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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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TGF-β1 Expression by Proliferated Keratinocytes in the Skin of E-Irradiated Mice
Yoon, A-Ran ; Kim, Do-Nyun ; Seo, Min-Koo ; Oh, Sang-Taek ; Seo, Jung-Seon ; Jun, Se-Mo ; Cha, Jung-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Deok ; Lee, Suk-Kyeong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 133~141
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.133
In this study, we established a radiodermatitis animal model and investigated the change in immune cell proportions in the secondary lymphoid organs. The cells responsible for the increased transforming growth factor-
) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in the lesions following irradiation were also investigated. The radiodermatitis model was constructed by locally exposing the posterior dorsal region of hairless-1 (HR-1) mice to 10 Gy electron (E)-ray/day for six consecutive days. The change in immune cell proportions was analyzed by FACS. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect the expression of cytokines and cell-specific markers in the skin. The proportions of antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and B cells in the lymph nodes and spleen were affected by E-irradiation. After irradiation, TGF-
and IL-17 were co-localized in the papillary region of the dermis with keratin-14 (K-14)-positive cells rather than with regulatory T cells (Treg). IL-10 was not co-stained with Treg, T helper 17 (Th17) cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages. Our data indicate that TGF-
is over-expressed mainly by proliferated keratinocytes in the lesions of a radiodermatitis animal model.
The Signal Sequence of Sporulation-Specific Glucoamylase Directs the Secretion of Bacterial Endo-1,4-β-D-Glucanase in Yeast
Ahn, Soon-Cheol ; Kim, Eun-Ju ; Chun, Sung-Sik ; Cho, Yong-Kweon ; Moon, Ja-Young ; Kang, Dae-Ook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 142~147
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.142
The sporulation-specific glucoamylase (SGA) of Saccharomyces diastaticus is known to be produced in the cytoplasm during sporulation. For the purpose of proving that SGA has secretory potential, we constructed a hybrid plasmid, pYESC25, containing the promoter and the putative signal sequence of the SGA fused in frame to the endo-1,4-
-D-glucanase (CMCase) gene of Bacillus subtilis without its own signal sequence. The recipient yeast strain of S. diastaticus YIY345 was transformed with the hybrid plasmid. CMCase secretion from S. diastaticus harboring pYESC25 into culture medium was confirmed by the formation of yellowish halos around transformants after staining with Congo red on a CMC agar plate. The transformant culture was fractionated to the extracellular, periplasmic, and intracellular fraction, followed by the measurement of CMCase activity. About 63% and 13% enzyme activity were detected in the culture supernatant (extracellular fraction) and periplasmic fraction, respectively. Furthermore, ConA-Sepharose chromatography, native gel electrophoresis, and activity staining revealed that CMCase produced in yeast was glycosylated and its molecular weight was larger than that of the unglycosylated form from B. subtilis. Taking these findings together, SGA has the potential of secretion to culture medium, and the putative signal sequence of SGA can efficiently direct bacterial CMCase to the yeast secretion pathway.
The Age-Related Trend in Blood Pressure and the Prevalence of Hypertension in Korean Adults
Lee, Dae-Taek ; Lee, Yong-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 148~155
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.148
A cross-sectional analysis of blood pressure (BP) changes and the current prevalence and distribution of hypertension among age groups in Korea were conducted. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and pulse (PP) pressures were evaluated. Residents visiting a local Community Health Center for a health check-up and/or participating in the Health Promotion Program were included for the analyses. A total of 6,570 subjects (2,809 men, 3,761 women) were divided into five age groups: 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and
years. Comparisons were made between sex and among age groups. SBP and DBP were continuously elevated, while men showed higher levels than women until their mid-60s; then, the trend was reversed. DBP in men became elevated from their 30s, reaching the highest in the 40s then slowly decreasing. DBP in women increased up to their 40s and 50s, then reached a plateau. PP increased rapidly from the 50s in both sexes. The major contributor of age-related BP elevation may be large artery stiffness in men, particularly from their 50s, while the blood pressure elevation of women may relate to diverse factors including large artery stiffness, stroke volume, and ventricular ejection rate. The rapid elevation of PP after the 50s in both men and women could represent a risk of cardiovascular or coronary mortality, particularly with increasing age. The current data showed a higher rate of hypertension in both sexes compared to previous reports. When those with both high-normal BP and hypertension are looked at in combination, BP management of the target population should be drastically elevated.
DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and Composition of Essential Oil from the Herbs of Jeju Agastache rugosa
Moon, Young-Gun ; Hong, Joon-Seok ; Song, Min-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 156~160
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.156
The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the herbs of Jeju Agastache rugosa has shown significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. For the elucidation of its volatile components, the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. Each component was identified by GC or mass spectral analysis. The compounds identified were as follows: pulegone, L-menthone, DL-limonene, isopulegone, beta-caryophyllene, beta-myrcene, and estragole. Several abundant components with phenylpropanoid-type structures may have contributed to the activity. The results suggest that the essential oil may be suitable for development as a food preservative and alternative antioxidant.
Effects of Different Additives on the Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Holstein Steers
Cho, Won-Mo ; Yang, Sung-Hak ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Jang, Sun-Sik ; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol ; Hong, Seong-Koo ; Park, Woon-Yeoul ; Kim, Hyun-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 161~166
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.161
This study was performed to investigate the feeding effects of different additives on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers. Twenty-four Holstein steers, five months of age and 176.6 kg, were randomly allocated to three experimental groups of eight animals each for an 18-month feeding trial. The groups were control (not additive), T1 (fed zinc, vitamin C, and sulfur), and T2 (fed choline and lysine). The average daily gain was no different between the treatment groups during the growing to early fattening period, but it was significantly higher in the T1 group than the T2 group in the late fattening period (p<0.05). The final BW of the T1 group was relatively high in relation to the other groups, but was not significantly different. The additives had no effects on DMI during the experimental period; however, the feed conversion ratio of the T1 group in the late fattening period was significantly lower than that of the T2 group (p<0.05). The results of yield traits, carcass weight, and yield index were similar between groups, but back fat thickness and rib eye area were relatively lower in the T2 group than in the other groups. In terms of quality traits, meat color, texture, and maturity were not significantly different between the three groups. However, marbling score and appearance rate of high quality grade (
, and 1) were higher in the T1 group compared with the T2 group. Thus, the present results suggest that vitamin C, zinc, and sulfur supplementation may improve the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers.
Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Protease-Producing Halophilic Bacteria from Fermenting Anchovy
Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 167~176
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.167
Three protease-producing halophilic bacteria were isolated from fermenting anchovy. Isolated FAM 10, FAM 114, and FAM 115 were found to grow optimally at salt concentrations of 2-4%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, and could grow in salinity of up to 18-22%. The salinity conditions for optimum protease production were 6% in FAM 10 and 10% in FAM 114 and FAM 115. The protease activity of FAM 10 was gradually inhibited by the addition of NaCl up to 10%, and was not evident at 14%, whereas FAM 114 and FAM 115 displayed protease activity at 14% NaCl and could not be measured at 18%. These results demonstrated that the three isolated strains belong to protease-producing, moderately halophilic bacteria. Strain FAM 10, FAM 114, and FAM 115 were identified as Salinivibrio sp., Halobacillus sp., and Halobacillus sp. respectively, based on comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S intergenic space sequence (IGS), biochemical testing, and Gram staining. Salinivibrio sp. FAM 10 had two 16S rDNAs containing different sequences at position 191 and four IGSs that harbored no tRNA gene and tRNA genes for isoleucine, alanine, glutamate, lysine, and/or valine. Halobacillus sp. FAM 114 and FAM 115 had completely identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and showed 99% identity to the sequences of various Halobacillus strains. The three IGSs found in the genome of both strains displayed 99% sequence identity with Halobacillus aidingensis and Halobacillus sp. JM-Hb, and had
with no tRNA gene and
with tRNA genes for isoleucine and alanine.
Isolation of Potato StACRE Gene and Its Function in Resistance against Bacterial Wilt Disease
Park, Sang-Ryeol ; Cha, Eun-Mi ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Han, Se-Youn ; Hwang, Duk-Ju ; Ahn, Il-Pyung ; Cho, Kwang-Soo ; Bae, Shin-Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 177~183
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.177
Bacterial wilt (brown rot) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) is one of the most devastating bacterial plant diseases in potatoes. To isolate bacterial wilt disease resistance-related genes from the potato, the StACRE (HM749652) gene was isolated and a sequenced search was performed using functional orthologs of Solanaceae from potatoes. StACRE is homologous to the tobacco NtACRE 132 protein and belongs to the ATL family involved in ubiquitination. To analyze the expression pattern of this gene, RT-PCR was performed with potato treated with salicylic acid (SA) and Rs (KACC 10722). StACRE was strongly induced 3 hours after treatment with SA and 12 hours after infection with Rs. To investigate its biological functions in the potato, we constructed a vector for overexpression in the potato by the Gateway system, and then generated transgenic potato plants. The gene expression of transgenic potato was analyzed by northern blot analysis. In the results of disease resistance assay in relation to bacterial wilt, StACRE overexpressed transgenic potato plants were shown to have more resistance than wild-type potato.
The Effect of 16 Weeks of Resistance Training on the Fatigue Factor, Muscle Soreness, Oxidative Stress, and Myokine in Elite Weightlifters
Kim, Cheol-Woo ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Kang, Sung-Hwun ; Park, Chan-Hoo ; Kim, Kwi-Baek ; Kim, Young-Il ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 184~191
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.184
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 16 weeks of resistance training on the fatigue factor, muscle soreness, oxidative stress, and myokine in elite weightlifters. A total of 10 subjects (six male, four female) participated in this study. The results were compared according to baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Ammonia and Pi were increased through 16 weeks of resistance training, but this result was not significant. CK was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 8 weeks and 16 weeks compared to baseline, while LDH was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 8 weeks compared to baseline. The MDA of the oxidative stress factor was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 8 weeks compared to baseline and 16 weeks, and TAS of the antioxidant factor was significantly (p<0.05) increased at 8 weeks compared to baseline. The IL-15 of the myokine was significantly (p<0.05) increased at baseline compared to 8 weeks and 16 weeks. In conclusion, 16 weeks of high-intensity resistance training may have a positive effect on peripheral fatigue factors, muscle soreness, oxidative stress, and myokine in elite weightlifters.
Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Aroma on Electroencephalograms in Female Adults with Sleep Disorders
Jung, Han-Na ; Choi, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 192~199
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.192
This study investigated the effects of Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) aroma on the brain electrical activity evaluated by electroencephalogram (EEG) in female adults with sleep disorders. The subjects were 28 healthy female adults and their sleep disorders were classified by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. EEG electrodes were attached at the frontal (F3, F4), temporal (T3, T4), occipital (O1, O2), parietal (P3, P4), reference, and ground regions according to the International 10-20 system. Subjects were exposed to the L. angustifolia aroma for 3 min. Results showed that L. angustifolia aroma decreased the occipital and parietal alpha powers, and increased the frontal theta power and occipital beta power in subjects with good sleep quality. On the other hand, L. angustifolia aroma increased the theta power in the all cranial regions after aroma treatment in subjects with poor sleep quality. In conclusion, L. angustifolia aroma diminishes a state of wakefulness in the brain and helps individuals to fall asleep. Therefore, L. angustifolia aroma may have beneficial effect for female adults with sleep disorders.
Optimization of Medium Composition for the Mycelial Growth of Sparassis crispa
Kim, Jin-Woo ; Cheon, Woo-Jae ; Chai, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Gwan ; Son, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Guk ; Lim, Hee-Jae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 200~208
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.200
The characteristics of mycelium growth of Sparassis crispa KGFS08 and KFRI746 in liquid culture were investigated. The optimum growth of the mycelium of S. crispa was observed in the KTM medium. The best carbon source was starch. In terms of nitrogen sources, tryptone affected mycelial growth in the liquid culture. The optimal culture conditions were pH 4.0-5.0 in STK medium [3% (w/v) starch, 0.3% (w/v) tryptone, 0.1% (w/v)
, and 0.1% (w/v) folic acid].
Biochemical Properties of Lactate Dehydrogenase Eye-Specific C
Isozyme: Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides
Yum, Jung-Joo ; Ku, Bo-Ra ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 209~219
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.209
The properties of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 18.104.22.168) eye-specific
isozyme were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and enzyme kinetics. Furthermore, we proposed the optimal conditions for measuring the activity of LDH eye-specific
isozyme. The isozymes were detected in the cytosol of eye tissues from Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides and were more similar to the
isozyme. LDH/CS in the eye tissue of L. macrochirus was increased in September, so the ratio of anaerobic metabolism was high. The electrophoretic patterns of mitochondrial LDH were similar to those of cytosolic LDH in the eye tissues of L. macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides. LDH eye-specific
isozyme from eye tissue was purified by preparative native-PAGE. The activities of LDH eye-specific
isozymes in L. macrochirus and M. salmoides were reduced at concentrations greater than 0.2 mM and 0.1 mM of pyruvate, respectively. These concentrations remained at 5.2% and 15.8% as a result of the inhibition by 10 mM of pyruvate, so the degree of inhibition was very high. The LDH activities of eye tissues were reduced at concentrations greater than 22 mM and 24 mM of lactate, respectively, in L. macrochirus and M. salmoides. The
was 0.088 mM in L. macrochirus and it was 0.033 mM in M. salmoides. The activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial eye-specific
isozymes were high in
-ketobutyric acid. Furthermore, the activities of eye tissue and eye-specific
isozyme had to be measured with 0.5 mM of pyruvate and a buffer solution of pH 7.5. As a conclusion, the eye-specific
isozyme in M. salmoides has a high affinity for pyruvate and exhibits maximum activity at a lower concentration of pyruvate and at higher concentration of lactate than that in L. macrochirus. Therefore, it seems that the energy produced by the LDH eye-specific
isozyme in M. salmoides was used at the first stage of predatory behavior.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Crassostrea gigas (Oyster)
Do, Hyung-Joo ; Park, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Ok-Ju ; Kim, Andre ; Choi, Yeung-Joon ; Choung, Se-Young ; Ha, Jong-Myung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 220~225
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.220
The peptides of enzymatic hydrolysates from oyster were determined by inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme. The ACE inhibitory activity of enzymatic oyster hydrolysates increases with hydrolysis time. Among enzymatic oyster hydrolysates, oyster hydrolysates incubated with Protamex showed the best ACE inhibitory activity after 10 h. Hydrolysates were filtered through a HiSep ultrafiltration membrane (M.W. cut-off 30 kDa, 10 kDa) to obtain the peptide fractions with ACE inhibition activity. These fractions were applied to an HPLC column (watchers 120 ODS-AP
)). Six active fractions were collected and the range of ACE inhibition was from 29.56 to 85.85%. Peptide was purified from fraction B, showing the highest ACE inhibitory activity, and its sequence was Leu-Gln-Pro. These results suggest that PEH may be beneficial for developing antihypertensive food and drug.
Fibrinolytic Activity and Chemical Properties of Cordycepin-Enriched Cordyceps militaris JLM 0636
Ahn, Hee-Young ; Lee, Jae-Hong ; Kang, Min-Jeong ; Cha, Jae-Young ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 226~231
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.226
The effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris JLM 0636 (
) and Cordyceps militaris (CM) on fibrinolytic activity was investigated. The bioactive compounds and nutritional materials such as polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, glutathione, minerals, and fatty acids were also measured. Concentrations of polyphenol compounds, flavonoids, and glutathione were higher in
than that in CM. The major minerals of both materials were K, Ca, Mg, and Na. The major fatty acids of both materials were linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid. Fibrinolytic activity was higher in
than that in CM. These results may provide the basic data to understand the fibrinolytic activity and bioactive compounds of
Analysis of Microbial Diversity in Makgeolli Fermentation Using PCR-DGGE
Kwon, Seung-Jik ; Ahn, Tae-Young ; Sohn, Jae-Hak ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 232~238
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.232
is a traditional Korean rice wine that is fermented from traditional nuruk and rice. In this study, we performed the PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis targeting the 16S and 28S rRNA genes to characterize bacterial and fungal diversity during Makgeolli fermentation. The predominant bacteria in the PCR-DGGE profile during Makgeolli fermentation were Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus curvatus, L. kisonensis, L. plantarum, L. sakei, and L. gasseri), Pediococcus spp. (P. acidilactici, P. parvulus, P. agglomerans, and P. pentosaceus), Pantoea spp. (P. agglomerans and P. ananatis), and Citrobacter freundii; these were identified on the base of analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant bacterium during Makgeolli fermentation was L. curvatus. The predominant fungi in PCR-DGGE profile during Makgeolli fermentation were Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Asidia idahoensis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, and Torulaspora delbrueckii, and these were identified on the basis of analysis of 28S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant fungal species during Makgeolli fermentation changed from P. kudriavzevii at 0-2 days incubation to S. cerevisiae at 3-6 days incubation. This study suggests that PCR-DGGE analysis could be a suitable tool for the understanding of microbial diversity and structure during Makgeolli fermentation.
Characteristics of Biosurfactant Produced by Pseudomonas sp. G314
Shim, So-Hee ; Park, Kyeong-Ryang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 239~244
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.239
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics and chemical components of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas sp. G314. Pseudomonas sp. G314 was isolated from soil samples which were contaminated with oil in Daejon area. As such, it produced quality biosurfactant . One type of biosurfactant was kept in a refrigerator, whereas another type of biosurfactant was kept in room temperature. The surface tension activities were then compared. As a result, the biosurfactant from Pseudomonas sp. G314 that was kept at room temperature was stable for 10 days, showing 26.2 dyne/cm of surface tension activity. This result was found to be similar to that of the refrigerator storage. The surface tension of batch culture was 25 dyne/cm, but the culture in the 5 l fermentor was 27 dyne/cm. Therefore, it can be suggested that the large-scale culture is feasible via the fermentor. Biosurfactant from Pseudomonas sp. G314 was estimated to be a kind of glycolipid because it dissolved in acetone and methanol much better than in benzene and toluene . A spot was detected through the elution of silica gel column and the spread of TLC, and the Rf value was 0.58. This spot has a positive reaction with Bail's reagent and rhodamine 6G. Hence, we can conclude that biosurfactant from Pseudomons sp. G314 was a glycolipid containing carbohydrate and lipid.
Differentiation of Vibrio spp. including Core Group Species by PCR-RFLP
Park, Jin-Sook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 245~250
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.245
The 16S rDNA - RFLP types for six Vibrio species (V. fluvialis, V. proteolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. mimicus) including two core group members, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticu s, and Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae were determined using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six tetrameric restriction enzymes (Alu I, Cfo I, Dde I, Hae III, Msp I, and Rsa I) were selected for RFLP analysis. V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. proteolyticus showed the same RFLP pattern following digestion with four of the six used restriction enzymes: CfoI, DdeI, MspI, and RsaI. Various restriction enzyme combinations generated digests recognizable as distinct RFLP types for each of the assayed Vibrio species. In particular, AluI single digestion produced species specific band patterns that enabled the differentiation between these Vibrio species. Dendrogram based on restriction patterns showed that two Vibrio core group members, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus were closely related having a similarity over 90%. Although the observed RFLP pattern for Grimontia hollisae shared several common bands with other Vibrio spp., G. hollisae results were still clearly distinct from Vibrio spp. RFLP types for all restriction enzymes tested. If restriction enzymes are aptly selected, PCR-RFLP analysis is still a rapid and effective tool for differentiating Vibrio species.
Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Isolates
Bang, Ji-Hun ; Shin, Hwa-Jin ; Choi, Hye-Jung ; Kim, Dong-Wan ; Ahn, Cheol-Soo ; Jeong, Young-Kee ; Joo, Woo-Hong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 251~258
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.251
The purpose of this study was to investigate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from animal feces. BCNU 9041 and BCNU 9042 isolates were assigned to Lactobacillus brevis on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequences analysis. They were confirmed as safe bioresources because of their non-hemolytic activities and non-production of harmful
-glucuronidase, tryptophanase, or urease. These isolates were also highly resistant to acid (at pH 2.5) and bile acids (at concentration of 0.3%, 0.6%, and 1% oxgall). In addition, they exhibited good antibacterial activity against food-borne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Shigella sonnei. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that they have the highest levels of hydrophobicity and that they showed bile salt hydrolytic and cholesterol assimilation activity. These results suggest that BCNU 9041 and 9042 have good potential for application in functional foods and health-related products.
Characterization and Identification of an Agar-Degrading Motile Bacteria Strain
Kang, Sung-Wan ; Yoo, Ah-Young ; Yu, Jong-Earn ; Kang, Ho-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 259~265
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.259
A bacterial strain, CK214, exhibiting high motility on an LB agar (1.5%, w/v) surface was isolated from the environment. The formation of unusual agar shrinking around colonies on agar plates was observed. The strain grew on minimal media containing pure agar as a sole carbon source. The cell-free culture supernatant of CK214 generated a reduced form of sugar in the in vitro reaction with the use of pure agar as a substrate, suggesting the secretion of an agar-degrading enzyme. The CK214 strain showed swarming motility on the solid media containing a wide range of concentrations of agar (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% w/v). Various tests, including Gram staining, API analysis, and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences identified that the CK214 strain was a G(+) rod-shaped bacterium grouped in genus Paenibacillus. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the P. CK214 strain is peritrichously flagellated. Through transposon random mutagenesis, several agar-degrading activity defective mutants (ADMs) were generated. These mutants will be used in the future experimentation for the study of the correlation between agar-degrading activity and motility.
The Classification, Origin, Collection, Determination of Activity, Purification, Production, and Application of Agarases
Lee, Dong-Geun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 266~280
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.266
Agar is a cell wall component of macro red algae that can be hydrolyzed by agarase. Agarases are classified into
-agarase (E.C. 22.214.171.124) and
-agarase (E.C. 126.96.36.199), in accordance with their cleavage pattern, and can be grouped in the glycoside hydrolase (GH)-16, -58, -86, -96, and -118 family according to the amino acid sequences of the proteins. Many agarases and/or their genes have been detected, isolated, and recombinantly expressed from bacteria, and metagenomes have their origins in sea and terrestrial environments. Products of agarases, agarooligosaccharides and neoagarooligosaccharides, represent wide functions such as antitumor, immune stimulation, antioxidation, prebiotic, hepa-protective, antibacterial, whitening, and moisturizing effects; hence, broad applications would be possible in the food industry, cosmetics, and medical fields. In addition, agarases are also used as a tool enzyme for research. This paper reviews the sources, purifications and detection methods, and application fields of agarases. The role of agarases in agar metabolism and the function of their enzymatic products are also surveyed.
Expression of the cAMP Phosphodiesterase 7A1 Gene by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Kwon, Ki-Sang ; Kwon, Young-Sook ; Kwon, O-Yu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 2, 2012, Pages 281~284
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.2.281
This study demonstrated that upregulation of gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperones (Bip, ERp29, calnexin, and PDI), ER stress sensors (PERK, ATF6, and Ire1), and cAMP phosphodiesterase 7A1 (cAMP PDE7A1) was induced by ER stresses in FRTL5 cells. While removing A23187 from the culture medium restored upregulation of cAMP PDE7A1 gene expression, removal of thapsigargin did not recover its expression. In addition, cAMP PDE7A1 gene expression was strongly inhibited by treatment with A23187 combined with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The results are the first to show that ER stress induces cAMP PDE7A1 gene expression.