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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
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Modulatory Effects of Korean Red Ginseng Extract (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Cytochrome P450 after Oral Administration to Mice for 14 Days
Kim, Hee-Yeon ; Nam, Woong-Shik ; Kim, Seong-Hee ; Jang, Hye-Ryang ; Lee, Mi-Kyoung ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Lee, Sang-Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 991~998
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.991
Ginseng is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines and health foods. Korean red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) extract is known to have potential therapeutic activities, such as anti-viral effects, the amelioration of food allergies, anti-oxidant effects, and obesity reduction. Nevertheless, no reports have been issued the modulatory effects of KRG extract on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP). In the present study, we investigated the modulatory effect of KRG extract in vitro and in vivo by using pooled human liver microsomes and male ICR mice. When human liver microsomes were incubated with KRG extract at 0.01-10 mg/ml, CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A were not significantly inhibited by KRG extract, although CYP2B6 was slightly inhibited. Mice were orally administered KRG extract at 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg daily for 3, 7, or 14 days. However, the activities of CYPs in mouse livers were not significantly different from those of vehicle-treated controls. In conclusion, no significant ginseng-drug interaction was observed. KRG extract did not significantly modulate the activities of CYPs in vitro or in vivo.
Regulation of Arabidopsis Circadian Clock by De-Etiolated 1 (DET1) Possibly via Histone 3 Acetylation (H3Ac)
Song, Hae-Ryong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 999~1008
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.999
The circadian clock is a self-sustaining 24-hour timekeeper that allows organisms to anticipate daily-changing environmental time cues. Circadian clock genes are regulated by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. In Arabidopsis, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) transcripts are highly expressed in the morning. Translated LHY and CCA1 proteins repress the expression of the TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) transcripts, which peaks in the evening. The TOC1 protein elevates the expression of the LHY and CCA1 transcripts, forming a negative feedback loop that is believed to constitute the oscillatory mechanism of the clock. In mammals, the transcription factor protein CLOCK, which is a central component of the circadian clock, was reported to have an intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, suggesting that histone acetylation is important for core clock mechanisms. However, little is known about the components necessary for the histone acetylation of the Arabidopsis clock-related genes. Here, I report that DET1 (De-Etiolated1) functions as a negative regulator of a key component of the Arabidopsis circadian clock gene LHY in constant dark phases (DD) and is required for the down-regulation of LHY expression through the acetylation of histone 3 (H3Ac). However, the HATs directly responsible for the acetylation of H3 within LHY chromatin need to be identified, and a link connecting the HATs and DET1 protein is still absent.
Analysis of the orf 282 Gene and Its Function in Rhodobacter sphaeroide 2.4.1
Son, Myung-Hwa ; Lee, Sang-Joon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1009~1017
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1009
The orf282 gene of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is located between the ccoNOQP operon encoding
terminal oxidase and the fnrL gene encoding an anaerobic activator, FnrL. Its function remains unknown. In an attempt to reveal the function of the orf282 gene, we disrupted the gene by deleting a portion of the orf282 gene and constructed an orf282-knockout mutant. Two FnrL binding sites were found to be located upstream of orf282, and it was demonstrated that orf282 is positively regulated by FnrL. The orf282 gene is not involved in the regulation of spectral complex formation. The
oxidase activity detected in the orf282 mutant was comparable to that in the wild-type sample, indicating that the orf282 gene is not involved in the regulation of the ccoNOQP operon and the biosynthesis of the cbb3 cytochrome c oxidase. The elevated promoter activity of the nifH and nifA genes, which are the structural genes of nitrogenase and its regulator, respectively, in the orf282 mutant, suggests that the orf282 gene product acts as a negative effector for nifH and nifA expression.
Snail Switches 5-FU-induced Apoptosis to Necrosis through Akt/PKB Activation and p53 Down-regulation
Lee, Su-Yeon ; Jeon, Hyun-Min ; Ju, Min-Kyung ; Kim, Cho-Hee ; Jeong, Eui-Kyong ; Park, Hye-Gyeong ; Kang, Ho-Sung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1018~1023
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1018
Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor that induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which promotes tumor invasion and metastasis by repressing E-cadherin expression. In addition, Snail restricts the cellular apoptotic response to apoptotic stimuli or survival factor withdrawal; however, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism underlying Snail-mediated chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), one of the most widely used anti-cancer drugs. When Snail was overexpressed by doxycycline (DOX) in MCF-7 #5 cells, it inhibited 5-FU-induced apoptotic cell death and switched the cell death mode to necrosis. Snail expression, either by DOX treatment in MCF-7 #5 cells or by the transfection of Snail expression vectors pCR3.1-Snail-Flg, phosphorylation-resistant pCR3.1-S104, and 107A Snail-Flg in MCF-7 cells specifically induced PTEN down-regulation/inactivation and Akt/PKB activation, without affecting ERK1/2 activity. In addition, Snail prominently suppressed 5-FU-induced increases in p53 levels. These findings demonstrate that Snail switches 5-FU-induced apoptosis to necrosis through the activation of Akt/PKB and the down-regulation of p53 levels.
Cloning of Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthase (CrtE) Gene from Kocuria gwangalliensis and Its Functional Co-expression in Escherichia coli
Seo, Yong-Bae ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Lee, Jae-Hyung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1024~1033
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1024
A gene encoding a novel geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase from Kocuria gwangalliensis has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 59.6% identity with a putative GGPP synthase (CrtE) from K. rhizophila. An expression plasmid containing the crtE gene was constructed, and E. coli cells containing this plasmid produced a recombinant protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 41 kDa, corresponding to the molecular weight of GGPP synthase. Due to the lack of crtE, crtB, and crtI in E. coli, the biosynthesis of lycopene was only obtained when the plasmid pCcrtE was co-transformed into E. coli expressing the pRScrtBI-carrying carotenoid biosynthesis crtB and crtI genes, which were sub-cloned from Paracoccus haeundaensis. The biochemical studies on the expressed proteins were performed via HPLC. The results obtained from this study will provide a wider base of knowledge regarding the primary structure of CrtE cloned from K. gwangalliensis at the molecular level.
Quantitative Analyses of Cells using Photoshop after the H&E Staining of the Synovia of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
Park, Jin-Ah ; Kim, Keun-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1034~1040
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1034
Synovium is the soft tissue that lines the non-cartilaginous surfaces within joints. It has been reported that synovial cells are activated during the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we quantitate and compare the cellular composition of synovia derived from individuals with non-inflammatory osteoarthritis (OA) and those with inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovia from OA (n=8) and RA (n=5) patients were used for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. A light microscopic examination has shown that RA synovia were morphologically thickened and hypertrophied as compared to OA synovia. We also performed an immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to classify cell types in the synovia using CD68, CD90, or PGP9.5 markers. As a result, we obtained quantitative data regarding the cell populations, which are macrophages in the lining layer and FLSs in the subintimal layer of the synovium. Further Photoshop analyses of the H&E images could allow the counting of the number and layer of the cells in the synovium. The number and layers of the macrophage cells were increased in the lining layer of the RA synovia as compared to the OA synovia. FLS cells also were increased in the subintimal layer of RA synovia. Therefore, quantification of the H&E stained images via Photoshop is a possible analysis protocol for synovium study. This quantitation also supports the idea that the increases in cell number and cell activation are important processes for RA pathogenesis.
Characteristics of Water Quality and Biological Changes in the Onchun Stream -After the Flowing of the Nakdong River-
Park, Hong-Ki ; Son, Jung-Won ; Cho, Jin-Tack ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1041~1045
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1041
This study investigated the changes caused by diverting water applications at the riverhead of the Onchun Stream via the monitoring of several water quality and biological parameters between 10/09 and 10/10. The analysis indicated that the Onchun Stream distinctly decreased in terms of several water quality parameters, such as BOD, COD, TN, TP, and the concentration of heavy metals as compared to similar values in 2005, before the flowing of the Nakdong River. Especially, BOD showed the 2nd grade of water quality, with an average of 2.0 mg/l at all sites. The species number and standing crops of plankton and benthic macroinvertebrates in the Onchun Stream were also increased. Thus, it was concluded that diverting water from the Nakdong River to the Onchun Stream dramatically improved various environmental indices, such as water quality and biological changes.
Irradiation on Neurotransmitters in the Brains of Goldfish Carassius auratus
Park, Nam-Gyu ; Go, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Kil, Sang-Hyeong ; Lee, Byung-Woo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1046~1051
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1046
In order to investigate the changes in bioactive materials induced in goldfish brains by
irradiation, the variations in the neurotransmitter levels in the whole brain were studied. The distance between the goldfish and 580 mCi of
was about 4 cm, and the exposure lasted for 4 hrs. The absorption level calculated based on the distance, exposure time, and half-life of
was approximately 2 Gy. After sacrifice by
irradiation or untreated conditions, ten brains were dissected or immediately frozen, respectively. The tissues were extracted in acetic acid. After lyophilization, the samples were dissolved in distilled water and were further purified on a reverse-phase HPLC column. There were no differences in the intensities of the bioactive materials between
-exposed goldfish and control goldfish, while the only peak corresponded to 13 min, which indicated a significant increase in the irradiated brains. Our analysis has found that this compound is tryptophan. This result suggests that
leads to changes in a classical neurotransmitter, tryptophan, in both the brains of control goldfish and goldfish contaminated by irradiation.
Anti-adipogenic Effect of Undaria pinnatifida Extracts by Ethanol in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Kim, Hye-Jin ; Kang, Chang-Han ; Kim, Sung-Koo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1052~1056
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1052
Undaria pinnatifada has been used as a natural diet food with few calories and as a source of iodine. Even though U. pinnatifida has been regarded as a diet food, the mechanisms of its inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and the accumulation of fat in adipocytes are poorly understood. In this study, the effect and mechanism of U. pinnatifida ethanol extract on 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes were investigated. The effects of U. pinnatifida ethanol extract on cell viability and the anti-adipogenic effect were investigated via MTT assay, Oil red O staining, RT-PCR, and western blot. The U. pinnatifida ethanol extract did not show toxicity up to a concentration of 50
. The addition of U. pinnatifida ethanol extract decreased triglyceride contents by 40% when 50
of U. pinnatifida ethanol extract was added during 3T3-L1 differentiation and adipocyte triglyceride formation. The transcription and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
), leptin, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) as adipocyte-specific proteins were determined by RT-PCR and western blot. The overexpression of
could accelerate adipocyte differentiation. Also, leptin was secreted for triglyceride accumulation in the adipocytes and the increase of adipocyte cell size. Thus,
and leptin were used as indicators of obesity.
and leptin were repressed by the increased addition of U. pinnatifida ethanol extract. This indicates that U. pinnatifida was effective as an anti-obesity agent by repressing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 into adipocytes and inhibiting triglyceride formation in adipocytes.
Pharmacogenetic Impact on Korean Patients Receiving Antiepileptic Drugs
Kim, Jeong-Oh ; Lee, Han-Hee ; Shin, Jung-Young ; Zhang, Xiang Hua ; Oh, Ji-Eun ; Kim, Yeong-In ; Lee, Jeong-Hyun ; Kang, Jin-Hyoung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1057~1063
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1057
Epilepsy is the most prevalent chronic neurological disorder and can be controlled by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in up to 70% of patients. We performed an association study between adverse drug reactions and the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, ABCB1, and SCN1A. The clinical data of 83 epilepsy patients who had received AEDs containing carbamazepine (CBZ) were collected. We extracted genomic DNA from peripheral blood and then genotyped CYP2C9 (
), CYP2C19 (
), ABCB1 (C3435T), and SCN1A (IVS5N+5 G>A) using direct sequencing. The allele frequencies of
, ABCB1 (3435C>T), and SCN1A (IVS5N+5 G>A) were 0.93, 0.72, 0.91, 0.61, and 0.55, respectively. Statistically significant differences were indicated from the data obtained. Patients with SCN1A genotype CC or CT were compared with patients with SCN1A genotype TT while using more than 500mg of carbamazepine. We have associated functional polymorphisms with the dose used in regular clinical practice for Korean epilepsy patients who had received antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) containing carbamazepine. For AEDs, we found that one of the SCN1A genotypes is associated with a 500 mg dose. There was no association found with CNS ADR caused by AEDs.
Effect of Tumeric (Curcuma longa) on Bile Acid and UDP-glucuronyl Transferase Activity in Rats Fed a High-fat and -cholesterol Diet
Kim, Min-Sun ; Chun, Sung-Sik ; Kim, Sang-Hun ; Choi, Jung-Hwa ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1064~1070
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1064
The current study examined the effect of turmeric powder on bile acid and UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing
g were randomly assigned to a normal diet group (N group) and a high-fat and -cholesterol diet group (HF group), which was further divided into a high-fat and high-cholesterol with a 2.5% tumeric powder supplement group (TPA group) and 5% turmeric powder-supplemented group (TPB group). Body weight gain and food efficiency ratio were significantly increased in the N group as compared to the HF group, but they were significantly decreased in turmeric-supplemented groups as compared to the HF group. The total serum cholesterol and TG contents of the turmeric-supplemented groups were decreased as compared to those of the HF group. Especially, the TPB group was significantly decreased as compared to the HF group. The serum LDL-cholesterol and AI of the turmeric-supplemented groups were decreased as compared to the HF group. The hepatic triglyceride contents of all groups supplemented with the tumeric powder were significantly decreased as compared to the HF group. The hepatic UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity of the turmeric-supplemented groups was increased as compared to the HF group. In particular, the TPB group was significantly increased as compared to the HF group. The serum total bile acid contents of the turmeric-supplemented groups were increased as compared to the HF group. These results suggest that tumeric has powerful health benefits that are created via UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity, bile acid, and lipid metabolism.
Antimicrobial and Anti-halitosis Effects of Alnus firma Extracts
Choi, Hye-Jung ; Heo, Nam-Suk ; Choi, Young-Whan ; Lee, Young-Geun ; Jeong, Young-Kee ; Joo, Woo-Hong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1071~1076
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1071
To investigate the antimicrobial and anti-halitosis effects of Alnus firma extracts and gallic acid (GA) isolated from A. firma, we measured their antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens and their inhibitory effects on the cell adhesiveness and acid production of oral pathogens. In addition, the levels of volatile sulfur compounds were determined by using oral chroma. The dichloromethane (DCM) fraction has broad antimicrobial activity, and the ethylacetate (EA) fraction showed a relatively high level of antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromons gingivalis. Especially, the GA and DCM fractions had significant inhibitory effects on the attachment and acid production of S. mutans and Streptococcus salivarius, respectively. The 2% MeOH extract of A. firma showed a significant inhibitory effect on the production of volatile oral compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide, which can cause bad breath and halitosis. Two percent GA also had a significant inhibitory effect on the production of hydrogen sulfide. Our study showed that the active fractions and GA of A. firma could be suitable resources for development as a natural antibiotic agent for the treatment of infectious oral diseases.
Effects of Origanum Majorana Essential Oil Aroma on the Electroencephalograms of Female Young Adults with Sleep Disorders
Jung, Han-Na ; Choi, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1077~1084
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1077
This study investigated the effects of Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy on electrical activity in the brain as evaluated by an electroencephalogram (EEG). The subjects were 29 healthy female young adults, and their sleep quality was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. EEG electrodes were attached at the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes according to the international 10-20 system. Subjects were exposed to organic Origanum majorana essential aroma (50
) for a period of 3 minutes each before, during, and after aromatherapy. Subjects with good sleep quality showed that Origanum majorana essential aroma increased the theta power at the frontal and temporal lobes of both cerebral hemispheres, the left parietal lobe, and the right occipital lobe. Furthermore, Origanum majorana essential aroma decreased the alpha power at the left occipital lobe and the beta power at the right temporal lobe. On the other hand, subjects with poor sleep quality showed an increase in the theta power at the temporal lobe of both cerebral hemispheres and a decrease in the alpha power at the left parietal lobe by Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy. It is concluded that Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy diminishes the state of wakefulness in the brain; alpha and beta powers were both decreased in the subjects with good sleep quality, but only alpha power was decreased in the subjects with poor sleep quality. Moreover, Origanum majorana essential aroma therapy has a sleep-inducing effect in both subjects with good sleep quality and poor sleep quality.
Effects of Indoor and Outdoor Exercise Environments on Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Old Women
Kil, Eun-Kyung ; Yang, Jeong-Ok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1085~1091
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1085
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of indoor and outdoor exercise environments on bone mineral density and body composition in old women. A total of 26 old women were randomly divided into two groups: an indoor exercise group (IE, n=13) and an outdoor exercise group (OE, n=13). The exercise groups performed moderate exercise (HR max 50~70%; RPE 11-15) three times a week for 60 minutes over 20 weeks. After exercise training, bone mineral density was significantly improved in the OE group as compared with the IE group. Body fat mass was significantly decreased in the IE group. Weight, lean body mass, and body fat mass were significantly decreased in the OE group. Body mass index was significantly decreased in the outdoor exercise group as compared to the IE group. Our findings show that a 20-week program of outdoor exercise training improves bone mineral density and body composition in old women. As mentioned above, it has been found that engaging in an outdoor exercise program for 20 weeks has a positive effect on bone mineral density and body composition in old women. In conclusion, engaging in the outdoor exercise program, including aerobic and resistance exercises, for 20 weeks improved bone mineral density and inhibited bone loss in old women and had a positive influence on vitamin D levels, thereby potentially lowering the risk of osteoporosis.
Anti-wrinkle Compounds Isolated from the Seeds of Arctium lappa L.
Hwang, Ju-Young ; Park, Tae-Soon ; Kim, Dong-Hee ; Hwang, Eun-Young ; Lee, Jung-Noh ; Lee, Ji-Young ; Lee, Ghang-Tai ; Lee, Kun-Kook ; Son, Jun-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1092~1098
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1092
This study was carried out to discover the skin wrinkle reducing components in the seeds of Arctium lappa. The isolation of a methylene chloride-soluble fraction of 70% ethanol extract from the seeds of Arctium lappa using a procollagen type-1 synthesis and MMP-1 activity resulted in the isolation and identification of four lignin compounds: arctiin, arctigenin, matairesinol, and diarctigenin. All structures were confirmed via NMR and MS spectroscopic data. To determine cell viability and procollagen type-1 synthesis, human dermal fibroblasts were treated with 10-100
. As a result, none of the four compounds showed cytotoxicity up to 50
. We also investigated their procollagen type-1 synthesis and MMP-1 inhibition activity and found that arctiin had the highest activity in terms of both procollagen synthesis and MMP-1 inhibition among all four compounds. Putting all the data together, we suggest that arctiin be used in cosmetics as an anti-wrinkle material.
Lack of Cytotoxicity of the Colorant in Conjugated Linoleic Acid against Human Cancer and Normal Cells
Ji, Yu-Chul ; Ahn, Chae-Rin ; Seo, Yang-Gon ; Suh, Jeong-Se ; Kim, Jeong-Ok ; Ha, Yeong-Lae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1099~1106
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1099
The cytotoxicity of the colorant in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated in human cancer cell lines and a normal human cell line. Commercially-available CLA with a brown color (designate crude CLA; c-CLA) was distilled in a vacuum (10 mmHg-
, 10 mmHg-
, 10 mmHg-
, and 20 mmHg-
) for 30 min to obtain pure CLA (distilled CLA; d-CLA) and dark brown-colored CLA (residual CLA; r-CLA) samples. No color intensity was shown in the d-CLA sample obtained under 10 mmHg-
conditions of distillation when the L (brightness), a (red/blue), and b (yellow/green) parameters were analyzed, whereas the r-CLA sample showed a dark brown color. The composition of CLA isomers in both the d- and r-CLA samples, as compared to that of the c-CLA sample, was not significantly different when analyzed by gas chromatography. When the cytotoxicity of the r-CLA and d-CLA samples obtained under 10 mmHg-
conditions were compared against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human lung cancer cells (A-549), human colon cancer cells (HT-29), human prostate cancer cells (PC-3), and human neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH), no significant cytotoxicity was seen in the cell lines. These results suggest that the color or colorant in the CLA samples did not have any effects on the proliferation of human cancer and normal cells and imply that the colorant in commercially available CLA samples is safe for human consumption.
Effect of Pueraria thunbergiana Extracts on the Activation of Immune Cells
Kim, Jong-Jin ; Lee, Hyeok-Jae ; Yee, Sung-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1107~1113
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1107
In this experiment, the effects of Pueraria thunbergiana extracts on the activation of immune cells were studied. An immune cell-activating factor was partially purified from P. thunbergiana by means of physiological saline extraction, acetone precipitation, and heating inactivation. P. thunbergiana extracts increased the proliferation of spleen cells and induced the production of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-
, and IFN-
by spleen cells. Also, they increased the proliferation of purified B cells and the production of IgM antibody in a dose-dependent fashion. The extract self-induced NO synthesis in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). When cell lines were treated with extracts, the cytokines' (IL-
, IL-6, and TNF-
) production was markedly increased. Therefore, P. thunbergiana extract can self-activate spleen cells, B cells, and macrophages. These results might be useful in further studies into a possible immune-activating agent derived from P. thunbergiana for the development of functional foods and drugs.
Establishment of PCR Conditions for the Identification of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolated from Boar Semen and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of the Isolates
Jung, Byeong-Yeal ; Park, Bum-Soo ; Kim, Ha-Young ; Byun, Jae-Won ; Kim, Ae-Ran ; Jeon, Albert Byung-Yun ; Kim, In-Cheul ; Chung, Ki-Hwa ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1114~1119
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1114
Bacteria are frequently contaminated during the collection and processing procedures of boar semen. Of the contaminants, Stenotrophomonas (S.) maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium that is widely distributed in a variety of habitats. Although PCR assays have been developed for the detection of S. maltophilia, they cross-react with some species of Xanthomonas. In this study, we designed a primer set for the detection of S. maltophilia in order to target the chiA (GenBank accession no. NC_010943) gene. The specific PCR products were amplified from S. maltophilia only, not from other tested strains that are frequently found in semen. The detection limit of the PCR was
CFU/ml with pure-cultured S. maltophilia and
CFU/ml with S. maltophilia spiked in semen. Twenty-six (5.9%) S. maltophilia were isolated from 440 semen samples. The PCR results exhibited 98.9% agreement with a comparison of S. maltophilia isolation. Also, the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR were 100% and 98.7%, respectively. In the antimicrobial susceptibility test, S. maltophilia isolates were highly susceptible to enrofloxacin and florfenicol, while the majority of them were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, apramycin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and spectinomycin. These results indicated that the PCR using the chiA gene was proven to be reliable and effective for the detection of S. maltophilia with high levels of sensitivity and specificity.
Phylogenetic and Chemical Analyses of Cirsium pendulum and Cirsium setidens Inhabiting Korea
Yoo, Sun-Kyun ; Bae, Young-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1120~1125
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1120
Cirsium pendulum plants were collected from Hongcheon, Pyeongchang, Wonju, Yangyang in Kangwondo, Gapyeong in Gyeongkido, and Choongju in Choongcheongbukdo. Cirsium setidens plants were collected from Taebaek in Kangwondo and Bonghwa in Kyeongsangbukdo. Genomic DNA was prepared from those plants and used for the amplification of 18S rDNA, ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2, and part of 28S rDNA. The PCR products were sequenced, and the sequence was deposited in the GenBank. The comparison of those sequences has revealed that the rDNA sequences are identical for all six C. pendulum plants, but that the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences contain variable nucleotides. The two C. setidens plants had different nucleotides in 18S rDNA, ITS1, and ITS2. The comparison of the DNA sequences of C. pendulum and C. setidens collected in this study with C. pendulum of Hokkaido in Japan and C. japonicum of Anhui in China indicated that the plants of those three species are clearly divided into three distinct groups. The silymarin content of the collected plants was analyzed and turned out to be quite high. Therefore, it has been found that both C. pendulum and C. setidens plants are producing large amounts of silymarin, which has been reported to have various medicinal effects.
Effect of Trans-unsaturated Fatty Acid on Serum Lipid Levels in Mice
Yu, Sun-Nyoung ; Ahn, Jeong-Bin ; Park, Eun-Young ; Lee, Sun-Jung ; Tak, Min-Gi ; Kim, Kwang-Youn ; Kim, Sang-Hun ; Kim, Ki-Dae ; Ahn, Soon-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1126~1131
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1126
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-unsaturated fatty acid (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA) and general unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) on serum lipid levels in ICR mice. Male ICR 8-week-old mice were divided into six groups; the control group (C) fed with normal diet, the TFA-1 group fed with 10% trans-unsaturated fatty acid, the TFA-2 group fed with 30% trans-unsaturated fatty acid, the TFA-3 group fed with 50% trans-unsaturated fatty acid, the SFA group fed with 50% saturated fatty acid, and USFA group fed with 50% general unsaturated fatty acid. The serum total cholesterol of TFA-3 and SFA was higher than those of other fat groups and C. The serum triglyceride (TG) of TFA-3 and SFA showed the highest levels among all of diet groups. Also the serum HDL cholesterol levels of TFA-3 showed the lowest. LDL cholesterol and atherogenic indices (AI) were remarkedly increased in TFA-3 and SFA, as compared with other fat fed groups and C. Taken together with results, the TFA-3 group showed serum lipid levels similar to the SFA and different from the USFA. These results suggest that intake of high level of trans-unsaturated fatty acid increased serum triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and atherogenic indices, which may affect risk on serum lipid level for lipid metabolism syndrome.
Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response by the Immobilization Stress
Kwon, Ki-Sang ; Kwon, Young-Sook ; Kim, Seung-Whan ; Kim, Dong-Woon ; Kwon, O-Yu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 22, issue 8, 2012, Pages 1132~1136
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2012.22.8.1132
Many kind of cell stresses induce gene expression of unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated factors. This study demonstrated that up- and down-regulation of gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperones and ER stress sensors was induced by immobilization stress in the rat organs (adrenal gland, liver, lung, muscle). However, no statistically significant regulation was detected in the others (heart, spleen, thymus, kidney, testis). The results are the first to show that immobilization stress induces UPR associated gene expression, will help to explain immobilization stress-associated ER stress.