Supplementation with benzoic acid at 0.5% or antibiotic resulted in a lower level of tumor necrosis factor-mRNA in the middle intestine. Up to 0.5% benzoic acid may be included in weaning diets for improvement of intestinal beneficial bacteria, thus modulating genes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gastrointestinal tract.
Effects of Ectopic Expression of Transcription Factors on Adipogenic Transdifferentiation in Bovine Myoblasts
Moon, Yang Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1316~1323
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1316
The present study was conducted to investigate whether myoblasts can be transdifferentiated into adipocytes by ectopic expression of adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-
), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-
), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP1c), and Krueppel-like factor 5 (KLF5), in primary bovine satellite cells. Transcription factors were transiently transfected into primary bovine myoblasts, and the cells were cultured with adipogenic differentiation medium for 2 days and then cultured on growth medium for an additional 8 days. Ectopic expression of
alone was insufficient to induce adipogenesis in myoblasts. However, overexpression of both
in myoblasts was able to induce adipogenic transdifferentiation as indicated by the appearance of mature adipocytes, the induction of adipogenic gene expressions, and the suppression of myogenic gene expressions. In addition, KLF5 and
co-transfected bovine myoblasts were converted to adipocytes but not in cells transfected with only KLF5 expression vector. Overexpression of SREBP1c alone was sufficient to induce transdifferentiation from myoblasts into adipocytes. These results demonstrate that primary bovine satellite cells can be transdifferentiated into adipocytes either by single ectopic expression or combined expression of adipogenic transcription factors in a culture system.
Effects of Organic Acids on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Emission
Ok, Ji Un ; Ha, Dong Uk ; Lee, Shin Ja ; Kim, Eun Tae ; Lee, Sang Suk ; Oh, Young Kyun ; Kim, Kyoung Hoon ; Lee, Sung Sill ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1324~1329
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1324
The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of organic acids on methane emission and ruminal fermentation characteristics. We expected our methodology to result in a decrease of methanogens attached to the surface of rumen ciliate protozoa by addition of organic acids and in particular a decrease in methane emission. A fistulated Holstein cow of 650 kg body weight was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Organic acids (aspartic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, and succinic acid) known to be propionate enhancers were added to an in vitro fermentation system and incubated with rumen fluid. The microbial population, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, were enumerated, and gas production, including methane and fermentation characteristics, were observed in vitro. Organic acids appeared to affect the rumen protozoan community. The rumen protozoal popuation decreased with the addition of aspartic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid. In particular, the methane emission was reduced by addition of lactic acid. The concentration of propionate with all organic acids that were added appeared to be higher than that of the control at 12 h incubation. Addition of organic acids significantly affected rumen bacteria and microbial growth. The bacteria in added fumaric acid and malic acid was significantly higher (p<0.05) and protozoa was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. Microbial growth with the addition of organic acids was greater than the control after 48 h incubation.
Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Solvent Fraction from Theobroma cacao L. Extract
Kim, Young-Sun ; Lee, Jin-Young ; Cho, Young-Je ; An, Bong-Jeun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1330~1338
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1330
Solvent extracts of Theobroma cacao L. (TCL) were investigated for anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in order to consider TCL as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. TCL(A) extract was fractioned according to polarity with
, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and water. Following TCL(A) fractionation, the electron-donating ability of the n-BuOH and EtOAc solvent fractions (each 100
) was about 76.2% and 53.9%, respectively. The superoxide anion radical inhibitory effect of the n-BuOH and EtOAc solvent fractions (each 50
) was about 76.09% and 51.4%, respectively. Results of lipid oxidation showed that
had a greater chelating effect than
chelating effect of the EtOAc solvent fraction (50
) was about 64%. Hyaluronidase inhibition related to the anti-inflammatory effect was 53.0% with EtOAc at 100
, while the lipoxygenase inhibitory effect was about 51.32% at 10
. The anti-inflammatory activity in the EtOAc fraction inhibited the generation of nitric oxide. Results also showed that iNOS protein expression increased in RAW264.7 cells. In contrast, at 100
EtOAc, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression significantly decreased in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
Inhibitory Effect of PG-Platycodin D on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in ICR Mice
Park, Sae-Jin ; Kim, Yoon Suk ; Kim, Tack-Joong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1339~1343
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1339
Atopic dermatitis is characterized by chronically pruritic and inflammatory dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum including platycodin D (PG-Platycodin D) in an atopic dermatitis-like mouse model. An atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion was induced by repeated treatment of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) on the dorsal skin of ICR mice. The efficacy of PG-Platycodin D was tested by observing scratching behavior, the skin severity score, and histopathologic analysis. PG-Platycodin D reduced the DNCB-induced increase in scratching behavior and the skin severity score. In addition, histopathologic analysis revealed a reduction in the thickening of the epidermis in the PG-Platycodin D group. These results may contribute to the development of a therapeutic drug for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Major Compound Analysis and Assessment of Natural Essential Oil on Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Microbial Effects
Shin, Yu-Hyeon ; Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Lee, Jin-Young ; Cho, Young-Je ; An, Bong-Jeun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1344~1351
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1344
We studied the physical, chemical, biological, and antimicrobial effects of eight types of essential oils used in the cosmetics industry: lavender, tea tree, rosemary, juniper berry, Chamaecyparis obtusa, cypress, cedar wood, and pine. Lavender oil had a linalyl acetate (an ester chemical compound) content of 48% and radical scavenging activity of 22.36% at 5,000 ppm. Tea tree oil had radical scavenging activity of 43.94% at 5,000 ppm and antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. mutans, and C. albicans in each 6, 3.5, 6.5, and 5 mm, respectively. Chamaecyparis obtusa oil had the highest acidity (pH 2.64) compared with the other oils, and sesquiterpene compounds were found to have 19.20%. Cedar wood oil had the highest specific gravity and refractive index compared to the other oils and had a sesquiterpene content of 99.73%. The radical scavenging activity of cedar wood essential oil exceeded 39.68% at 5,000 ppm. The clear zone, indicating antimicrobial activity against P. acnes, P. ovale, and C. albicans, was 3.5, 6, and 6 mm, respectively, at a concentration of 1% cedar wood oil. Results showed that with a high sesquiterpene content, the antioxidant effect was generally, but not always, high, suggesting that this is determined according to composition of the compound rather than presence of each antioxidant. The results indicate that antimicrobial activity is determined by the existence of each antimicrobial ingredient rather than terpene composition.
PAF in Pulmonary Surfactant Contributes to Neutrophilic Oxidative Stress-Induced Acute Lung Injury of Rats Given LPS Intratracheally
Lee, Young-Man ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1352~1358
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1352
In acute lung injury (ALI) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the underlying cause of infiltration and migration of neutrophils into the alveoli is considered to be from increased production of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the pulmonary surfactant lining the alveolar lumen. In this study I partially confirmed this concept. LPS increased lung leak and the infiltration of neutrophils in the lung of rats given LPS intratracheally. The migration of neutrophils into the lung, which had caused oxidative stress, was also morphologically identified. I verified that the metabolism of the pulmonary surfactant was affected and that there was increased production of PAF in the pulmonary surfactant, both of which are considered to contribute to ALI by LPS in rats.
Analysis of Putative Downstream Genes of Arabidopsis AtERF71/HRE2 Transcription Factor using a Microarray
Seok, Hye-Yeon ; Lee, Sun-Young ; Woo, Dong-Hyuk ; Park, Hee-Yeon ; Moon, Yong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1359~1370
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1359
Arabidopsis AtERF71/HRE2, a transcription activator, is located in the nucleus and is involved in the signal transduction of low oxygen and osmotic stresses. In this study, microarray analysis using AtERF71/HRE2-overexpressing transgenic plants was performed to identify genes downstream of AtERF71/HRE2. A total of 161 different genes as well as AtERF71/HRE2 showed more than a twofold higher expression in AtERF71/HRE2-overexpressing transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. Among the 161 genes, 24 genes were transcriptional regulators, such as transcription factors and DNA-binding proteins, based on gene ontology annotations, suggesting that AtERF71/HRE2 is an upstream transcription factor that regulates the activities of various downstream genes via these transcription regulators. RT-PCR analysis of 15 genes selected out of the 161 genes showed higher expression in AtERF71/HRE2-overexpressing transgenic plants, validating the microarray data. On the basis of Genevestigator database analysis, 51 genes among the 161 genes were highly expressed under low oxygen and/or osmotic stresses. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of three genes among the selected 15 genes increased under low oxygen stress and another three genes increased under high salt stress, suggesting that these genes might be downstream genes of AtERF71/HRE2 in low oxygen or high salt stress signal transduction. Microarray analysis results indicated that AtERF71/HRE2 might also be involved in the responses to other abiotic stresses and also in the regulation of plant developmental processes.
Anti-Fibrotic Effects by Moringa Root Extract in Rat Kidney Fibroblast
Park, Su-Hyun ; Chang, Young-Chae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1371~1377
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1371
Fibrosis in kidney by internal and external factors causes progressive loss of renal function. Renal fibrosis is the inevitable consequence of an excessive accumulation of the extracellular matrix. TGF-
plays an important role in the process of renal fibrosis and stimulates the synthesis of profibrotic factors, including collagens, fibronectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). We examined the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (moringa) extracts in a rat kidney fibrosis model. We found that moringa root extract suppresses protein expression/mRNA levels of Type I collagen, fibronectin, and PAI-1 induced by TGF-
in renal fibroblasts. Moringa root extract selectively inhibited phosphorylation of TGF-
and the downstream signaling pathway (e.g., Smad4), and phospho-ERK, but not JNK, p38, or PI3K/AKT. These results suggest that moringa root extract can act against TGF-
-induced renal fibrosis in rat kidney fibroblast cells by a mechanism related to its antifibrotic activity, which regulates expression of fibronectin, Type I collagen, and PAI-1 through
-Smad2/3-Smad4 and ERK. Therefore, moringa root extract is an effective substance for fibrosis therapy and provides a new therapeutic strategy for diseases associated with elevated profibrotic factor synthesis.
Noodle Development and Its Quality Characteristics Using Fermented White and Brown Rice
Seo, Min Jeong ; Kang, Byoung Won ; Park, Jeong Uck ; Kim, Min Jeong ; Lee, Hye Hyeon ; Jeong, Yong Kee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1378~1383
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1378
To address the limitations of manufacturing noodle products using rice, brown rice noodles were created by the fermentation of brown rice containing several nutrients and the quality of these noodles were evaluated. White rice noodles, fermented white rice noodles, brown rice noodles, and fermented brown rice noodles were developed using white rice and brown rice, respectively. We found that the content of crude proteins present in the noodles during the fermentation process increased and the content of crude fat and carbohydrates in the noodles was reduced. In addition, the water content of brown rice noodles was twofold higher than that of white rice, although under fermentation conditions, the water content of brown rice noodles decreased slightly. A slight change of chromaticity was observed during the fermentation process. In cooking, the weight and volume of the noodles increased, with the change being lowest in noodles based on white rice. White rice-based noodles exhibited significantly higher turbidity in the cooked noodle soup, while other noodle products showed relatively constant turbidity. Most of the products showed a decreased texture, becoming soft with cooking; however, the elasticity of the cooked products increased. Our results suggest that the disadvantages of producing rice noodles can be overcome by the development of fermented brown rice noodles containing a variety of nutritional components. This would potentially develop a market for rice-based manufactured foods that appeal to modern preferences.
Genetic Diversity of Endophytic Fungal Strains Isolated from the Roots of Coastal Plants in Ulleung Island for Restoration of Coastal Ecosystem
Kim, Miae ; You, Young-Hyun ; Yoon, Hyeokjun ; Kim, Hyun ; Seo, Yeonggyo ; Khalmuratova, Irina ; Shin, Jae-Ho ; Lee, In-Jung ; Choo, Yeon-Sik ; Kim, Jong-Guk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1384~1391
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1384
Five coastal plant species, Artemisia fukudo, Aster sphathulifolius, Plantago camtschatica, Sedum oryzifolium, and Setaria viridis, were collected from the coastal region of Ulleung Island (Ulleung-Do, South Korea). Thirty-six endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of these plants, and all were identified by using PCR with the following specifications: internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2 regions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all fungal strains belong to the phylum Ascomycota and comprise four orders (Capnodiales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, and Pleosporales). Among all the identified species, the Eurotiales species were more abundant than species in the other orders. Nine different genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Neosartorya, Penicillium, Phoma, and Pyrenochaeta) in the four orders were confirmed. Penicillium and Aspergillus species were the most dominant species among the endophytic fungi isolated from the coastal plants. Shannon`s diversity index (H`) ranged from 0.684 to 1.609, and the endophytic fungi in S. oryzifolium was more diverse compared to the endophytic fungi in the other plants.
Effects of Reed (Phragmites communis) on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Hanwoo Steers
Lee, Sang Min ; Chang, Sun Sik ; Chung, Ki Yong ; Kim, Hyeong Cheol ; Choi, Sun Ho ; Jeong, Ha Yeon ; Yang, Boh Suk ; Lee, Sung Sill ; Cho, Young Moo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1392~1398
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1392
This study investigated the effects of diet of different forages on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Twenty-one Hanwoo steers were randomly allocated to three groups (fed hay, reed, and reed with rice straw) of seven steers each. Initial and final body weights of control, T1, and T2 groups were 125.5, 128.3, 128.3 kg and 697.4, 614.6, 706.7 kg, respectively. Average daily gain tended to increase in controls (0.70 kg/d) and the T2 group (0.71 kg/d) but not as much in the T1 group (0.60 kg/d); however, there was no significant difference. DMI was not significantly different among the treatment groups, but T1 was relatively lower than the other groups. For the yield traits, carcass weight was not significantly different between controls and the T2 group but was greater in the T2 group compared to the T1 group (p<0.05). Back fat thickness and rib eye area were higher in controls and T2 compared to T1; yield grade (A:B:C, %) was greater in T1 (43:57:0) compared to the other groups (control 0:71:29; T2 29:42:29). For the quality traits, fat color and texture were not significantly different among groups. However, meat color and maturity were significantly greater in T1 compared to T2 (p<0.05). Marbling score and appearance rate of over 1st meat quality grade were greater in the control and T2 groups compared to the T1 group. Based on the results, growth performance, feed utilization, and carcass traits appeared to improve when roughage containing rice straw plus reed was offered. Therefore, reed is worth considering as a roughage source for fattening Hanwoo steers.
Effects of Hizikia fusiforme Extracts on Adipocyte Differentiation and Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Choi, Eun Ok ; Kim, Hyang Suk ; Han, Min Ho ; Choi, Yung Hyun ; Kim, Byung Woo ; Hwang, Jinah ; Hwang, Hye Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1399~1406
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1399
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various extracts of Hizikia fusiforme on the anti-obesity effects in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We used H. fusiforme extracts from ethanol (EEHF), dichloromethane (CFHF), ethyl acetate (EAFHF), butanol (BFHF), and water (WFHF). Treatment with these extracts significantly suppressed terminal differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner as confirmed by a decrease in lipid droplet content through Oil Red O staining; this effect was higher in WFHF than in other extracts. The concentrations of cellular triglyceride were also reduced in 3T3-L1 cells by exposure with these extracts, especially when compared with the controls. Treatment with 200
of WFHF and CFHF caused approximately 42.6% and 23.7% reduction, respectively. In addition, the extracts of H. fusiforme significantly reduced the expression levels of key pro-adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
) and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins
) and C/
as compared with controls. Accordingly, our data indicated that WFHF has a preeminent effect on inhibition of adipocyte differentiation among various extracts, and H. fusiforme extracts may be an ideal candidate for obesity relief.
The Effect of Eisenia bicyclis Extracts on Antioxidant Activity and Serum Lipid Level in Ovariectomized Rats
Park, Yong Soo ; Kim, Mihyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1407~1414
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1407
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is an effective regimen that has been found to prevent these diseases in postmenopausal women. However, HRT is accompanied by an increased risk of unfavorable outcomes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Eisenia Bicyclis extract on lipids in ovariectomized rats. Fifty 7-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham-operated rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats (OVX-CON), and ovariectomized rats that were treated with Eisenia bicyclis extracts. The extract-treated diets were fed to the rats for 6 weeks after operation. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract increased in a dose-dependent manner and was about 55.9% in a concentration of 100
. We measured the total cholesterol content, triglyceride content, HDL-cholesterol content, LDL-cholesterol content, atherosclerotic index, cardiac risk factor in serum, and anti-platelet aggregation and blood rheology. The total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum increased for the OVX-control group, but supplementation with the E. bicyclis extract caused these factors to decrease. Notably, the serum LDL-cholesterol concentration in the OVX-EB200 group was significantly lower than the OVX-CON group. In addition, the blood passage times in rats that received the E. bicyclis extract were more rapid than the times in the untreated group (OVX-CON). Microscopic evaluation revealed that whole blood passed more smoothly through the microchannels in rats in the E. bicyclis extract supplement groups. Our results clarified the effects of E. bicyclis extract on serum lipid content in ovariectomized rats, and consequently we expect positive effects from providing E. bicyclis extract to postmenopausal women with cardiovascular disease.
Analysis of Expression Patterns of Thymosin β4 and CD133 in Normal Stomach
Ock, Mee Sun ; Cha, Hee-Jae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1415~1419
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1415
) has been reported to be overexpressed in CD133-positive colorectal cancer stem cells. We analyzed the relationship between
and CD133-positive stem cells in normal stomach by examining the expression patterns of
and CD133 in normal stomach tissues by immunohistochemical staining; co-localization of
and CD133 was studied by immunofluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Both
and CD133 were expressed in stomach glands and showed similar expression patterns. Immunofluorescence staining of
and CD133 showed that the expression of
and CD133 was co-localized. In summary, both
and CD133 were expressed in glands of normal stomachs and expression patterns were co-localized. These data suggest that
expression is strongly related to CD133 expression.
α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effects for Solvent Fractions from Methanol Extracts of Sargassum fulvellum and Its Antioxidant and Alcohol-Metabolizing Activities
Kang, Su Hee ; Cho, Eun Kyung ; Choi, Young Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1420~1427
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1420
We investigated the physiological activity and solvent-partitioned fractions of methanol extracts from the green seaweed Sargassum fulvellum. The methanol extract from S. fulvellum was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane (SFMH), methanol (SFMM), buthanol (SFMB), and water (SFMA). We investigated the antioxidant activities of solvent fractions from S. fulvellum by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and an SOD activity assay. DPPH radical scavenging capacity of SFMM was 79.5% at 10 mg/ml. SOD activity of SFMM was 79.9% at 10 mg/ml. Nitrite scavenging activities of solvent fractions from S. fulvellum were investigated under different pH conditions and showed the most remarkable effect at pH 1.2. In particular, the activity of SFMB was higher than the other fractions. ADH activity and ALDH activity of SFMM were 177.0% and 167.4% at 10 mg/ml, respectively.
-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of SFMH increased in a dose-dependent manner and was about 94.1% at 2 mg/ml. Elastase inhibitory activity was 93.2% at 2 mg/ml. These results revealed that S. fulvellum extracts have strong antioxidant and alcohol dehydrogenase activities and
-glucosidase inhibitory activity, suggesting that S. fulvellum extracts have potential as a source of natural products for health and beauty.
Animal Models for the IGF-1 Signal System in Longevity
Kwak, Inseok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 10, 2012, Pages 1428~1433
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.10.1428
Longevity is an exciting but difficult subject to study because it is determined by complex processes that require the coordinated action of several genetic factors as well as physiological and environmental influences. Genetic approaches have been applied to animal models to identify the molecular mechanism responsible for longevity. Several experimental model organisms obtained over the last decades suggest that the complete deletion of a single gene by gene targeting has proven to be an invaluable tool for the discovery of the mechanisms underlying longevity. The first discovery of long-lived mutants came from Caenorhabditis elegans research, which identified the insulin/IGF-1 pathway as responsible for longevity in this worm. IGF-1 is a multifunctional polypeptide that has sequence similarity to insulin and is involved in normal growth and development of cells. Several factors in the IGF-1 system have since been studied by gene targeting in the control of longevity in lower species, including nematode and fruit fly. In addition, significant progress has been made using mice models to extend the lifespan by targeted mutations that interfere with growth hormone/IGF-1 and IGF-1 signaling cascades. A recent finding that IGF-1 is involved in aging in mice was achieved by using liver-specific knockout mutant mice, and this clearly demonstrated that the IGF-1 signal pathway can extend the lifespan in both invertebrates and vertebrate models. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms for the control of longevity are not fully understood, it is widely accepted that reduced IGF-1 signaling plays an important role in the control of aging and longevity. Several genes involved in the IGF-1 signaling system are reviewed in relation to longevity in genetically modified mice models.