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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationships in the Genus Spiraea Based on the Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS Region
Huh, Man-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 285~292
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.285
Genus Spiraea is composed of many long-lived woody species that are primarily distributed throughout Asia and Europe. In this study, we evaluated a representative sample of the 38 taxa in the world, including 14 in Korea, with nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) to estimate genetic relationships within the genus. The molecular data allowed us to resolve well-supported clades in the taxa. In 47 world accessions (38 taxa: 14 Korean taxa, 33 world taxa, and 9 overlapping taxa), total alignment length was 689 positions, of which 452 were parsimony informative, 527 variable, 75 singleton, and 159 constant characters. Although the phylogenic tree showed that many taxa of genus Spiraea were well separated from each other, many branches were not congruent with the morphological characteristics and geographical distributions of the genus. There were 430 segregating sites and the nucleotide diversity (
) value was 0.281. Under the neutral mutation hypothesis, the probability that the Tajima test statistic (D) is positive (2.325) is more than 0.5. Therefore, there may be a site at which natural selection, which increases genetic variation, is operating.
Sequences and Phylogenic Analysis of Squid New Kinesin Superfamily Proteins (KIFs)
Kim, Sang-Jin ; Seog, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 293~297
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.293
The movement of vesicles from the neuronal cell body to specific destinations requires molecular motors. The squid giant axon represents a powerful model for studies of the axonal transport mechanism because the axoplasm can readily be separated from the sheath by simple extrusion. In a previous study, vesicular movements in the axoplasm of the squid giant axon were inhibited by the kinesin antibody. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced the cDNAs for squid brain KIFs. Amplification of the conserved nucleotide sequences of the motor domain by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using first-strand cDNAs of the squid optic lobe identified six new KIF proteins. Motif analysis of the motor domains revealed that the squid KIFs are homologous to the consensus sequences of the mouse KIFs. The phylogenetic tree generated by using the maximum parsimony (MP) method, the neighbor-joining (NJ) method, the minimum evolution (ME) method, and the maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that squid KIFs are closest to mouse KIFs. These data prove the phylogenetic relationships between squid KIFs and mouse ones.
Lutein Modulates Th2 Immune Response in Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Inflammation
Song, Jun-Young ; Lee, Chang-Min ; Lee, Min-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 298~305
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.298
The general term flavonoids is often used to categorize a family of natural compounds that are highly abundant in all higher plants, and which in recent years have attracted scientific interest as therapeutics. Lutein is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. It is found in green vegetables such as spinach and kale, and has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory activities. However, its anti-allergic effect in the Th1/Th2 immune response is poorly understood. In this study, we attempt to determine whether lutein regulates inflammatory mediators in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. To address this, mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA, and then treated with lutein before the last OVA challenge. Administration of lutein significantly suppressed the OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness. It also resulted in a significant alleviation of the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchoalveolar lavage. Additionally, lutein attenuated the increased expression of Th2 responses in OVA-challenged mice. These results demonstrate that lutein is a potent inhibitor that reduces Th2 immune responses. Furthermore, they show that the immunopharmacological function is mediated by a pathway that involves and is regulated by Th2 immune response.
Cloning, Expression, and Purification of a Lipase from Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas mandelii
Kim, Jun-Sung ; Lee, Chang-Woo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 306~311
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.306
A gene encoding a lipase, lipT, was cloned from the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas mandelii and sequenced. An open reading frame of 1,686 bp was found that encodes a polypeptide consisting of 562 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis revealed a Gly-His-Ser-Leu-Gly sequence, which matches the consensus Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly motif conserved among lipolytic enzymes. The recombinant LipT protein was predominantly expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified by nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. A small fraction of LipT was refolded, and the subsequent LipT exhibited substrate preferences for p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4) and p-nitrophenyl octanoate (C8).
Effects of the Duration of Highly Intensive Exercise on Lymphocyte Cell Death in Rats
Kim, Hyeong-Soo ; Hyun, Kyung-Yae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 312~317
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.312
The time-dependent effects of highly intensive exercise on the hematological properties of leukocytes, as well as
level changes as T-lymphocyte activation subsets and the cell death of lymphocytes in rats were studied in this research. Twenty, 60, and 120 min of highly intensive exercise was performed daily for 8 weeks. Total leukocyte counts in the blood of rats exercising for 20 min were elevated; they then decreased to less than the level of the control group up to 120 min. The patterns of lymphocyte level changes were directly influenced by exercise duration and the extents of alteration were similar to the total leukocytes counts. The levels of
in the blood of the exercising rats were not statistically different even when the exercise was continued for 120 min; thus, the exercise did not affect T-lymphocyte activation. Early- and late-stage lymphocyte apoptosis was not affected by the length of exercise, except that late-phase apoptosis was slightly increased at 120 min, suggesting that aging processes for lymphocyte apoptosis might be stimulated at that time. As the exercise time became longer, stimulated necrosis of lymphocytes was observed, so damage in lymphocytes and a potential loss of immunity might be presumed. The current observation suggests that long-term, highly intensive exercise might result in a loss of immunity that could be due to the damage of lymphocytes in terms of both their numbers and inflammation-related functions. The results suggest that under highly intensive exercise conditions, more than 20 min of exercise should not be suggested for health care purposes.
Effects of Doinsenggitang on Melanin Synthesis and Gene Expression Inhibition in B16F10 Melanoma Cells
Hwang, Ju-Young ; Kim, Dong-Hee ; Kim, Hui-Jung ; Hwang, Eun-Young ; Park, Tae-Soon ; Lee, Jin-Young ; Son, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 318~323
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.318
This study involved observation of the inhibitory effect of 70% EtOH and water extracts from Doinseunggitang on melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity, and western blotting using B16F10 melanoma cells. Doinseunggitang extracts inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dependent manner. As a result, it was found that Doinseunggitang 70% EtOH extracts inhibit melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, respectively, by 40% and 51%. In addition, western blotting analysis showed that 70% EtOH extracts inhibited tyrosinase, MITF, TRP-1, and TRP-2 expression. These results show that 70% ethanol extracts of Doinseunggitang could be developed as a skin whitening material in cosmetics.
Microbiological Pollution Investigation of Lowland Spring Water at the Jeju City Waterfront, Jeju Island
Kim, Man-Chul ; Han, Yong-Jae ; Heo, Moon-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 324~331
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.324
Bacteriological examination of spring water in Jeju City was conducted. A total of 21 spring water samples were collected from January to April, 2010. During the study period, the range of temperature was 0.6 to
, and the results of the analyses showed that hydrogen ion concentrations (pH) for spring water were 0.43 to 7.9. Salinity levels for the samples averaged from 3.0 to 1.64%, and levels of water-dissolved oxygen were 1.85 to 6.06 mg/l. The range of total coliforms in spring water samples at 21 stations located in the designated spring water were <1.8->1,600 MPN/100 ml. Furthermore, the range of geometric means of total coliforms was 9.9-151.6 MPN/100 ml, while the range of fecal coliforms in spring water samples at 21 stations located in the designated spring water area was <1.8->1,600 MPN/100 ml. Finally, the range of geometric mean of fecal coliforms was 3.1-151.6 MPN/100 ml. The level of microbial contamination was examined in 21 samples for indications of bacterial contamination such as heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella spp. were frequently detected in the spring water. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and S. aureus were detected in the range of
CFU/ml, respectively, while E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in the examined spring water samples.
Horizontal Distributions and Their Ecotoxicological Implications Relating to PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB in Sediments in the West Nakdong River
We, Sung-Ug ; Yoon, Cho-Hee ; Min, Byung-Yun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 332~339
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.332
Horizontal distributions and their ecotoxicological implications relating to organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in surface sediments sampled from the West Nakdong River. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in surface sediments were in the range of 0.57-3.68, 0.41-8.35, 0.63-1.65, and n.d.-0.56 ng/g, respectively. DDTs represent the major OC in the West Nakdong River. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs correlate with the total organic carbon (PCBs: r=0.874, p<0.001, and DDTs: r=0.762, p<0.05, respectively), indicating that organic content in the sediments is one of the major factors for influencing horizontal distribution of the organochlorine compounds in this river. Examining the potential poisonous character of the surface sediments to benthic organisms according to the sediment quality guideline (SQG), set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), we found that the concentrations of total PCBs, p,p'-DDD, and
-HCH were lower than the effects range-low (ER-L) and the probable effects level (PEL). As a result, it is considered that the effect of organochlorines in the region considered on benthic organisms is very low from the perspective of environmental toxicology. However, in terms of the Canadian SQC, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and total DDTs, respectively, exceeded the interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQG) and the threshold effect level (TEL) in 30%, 17%, and 19%, respectively, of the sediment samples analyzed.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of a New Probiotic CS61 Culture on Performance in Broiler Chickens
Kim, Sung-Hwan ; Lee, In-Chul ; Baek, Hyung-Seon ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Hyoung-Chin ; Yoo, Jin-Cheol ; Kim, Jong-Choon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 340~346
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.340
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and residues of antibiotics in poultry products have encouraged the use of probiotics, prebiotic substrates, and synbiotic combinations of prebiotics and probiotics as alternative approaches to the use of antibiotics in poultry. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a new probiotic CS61 culture on growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, and safety in broiler chickens, and to evaluate its value as an alternative for antibiotics used as a feed additive. Two dosages of CS61 culture (0.1% and 1%) were fed to chickens for 28 days. The results showed that terminal body weight and daily weight gain in the treatment groups increased in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control group. Dietary supplementation with CS61 culture also improved feed conversion rate compared to the control group. There were no treatment-related toxic effects in terms of clinical findings, mortality, necropsy findings, hematology, or serum biochemistry parameters in any group tested. The nitric oxide assay showed that CS61 peptide has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells. The results of this experiment indicated that dietary supplementation of CS61 culture may improve growth performance and feed conversion efficiency in chickens through its anti-inflammatory effect.
Cosmeceutical Activity of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) with Different Light Sources
Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Jun, Hye-Ji ; Yoon, Ji-Young ; Kim, Tae-Su ; Park, So-I ; Lee, Sung-Pyo ; Park, Joo-Hoon ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 347~353
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.347
The purpose of this study was to research the cosmeceutical activity of 70% ethanol extracts when Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck (BO) was dried under red lighting (RLD), blue lighting (BLD), red+blue lighting (RBLD), or white lighting (WLD). The electron-donating abilities of 70% ethanol extracts from drying BO under RLD, BLD, RBLD, and WLD were 62.8%, 68.1%, 60.9%, and 69.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 ppm. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities of 70% ethanol extracts from drying BO under RLD, BLD, RBLD, and WLD were 39.2%, 47.2%, 19.6%, and 21.6%, respectively, at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In terms of xanthine oxidase inhibition effects, the proportions of 70% ethanol extracts after drying BO under RLD, BLD, RBLD, and WLD were 45.1%, 56.2%, 38.8%, and 53.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. The tyrosinase inhibition effects of 70% ethanol extracts when BO was dried under RLD, BLD, RBLD, and WLD were 21.0%, 13.1%, 26.0%, and 19.1%, respectively, at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. The collagenase inhibition effect of 70% ethanol extracts when BO was dried under RLD, BLD, RBLD, and WLD were 47.4%, 20.8%, 54.6%, and 37.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. The astringent inhibition effects of 70% ethanol extracts when BO was dried under RLD, BLD, RBLD, and WLD were 21.5%, 39.6%, 40.0%, and 51.6%, respectively, at a concentration of 5,000 ppm. All of these findings suggest that BO extracts dried under RLD, BLD, RBLD, and WLD have great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient with good biological activity.
Antioxidant Effects of Picrasma quassioides and Chamaecyparis obtusa (S. et Z.) ENDL Extracts
Jung, Young-Tae ; Lee, In-Seon ; Whang, Key ; Yu, Mi-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 354~359
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.354
In our study, we investigated the antioxidant effect of methanol extract from the leaves of Picrasma quassioides (PQ) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (S. et Z.) ENDL (CO). Total polyphenol contents of methanol extracts from PQ and CO varied from 138.3 to
and total flavonoid contents varied from 8.12 to
. Contents of polyphenol and flavonoid in PQ were found to be extremely high. In addition, the methanol extract of PQ had a higher antioxidant activity in both DPPH (
) and ABTS (
) compared to other plants (CO). Based on the results of the FRAP assay, PQ showed a value of
and CO exhibited a value of
. The methanol extracts from the leaves of PQ showed the highest radical-scavenging activity in various antioxidant systems.
Up-Regulation of NAG-1 and p21 Genes by Sulforaphane
Jeong, Byung-Geol ; Kim, Soon-Young ; Lee, Kon-Joo ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 360~365
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.360
We investigated the anti-proliferative activity of sulforaphane and expression changes of NAG-1 and p21 genes in response to sulforaphane treatment in human colorectal HCT116 cells. The results showed that sulforaphane decreased cell viabilities in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of NAG-1 and p21 proteins in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that NAG-1 expression by sulforaphane was not dependent on the presence of p53, whereas p21 expression was dependent on p53 presence. The results indicated that up-regulation of NAG-1 was not related with the activity of a dietary histone deacetylase inhibitor of sulforaphane. ATF3 induction was detected from 2 hr after sulforaphane treatment, indicating that ATF3 could be a transcription factor to up-regulate NAG-1 expression. The results of this study may help to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanism of anti-cancer activity mediated by sulforaphane in human colorectal cancer cells.
Estimation of Linkage Disequilibrium and Effective Population Size using Whole Genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hanwoo
Cho, Chung-Il ; Lee, Joon-Ho ; Lee, Deuk-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 366~372
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.366
This study was conducted to estimate the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size using whole genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyped by DNA chip in Hanwoo. Using the blood samples of 35 young bulls born from 2005 to 2008 and their progenies (N=253) in a Hanwoo nucleus population collected from Hanwoo Improvement Center, 51,582 SNPs were genotyped using Bovine SNP50 chips. A total of 40,851 SNPs were used in this study after elimination of SNPs with a missing genotyping rate of over 10 percent and monomorphic SNPs (10,730 SNPs). The total autosomal genome length, measured as the sum of the longest syntenic pairs of SNPs by chromosome, was 2,541.6 Mb (Mega base pairs). The average distances of all adjacent pairs by each BTA ranged from 0.55 to 0.74 cM. Decay of LD showed an exponential trend with physical distance. The means of LD (
) among syntenic SNP pairs were 0.136 at a range of 0-0.1 Mb in physical distance and 0.06 at a range of 0.1-0.2 Mb. When these results were used for Luo's formula, about 2,000 phenotypic records were found to be required to achieve power > 0.9 to detect 5% QTL in the population of Hanwoo. As a result of estimating effective population size by generation in Hanwoo, the estimated effective population size for the current status was 84 heads and the estimate of effective population size for 50 generations of ancestors was 1,150 heads. The average decreasing rates of effective population size by generation were 9.0% at about five generations and 17.3% at the current generation. The main cause of the rapid decrease in effective population size was considered to be the intensive use of a few prominent sires since the application of artificial insemination technology in Korea. To increase and/or sustain the effective population size, the selection of various proven bulls and mating systems that consider genetic diversity are needed.
Comparison of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Supercritical Fluid Extracts and Marc Extracts from Cinnamomum verum
Park, Sung-Jin ; Yu, Mi-Hee ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Lee, Sam-Pin ; Lee, In-Seon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 373~379
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.373
This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobiological effects of supercritical fluid extracts (SFEs) and Marc methanol extracts (SFMs) from Cinnamomum verum. Reducing effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ABTS radical scavenging were investigated. SFM exhibited higher antioxidant activities in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay. Measurements of the antimicrobial activity were used for Gram-positive bacteria (four strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (four strains). The antimicrobial activities of the SFE and SFM against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria revealed that SFE had a higher inhibition zone than SFM. Cinnamaldehyde, the active compound of C. verum, had a higher content in SFM (35% at 300 bar,
) than methanol extracts from C. verum (0.5%). These results indicate that not only SFE oil, but also SFM, could be a good source for the food industry.
The Effects of Physical Activity Programs on Physical Fitness, Blood Lipids, and Growth-Related Factors among Young Normal Weight and Obese Children
Bak, Hyong-Gon ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Park, Chan-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 380~386
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.380
This study was conducted to examine the effects of physical activity programs on young children's body composition, physical fitness, blood lipids, and growth-related factors. Fourteen young male child subjects participated in this study. Experimental groups were divided into a young obese children group (OG; n=7) and a young normal weight children group (NG; n=7). The subjects performed supervised physical activity programs with moderate intensity for 12 weeks, 40 minutes per session, 3 times per week. The results of this study are as follows: HDL-C, growth hormone, and IGF-I were significantly increased in NG, but OG was showed no changes. Physical fitness was significantly increased in both NG and OG. This study demonstrated that physical activity programs have a positive effect on the prevention of obesity, as well as a positive effect on growth and development in young normal weight children. However, long-term follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the additive effect of exercise program with behavior modification in young obese children.
Synthesis and Biological Activities of Myomodulin A and Its Analogs
Park, Nam-Gyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 387~397
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.387
In this study, we focused on myomoduline A (MMA) released from the central nervous system of Aplysia kurodai. The primary structure of MMA is Pro-Met-Ser-Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-
. This peptide is the same as that of the myomodulin family peptide found in other mollusks. The purified MMA showed a modulating activity of phasic contraction on the anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis. In order to study the relationship between the structure and biological activity of MMA, we synthesized MMA, Des[
]-MMA, and MME. The amino acid sequences of Des[
]-MMA, and Des[
]-MMA were Met-Ser-Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-
, and Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-
, respectively. MMA and synthetic peptides were tested on ABRM in M. edulis as well as muscle preparations in Achatina fulica. At
M or lower, MMA showed a potentiating effect on phasic contraction of the ABRM, but this peptide had an inhibitory effect at
M or higher. Both MMA and its analogs stimulated a contractile response on the crop and a relaxed catch-relaxing response on the penial retractor muscle of A. fulica. These results suggest that Met-Leu-Arg-Leu-
in MMA is the minimum structure required for the regulation of the contraction of ABRM, as well as the reproductive and digestive activities of mollusks.
Polygenic Association of ACE and ACTN3 Polymorphisms with Korean Power Performance
Kim, Chul-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 398~406
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.398
This study aimed to examine whether the polygenic profile of ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms is associated with muscle power performance in Korean athletes. For this study, 106 top-class power athletes (top-class group), 158 elite power athletes (elite-class group), and 676 healthy adults (control) aged 18-39 yrs were recruited and their genotypes were analyzed. The top-class group showed higher frequencies of the II genotype and I allele in ACE, as well as higher frequencies of the RR genotype and R allele in ACTN3 (top-class vs. control: 41.4% vs. 32.1% for II genotype, 67.1% vs. 57.7% for I allele, p<0.05; 42.3% vs. 29.0% for RR genotype, 65.3% vs. 54.8% for I allele, p<0.05). In the polygenic profile, the top-class group had significantly higher frequencies of combined-II/ID+RR/RX genotype than the control group (top-class vs. control: 82.9% vs. 66.7% for II/ID+RR/RX, p<0.05), and there was even a sharp increase in total genotype score (TGS) in this group compared to the elite-class and control groups (
, p<0.05). The combined-II/ID+RR/RX genotype showed the possibility of succussion in the top-class muscle power performance with an odds ratio of 2.3 (CI:1.4-4.1, p<0.05). These results suggested that ACE and ACTN3 need to interact with each other to affect muscle-power performance in an additive form. Furthermore, the polygenic profile of ACE and ACTN3 can predict muscle performance with high success in a homogeneous dominant combined genotype (II/ID+RR/RX). A further study could identify and combine other genes into ACE and ACTN3 for muscle strength.
Effects of Tested Pack Containing Plant Extracts on Elasticity and Size of Women's Breasts
Choi, Yea-Hun ; Park, Min-Kyung ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ; Lee, Sang-Mong ; Son, Hong-Joo ; Park, Hyean-Cheal ; Kim, Sun-Tae ; Choi, In-Soo ; Kim, Keun-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 407~416
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.407
In this study, we purified the extracts from the seeds and the roots of various plant species, including Q. acutissima, C. lanceolata, P. mirifica, P. bambusoides, and S. repens, and then investigated the effects of these extracts on cell growth and fat accumulation in adipocytes. We found that the extracts purified from Q. acutissima, C. lanceolata, P. mirifica, P. bambusoides, and S. repens more effectively increased the cell growth, as well as promoting the fat accumulation in adipocytes to a greater extent, than other extracts in vitro. Therefore, we made breast packs containing these effective extracts, and then investigated whether they were effective in enhancing the elasticity and volume of women's breasts. The measurements of breast elasticity and size revealed that the breast packs efficiently increased the elasticity and size of women's breasts. Furthermore, evaluation of the questionnaires related to usage of the breast packs indicated great satisfaction in terms of the lift, firmness, and elasticity of breasts. In conclusion, extracts purified from Q. acutissima, C. lanceolata, P. mirifica, P. bambusoides, and S. repens leading to cell growth and fat accumulation in adipocytes can effectively contribute to improving the elasticity and size of women's breasts.
Transcriptional Analysis Responding to Propanol Stress in Escherichia coli
Park, Hye-Jin ; Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 417~427
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.417
We compared the transcriptome in response to propanol stress in wild-type and propanol-resistant mutant Escherichia coli using the DNA microarray technique. The correlation value of RNA expression between the propanol-treated wild type and the untreated-one was about 0.949, and 50 genes were differentially expressed by more than twofold in both samples. The correlation value of RNA expression between the propanol-treated mutant and the untreated one was about 0.951, and 71 genes in two samples showed differential expression patterns. However, the values between the wild type and mutant, regardless of propanol addition, were 0.974-0.992 and only 1-2 genes were differentially expressed in the two strains. The representative characteristics among differentially expressed genes in W3110 or P19 treated with propanol compared to untreated samples were up-regulation of hest shock response genes and down-regulation of genes relating to ribosome biosynthesis. In addition, many genes were regulated by transcription regulation factors such as ArcA, CRP, FNR, H-NS, GatR, or PurR and overexpressed by sigma factor RpoH. We confirmed that RpoH mediated an important host defense function in propanol stress in E. coli W3110 and P19 by comparison of cell growth rate among the wild type, rpoH disruptant mutant, and rpoH-complemented strain.
Update on Phosphorylation-Mediated Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathways
Lee, Yew ; Kim, Soo-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 3, 2012, Pages 428~436
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.3.428
Protein phosphorylation is a universal mechanism that regulates cellular activities. The brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction pathway is a relay of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. It starts with the BR-induced activation of the membrane receptor kinase brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), resulting in the dephosphorylation of transcription factors such as BZR1/BES2 and BZR2/BES1 followed by BR-induced gene expression. Brassinosteroid signal transduction research has progressed rapidly by identifying the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation site(s) of the BR-regulated kinase and phosphatase substrates with a simultaneous pursuit of mutant phenotypes. Autophosphorylation, transphosphorylation, and serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor protein kinases BRI1 and BRI1-associated kinase (BAK1) have increased the understanding of the regulatory role of those kinases during physiological and developmental processes in plants. The phosphorylation event initiated by BR is also found in the regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis and the subsequent degradation of the receptor. However, the basic molecular links of the BR signal transduction pathway are not well understood regarding this phosphorylation/dephosphorylation event. This review summarizes the current state of BR signal transduction research to uncover the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation networks and suggests directions for future research on steroid signal transduction to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the process.