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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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Changes in Species Diversity and Spatiotemporally Fluctuation across Human-modified Ecosystems
Huh, Man Kyu ; Lee, Byeong Ryong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1435~1443
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1435
The changes of plant communities at Angol valley and Baetgol valley in Geoje-do were studied. Both
-diversity decreased with the sizes and degrees of habitat fragmentations. The mean number of winner species decreased with habitat fragmentation. All Quercus species, including Quercus acutissima, significantly declined in importance, while the many introduced species, including Trifolium pretense, all increased in importance. As the proportional change in adult survival rate increased, the absolute value of the bias in the elasticity prediction also increased from 2003 to 2011 at undisturbed forests. However, the bias was low for decreases in disturbed populations. Moran's I values showed overall decreases for habitat fragmentation and for the periods of habitat conversion. Eventually, plant communities, due to urbanization in Goeje-do, might have led to decreased chances of common species when the environment was disturbed.
Effects of Acute Soccer Game on Serum Levels of Neurotrophins and Neurocognitive Functions in Male Adolescents
Yang, Jung-Su ; Yoo, Shin-Hwan ; Cho, Su-Youn ; Roh, Hee-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1444~1450
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1444
The purpose of the present research is to investigate the effects of acute soccer game on serum levels of neurotrophins and neurocognitive function. The subjects of the research were 15 healthy male adolescents. The subjects underwent two experiments: one experiment in the soccer game treatment (SOC) condition, and the other in the self-study treatment (CON) condition. Blood samples were collected at three times: before treatment (Pre), after treatment (Post), and 2 hours post treatment (Post-2 h) for the analyses of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). For the measurements of neurocognitive functions, the Stroop Color-Word test was performed at blood collecting times. The results of the research showed that the serum levels of BDNF, NGF, and IGF-1 were significantly increased after the soccer game (p<0.05), and significantly higher in SOC than CON at Post (p<0.05). In the Stroop Color-Word test, significantly increased scores were observed in SOC at Post (p<0.05), and significantly higher in SOC than in CON at Post and Post-2 h (p<0.05). These results suggest that acute soccer game has positive effects on neurocognitive functions by increasing the neurotrophins.
Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Crown Daisy by Maillard Reaction Products
Kim, Ji-Hae ; Song, Hyeon-Seung ; Park, Inshik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1451~1455
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1451
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) on enzymatic browning of crown daisy (Chrysanthmum coronarium var. spatiosum). The MRPs prepared by heating various amino acid and sugar at
caused a strong inhibitory effect on crown daisy polyphenol oxidase (PPO,
-diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 22.214.171.124). As the reaction time of the solution containing glycine and glucose increased at
, the production of MRPs was increased, whereas the amounts of glycine and glucose were decreased. Accordingly, the inhibitory effect of crown daisy PPO activity by MRPs was increased as the amounts of synthesized MRPs were increased. The MRPs synthesized from the various amino acids and sugars significantly reduced the PPO activity, particularly MRPs prepared by glutamine and xylose. The Michealis-Menten constant value (
) of crown daisy PPO with catechol as a substrate was 22.0 mM, and MRPs were a noncompetitive inhibitor against crown daisy PPO.
Development and Validation of the Determination of Sorafenib in Human Plasma using Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Liquid Chromatography
Park, Daejin ; Lee, Sunggon ; Kim, Woomi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1456~1462
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1456
Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor and an oral anticancer drug approved for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and those with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient method of the determination of sorafenib in human plasma using tandem mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (LC/MS/MS) and validate the method by the guidelines of the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Plasma samples (
) were added with chlorantraniliprole as an internal standard and then mixed with the 0.1% formic acid-containing extraction solution composed of isopropyl alcohol and ethyl acetate (1:4, v/v). After centrifugation, the supernatant was concentrated at
under negative pressure and centrifugal force. The residue was reconstituted with a mobile phase and injected into the HPLC instrument using a reverse phase Waters XTerra
C18 column (particle size
). Liquid chromatography was carried out within the run time of 5 min using a mobile phase composed of buffer (0.1% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate), methanol, and acetonitrile (1:6:3, v/v/v). The analytes were monitored by tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring method programmed to detect sorafenib at 'm/z 465.2
252.5' and chlorantraniliprole at 'm/z 484.4
286.2' with positive electrospray ionization mode (
). The result showed the proper linearity (
> 0.99) over the range of 2,000-5,000 ng/ml with good accuracy (90.7-103.9%) and precision (less than 10%). The newly developed method using LC/MS/MS was validated by the guideline of KFDA and identified as more sensitive compared to the previous methods.
Characterization Analysis of Functional Gochujang including Grain Syrup with Tomato Puree
Seo, Min Jeong ; Kang, Byoung Won ; Park, Jeong Uck ; Kim, Min Jeong ; Lee, Hye Hyeon ; Kim, Zae Suk ; Yoo, Mi Bok ; Kim, Hyun Suk ; Kim, Su Mi ; Jeong, Yong Kee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1463~1469
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1463
To add functional specialty in a traditional fermentation product, Gochujang, and improve the taste and preference, an optimum fermentation condition of Gochujang supplemented with tomato puree was established in the conditions of GCJ 14, -16, -18, and -20. Varying the salinity concentration and the manufactured fermentation products, Gochujang was analyzed by the chemical nature, change in bacterial characteristics and contents of a functional chemical, lycopene, and sensory taste. As a result, the pH change of Gochujang containing tomato puree with grain syrup was diminished during the fermentation process. Its sugar contents were repeated by the increase and decrease. In addition, the water contents, salinity, and chromaticity of the Gochujang showed no significant change. Regarding the change in bacterial characteristics, total bacterial number and lactic acid bacteria number increased, with the rate of increase depending on the fermentation process. The ratio of lactic acid bacteria number against total bacterial number was confirmed to be significantly high at the conditions of GCJ 18 and -20. No significant change in the contents of lycopene was observed during the fermentation process. Notably, the change in crude proteins, crude fat, crude ash, and carbohydrates in addition to a sensory examination including taste and preference of the manufactured Gochujang suggest that the optimal fermentation product is produced in the condition of GCJ 20. Therefore, functional Gochujang satisfying a modern preference can be produced by using tomato puree with grain syrup.
Genetic Variation Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Region Sequences in Lepista nuda
Lee, Yang Suk ; Kim, Nam Woo ; Kim, Jong Bong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1470~1476
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1470
A genetic variation of Lepista nuda and two genus Lepista species (L. irina and L. sordida) were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. In the resulting RAPD analysis, 22 out of 40 random primers amplified polymorphic RAPD fragment patterns, the amplified bands were 355, and DNA fragment sizes were 200-400bp. Intraspecific genetic dissimilarity of the 10 L. nuda strains were calculated to range from 0% to 21.60%, L. sordida from 16.93% to 24.82%, L. irina were 20.62% to 25.54%, and intraspecific genetic dissimilarity of L. sordida and L. irina was 23.49%. The 673 base pairs were sequenced during the analysis of the ITS I and II region; six L. nuda strains intraspecific genetic dissimilarities ranged from 1.58% to 11.47%, L. nuda and L. sordida from 3.83% to 12.88%, L. nuda and L. irina from 7.11% to 15.61%, and intra-specific genetic variation between L. sordida and L. irina was 4.79%. The findings showed that RAPD and ITS sequencing could be used for developing molecular genetic markers and screening of unidentified genus Lepista species.
Supplementation Effect of Onion Peel Extracts on Small Intestine of Obese Mice
Pak, Jae-In ; Kim, Yoon-Woo ; Seo, Te-Su ; Jang, Aera ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1477~1486
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1477
This study was performed to determine the effect of onion peel extract using 70% ethanol and 95% ethanol on its anti-oxidation activity, small intestine length, and intestinal villi of high-fat fed mice. Five percent of each onion peel extract using 70% and 95% ethanol showed significant decrease of E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Total phenolic contents of onion peel extracts using 70% and 95% ethanol were
mg/g, respectively. In anti-oxidation activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and SOD-like activity of onion peel extracts were higher at 100 ug/ml concentration. The obese mice were fed high-fat diets supplemented by 1, 3, and 5% of the onion peel extracts using 70% and 95% ethanol for 4 weeks. Body weight, feed intake, feed efficiency, small intestine weight, length, villi's length, and number of bacteria in intestine were determined. Body weight of mice fed 5% of onion extracts using both 70% and 95% ethanol was significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). However, feed intake was increased in mice fed 5% of onion extracts at both fermented ethanol levels. Small intestine weight and length of mice showed no significant change with supplementation of the onion peel extracts. However, length of small intestine villi was significantly longer than that of control. Total bacteria counts of Cl. Perfringenes and E. coli in small intestine of the mice were significantly reduced by supplementation of 5% of onion extract using ethanol, while lactic acid bacteria were increased. These results suggest that 5% of onion peel extracts using ethanol at either 70% or 95% concentration have potential to be used as an additive for body weight control and enhanced gut health; however, more research on its effectiveness is needed.
Cross-Reactivity and Digestive Enzyme Stability of Peach, Korean Cherry, and Hot Pepper
Kim, Eun-Jung ; Ko, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Gyeong-Ran ; Seol, Hui-Gyeong ; Kang, Chang-Min ; Ryu, Chung-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1487~1492
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1487
Peach (Prunus persica) has been recognized as a food allergen for over 20 years. However, there is little information about cross-reactivity with other foods. The aim of this study was to research cross-reactivity of Korean cherry and hot pepper on patients allergic to peach and its stability by digestive enzyme treatment. Peach, Korean cherry, and hot pepper proteins were extracted and separated by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. The protein extracts had a wide range of molecular weight, from 3 kDa to more than 26 kDa, and displayed different patterns of protein bands on Tricine-SDS-PAGE. Peach allergic patients' sera were used to detect the allergenic protein in three samples. Three peach allergic patients' sera reacted strongly with 9 kDa protein of peach, which was the expected lipid transfer protein (LTP) as the major allergen of peach and was detected with anti-LTP1 polyclonal antibody. However, the reactivity of the 23 kDa protein in Korean cherry and hot pepper protein was stronger than that of the 9 kDa protein. The stability of protein extracts on digestive enzyme treatment was examined using simulated gastric fluids (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluids (SIF), in which digestive enzyme stability is one of the characteristics of allergen potentially causing food allergy. Findings confirmed that allergenic proteins in peach, Korean cherry, and hot pepper were not completely digested by SGF and SIF treatments from results of SDS-PAGE analysis. These results confirmed that Korean cherry and hot pepper might cause cross-reactivity in peach allergic patients, and its allergenic proteins have stability against digestive enzymes.
Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Korean Native Goat Populations by Microsatellite Markers
Suh, Sangwon ; Byun, Mijeong ; Kim, Young-Sin ; Kim, Myung-Jick ; Choi, Seong-Bok ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Kim, Dong-Hun ; Lim, Hyun-Tae ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1493~1499
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1493
The level of genetic variation and relationships in three native Korean goat populations (Dangjin, Jangsu, and Tongyeong) as well as the populations of a farm were analyzed, based on 30 microsatellite markers. A total of 277 distinct alleles were observed across the four goat populations, and 102 (36.8%) of these alleles were unique to only one population. The mean observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content were calculated as 0.461~0.651 and 0.462~0.679, respectively. In the NJ tree constructed based on Nei's
genetic distance, the four populations represented four distinct groups. However, the genetic distances between each Korean native goat population and the farm population were two times those among the three native Korean breeds. The genetic structure within the three Korean native goat populations was also investigated. Cluster analysis, using the STRUCTURE software, suggested three clusters. The molecular information of genetic diversity and relationships in this study will be useful for the evaluation, conservation, and utilization of native Korean goat breeds as genetic resources.
Downregulation of SGK1 Expression is Critical for TGF-β-induced Apoptosis in Mouse Hepatocytes Cells
Nam, In-Koo ; Yoo, Jiyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1500~1506
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1500
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-
-dependent apoptosis is important in the elimination of damaged or abnormal cells from normal tissues, especially in liver, in vivo. To investigate which gene expressions are critical for TGF-
-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes, gene expression profiling experiments were performed with TGF-
-treated and non-treated mouse hepatocytes AML12 cells. Findings showed that serum and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase1 (SGK1) expression is markedly downregulated during TGF-
-induced apoptosis. Findings confirmed that expression of SGK1 protein, as well as mRNA, is also markedly decreased with TGF-
treatment. Infection of adenoviral vector encoding constitutively active SGK1 (CA-SGK1), but not kinase dead SGK1 (KD-SGK1), attenuated TGF-
-induced apoptosis. All of these results suggest that downregulation of SGK1 expression is critical for TGF-
-induced apoptosis in AML12 cells.
Antioxidative Activity of Cornus officianalis Extracts Obtained by Four Different Extraction Techniques
Park, Eun-Bi ; Kim, Hye-Sun ; Shin, So-Yun ; Ji, In-Ae ; Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Sung-Goo ; Yoo, Byung Hong ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Kwak, Inseok ; Kim, Moon-Moo ; Chung, Kyung Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1507~1514
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1507
Oxidative stress leads to damage in all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA due to imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and cellular detoxification. Phytochemicals are well-known to contain antioxidants, and their physiological role has been intensively studied. The fruit of Cornus officianalis has been used in oriental medicine and has been reported to have many functions. In this study, four different extraction techniques were applied to extract functional components from the fruit of Cornus officianalis, and the content of loganin, which is an antioxidant having DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and reducing power, was analyzed in each extract. Extraction techniques employed in this study were heat extraction by water, 70% ethanol extraction, enzyme treatment, and combination of enzyme treatment and heat extraction by water. All extracts contained 11.8-18.0 mg/g loganin and showed antioxidation function assayed by measuring DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and reducing power. Among them, heat extraction was the most effective technique, showing a maximum amount of loganin (18.0 mg/g) and antioxidative activity at 100 mg/ml concentration. Each extract showed very low cytotoxicity up to at 500 mg/ml but 10-20% cytotoxicity at 1,000 mg/ml by in vitro MTT assay.
Increased Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Over-expressing OsABF2 in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana
Park, Phun Bum ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1515~1522
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1515
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the adaptive response of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA also regulates many important processes, including seed dormancy, germination, inhibition of cell division, and stomatal closure. OsABF2 (Oryza sativa ABRE binding factor2) is one of the bZIP type transcription factors, which are involved in abiotic stress response and ABA signaling in rice. Expression of OsABF2 is induced by ABA and various stress treatments. Findings show that survival rates of OsABF2 over-expressing Arabidopsis lines were increased under drought, salt, and heat stress conditions. The germination ratio of OsABF2 over-expressing Arabidopsis lines was decreased in the presence of ABA. Results indicate that OsABF2 over-expressing Arabidopsis lines have enhanced abiotic stress tolerance and have increased ABA sensitivity.
Association of Heat Shock Protein Beta 1 (HSPB1) Gene Expression with Tenderness in Loin Muscle of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)
Lim, Dajeong ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Cho, Yong-Min ; Choi, Bong-Hwan ; Choi, Han-Ha ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ; Hong, Seong-Koo ; Kim, Nam-Kuk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1523~1528
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1523
In a previous proteomic study, heat shock protein beta 1 (HSPB1) was detected as differentially expressed protein in longissimus thoracis between low (grade 3) and high (grade 1++) meat quality groups by 2DE gel electrophoresis. The present study investigated an association of HSPB1 expression at the level of gene and protein with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) measured in 20 Hanwoo steers. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) between expression values and WBS showed that WBS was affected by HSPB1 expression (p<0.05). The expression (at both gene and protein level) of the HSPB1 was 2 times higher in the low WBS group than that in the high WBS group (p<0.01). This result suggests that the HSPB1 gene may be a candidate gene associated with tenderness in longissimus thoracis of Korean cattle.
The Effect of Black Garlic Extract on Lipid Metabolism in Restraint Stressed Rats
Kang, Min-Jung ; Shin, Jung-Hye ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1529~1537
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1529
In order to determine the effective concentration, 2, 7, and 14 brix black garlic extracts (BGE) were fed to restraint stressed rats and the lipid metabolism was analyzed. The dietary intake of the 14 brix BGE-fed group was
g/4 weeks and it was significantly higher than that of the control group. The weight of all organs from the all BGE-fed groups showed no significant differences. While BGE concentration increased, BGE-fed groups tend to have low content of blood glucose. It was the lowest in the 14 brix BGE-fed group (
mg/dl). Total cholesterol content was
mg/dl. Total cholesterol content of the 14 brix BGE-fed group was the lowest and, in addition, lower than the normal group. Triglyceride content of serum showed the same tendency. HDL-cholesterol concentrations of the restraint stressed control (RSC) group were significantly higher than those of 7 and 14 brix BGE-fed groups. LDL and VLDL-cholesterol contents showed contrary results. GOT, GTP, and ALP activity of serum were lower when BGE concentration was higher. It is expected that BGE has a liver protective activity. In the liver, total lipids and triglyceride contents were significantly lower in BGE-fed groups than in the ISC group. However, total cholesterol content showed no significant difference between groups. TBARS content in liver of the 2 brix BGE-fed group was not significantly different than control, while 7 and 14 brix BGE-fed groups were lower than control. Glycogen content in the liver was only significantly lower in the 14 brix BGE-fed group than in the RSC group. Findings indicate that feed of BGE over 7 brix contributes to resolving the restraint-stressed rats by improving the lipid metabolism and liver protective activity.
Effect of Kale Juice on Serum Lipid Levels & Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in Hypercholesterolemic Men
Chung, Eun Jung ; Shim, Eugene ; Kim, Soo Yeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1538~1544
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1538
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) juice supplementation on serum lipid levels and phospholipid (PL) fatty acid compositions in hypercholesterolemic men. Thirty-two men with hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dl) were recruited among the faculty and staff at Y University after annual health examinations. The subjects consumed 150 ml of kale juice per day for a 12-week intervention period. Dietary and anthropometric assessments were performed before and after supplementation, respectively, to ensure that the subjects maintained their usual diet and lifestyle throughout the intervention. Serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to LDL-cholesterol were significantly increased (p<0.001) after intervention. Serum LDL-cholesterol concentration and atherogenic index were significantly reduced (p<0.001). Levels of 12:0, 14:0,
, and sum of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in serum pholspholipid (PL) were significantly increased, while
level was significantly reduced (p<0.05). It can be speculated that kale juice, containing large amounts of antioxidant nutrients, contributes to changes of serum-PL-fatty acid compositions and the improvements of serum lipid profiles. This study demonstrates the supplementation of regular meals with kale juice may favorably affect serum lipid profiles and serum-PL fatty acid compositions and, hence, could lower the risks of coronary artery disease in men with hypercholesterolemia.
Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel GH-16 β-Agarase from Agarivorans sp. JA-1
Jeon, Myong Je ; Kim, A-Ram ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1545~1551
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1545
Authors report the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 16
-agarase from the strain of Agarivorans sp. JA-1, which authors previously stated as recombinant expression and characterization of GH-50 and GH-118
-agarase. It comprised an open reading frame of 1,362 base pairs, which encodes a protein of 49,830 daltons consisting of 453 amino acid residues. Valuation of the total sequence showed that the enzyme has 98% nucleotide and 99% amino acid sequence similarities to those of GH-16
-agarase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24. The gene corresponding to a mature protein of 429 amino acids was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. It showed maximal activity at
and pH 5.0, representing 67.6 units/mg. Thin layer chromatography revealed that mainly neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose were produced from agarose. The enzyme would be valuable for the industrial production of functional neoagarooligosaccharides.
Regulation of Pipernonaline on Biological Functions of Human Prostate Cancer Cells Based on Microarray Analysis
Kim, Sang-Hun ; Kim, Kwang-Youn ; Yu, Sun-Nyoung ; Park, Seul-Ki ; Kwak, In-Seok ; Rhee, Moon-Soo ; Bang, Byung-Ho ; Chun, Sung-Sik ; Ahn, Soon-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1552~1557
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1552
It has been reported that pipernonaline isolated from Piper longum Linn. has a wide biochemical and pharmacological effect, including antitumor activity in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. However, its mechanism and expression pattern of many genes involved in biological functions are not clearly understood. To perform the gene expression study in PC-3 cells treated with pipernonaline, a cDNA microarray chip composed of 44,000 human cDNA probes was used. As a result, cell cycle-related genes, apoptosis-related genes, and cell proliferation/growth-related genes have been identified in gene ontology of the DAVID database. These results suggest that pipernonaline has antitumor activity by regulating the expression pattern of genes involved in biological signaling pathway in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Further, additional analysis of these microarray data can be a useful tool to identify the mechanism and discovery of novel genes in cancer therapy.
Model Systems in Radiation Biology: Implication for Preclinical Study of Radiotherapy
Kim, Wanyeon ; Seong, Ki Moon ; Yang, Hee Jung ; Youn, HyeSook ; Youn, BuHyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1558~1570
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1558
In radiation biology, analysis of various mechanisms in response to radiation has been accomplished with the use of model organisms. These model organisms are powerful tools for providing a biologically intact in vivo environment to assess physiological and pathophysiological processes affected by radiation. Accumulated data using these models have been applied to human clinical studies (including the evaluation of radiotherapeutic efficacy) and discovery of radiotherapy reagents. However, there are few studies to provide overall integrated information about these useful model organisms. Thus, this review summarizes the results of radiation biology studies using four well-known model organisms: yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mice.
Use of Cellulose and Recent Research into Butyrate
Yeo, Tae Jong ; Choi, In Soon ; Cho, Kwang Keun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1571~1586
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1571
On earth, there are about 5,400 kinds of mammals, of which about 1,000 kinds are herbivores. Among herbivores, about 250 kinds are known to be ruminants. As for cattle and sheep, which are ruminants, fermentation takes places mainly in their rumen; in contrast, for pigs and men, which are non-ruminants, fermentation takes place mainly in their caecum, colon, and rectum. As for the kind and dominance of rumen microorganisms, Bacteroidetes account for 51% and Firmicutes for 43%. As for the dominance of the large intestine microorganisms in men, Firmicutes account for 65% and Bacteroidetes for 25%. Cell wall components are decomposed by microorganisms, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are generated through fermentation; the ratio of acetate, propionate, and butyrate generate is 60:25:15. Butyrate absorbed through the primary butyrate transporter MCT1 (mono carboxylate transports-1) in the intestines activates such SCFA receptors as GPR43 and GPR41. Butyrate has a strong anti-tumorigenic function. Butyrate is characterized by the fact that it has an effect on many cancer cells, contributes to the coordination of functions in the cells, and induces cancer apoptosis. Butyrate activates caspase but inhibits the activity of HDAC (histone deacetylase), so as to induce apoptosis. In addition, it increases p53 expression, so as to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Anti-inflammation actions of SCFA include the reduction of IL-8 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, the inhibition of NO synthesis, and the restraint of the activity of NF-
), so as to suppress the occurrence of cancers caused by inflammation. Butyrate plays an important role in maintaining physiological functions of intestinal mucous membranes and is used as a cure for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
3C (Chromatin Conformation Capture): A Technique to Study Chromatin Organization
Kim, Yea Woon ; Kim, AeRi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1587~1594
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.11.1587
3C (chromatin conformation capture) is a technique to analyze chromatin organization in nuclei of eukaryotic cells. The procedure of 3C includes the formaldehyde treatment of cells to fix interactions between proteins and between proteins and DNA in chromatin, the digestion of fixed chromatin with restriction enzyme, and the ligation of fragmented DNA. The efficiency of DNA ligation represents proximity between DNA fragments in chromatin organization. Studies in the
-globin locus using 3C showed that the locus control region is in close proximity to the transcriptionally-active globin genes, indicating that chromatin organization has a role in transcriptional regulation of the genes. 3C has been advanced by combining with ChIP and genome-wide sequencing. This review presents the principle and procedure of the 3C technique, the chromatin organization of the
-globin locus explained by 3C, and advanced techniques based on 3C.