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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2013
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2013
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2013
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2013
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2013
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2013
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Jun 2013
Volume 23, Issue 5 - May 2013
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Apr 2013
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Mar 2013
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Feb 2013
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Selected Vegetable Seeds and Plant-Pathogenic Microorganisms
Bae, Young-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1415~1419
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1415
Electron beam (EB) irradiation was tested to determine the dose required to eradicate plant pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, from the infected seeds without affecting the germination rate of the irradiated vegetable seeds, including crown daisy, cucumber, hot pepper, green onion, leaf lettuce, and radish seeds. EB irradiation of 1.5 kGy and 2 kGy was sufficient to kill 100% of hairy root disease bacteria and gray mold conidia, respectively. EB irradiation showed no effect or minimal effect on the germination rate of the crown daisy, cucumber, green onion, and radish seeds. However, the germination rate of the hot pepper and leaf lettuce seeds was significantly reduced by using 2 kGy of EB irradiation. Difference in susceptibility to EB irradiation appears not to be related to the weight of each seed, but to the intrinsic characteristic of each plant. Conclusively, EB irradiation might be a useful way to decontaminate crown daisy, cucumber, green onion, and radish seeds.
Synergistic Effect of Acetylalginate Esterase and Alginate Lyase on the Degradation of Acetylalginate from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 39324
Kim, Hee Sook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1420~1427
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1420
A novel acetylalginate esterase (AcAlgE) gene was previously cloned and characterized from Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3. In this study, the synergistic effects of MJ-3 AcAlgE, and KS-408 alginate lyase on the degradation of acetylalginate from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated by using high-field 1H-NMR and an FPLC-equipped peptide column. The alginate lyase coupled assay of AcAlgE showed that degradation of high molecular weight acetylalginate was more difficult than degradation of acid hydrolyzed acetylalginate. The degradation of acetylalginate by alginate lyase was easier after AcAlgE was used to remove the acetyl group from acetylalginate. This result showed that the recombinant AcAlgE enhanced the degradation of acetylalginate by alginate lyase.
Effect of Oenanthe javanica Ethanolic Extracts on Antioxidant Activity and Melanogenesis in Melanoma Cells
Kwon, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Moon-Moo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1428~1435
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1428
The aim of this study is to investigate the melanogenic effect of Oenanthe javanica ethanolic extracts (OJE) containing quercetin and kaempferol in melanoma cells (B16F1). In order to determine whether OJE inhibits melanin synthesis at the cellular level, the melanoma cells were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of OJE. In the present study, the antioxidant effects of OJE on DPPH radical scavenging, power reduction, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation were evaluated in a cell free system. Furthermore, the effect of OJE on the production of melanin was determined by dopaquinone (DOPA) assay and tyrosinase activity. In addition, the protein expression of tyrosinase, as well as antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, SOD-2 and glutathione reductase (GSH), were examined using Western blot analysis. In this study, it was observed that OJE exhibited an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation and blocked the DNA oxidation induced by the hydroxyl radical produced by Fenton`s reagent. OJE increased melanin synthesis above 50
and tyrosinase activity was detected above 50
. In Western blot analysis, OJE increased the expression levels of tyrosinase, SOD-1, SOD-2, and GSH in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that OJE with antioxidant activity can regulate the tyrosinase activity and melanin production in melanocyte, suggesting that it could promote the development of black hair as well as protect skin from oxidative stress.
Effect of Black Garlic and Herb Formulas on Lipid Profiles and Antioxidant Status in Rats by Interval Running Training
Lee, Soo Jung ; Kim, In Sung ; Lee, Hye Jin ; Oh, Soo Jeong ; Shin, Jung Hye ; Kim, Jeong Gyun ; Sung, Nak Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1436~1444
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1436
To improve the functionality of black garlic drinks, black garlic extract (5%) and five herb extracts (1%) were mixed in 70:30 (v/v) ratios as BHF1, and BHF2 was prepared using a 3X concentration of BHF1. After the black garlic and herb formulas (BHFs) were administered over the course of five weeks in rats by interval running training, the lipid profiles and the antioxidant enzyme activities were tested. The total phenolic content of the BHFs were significantly higher in BHF2 than they were in BHF1, and their antioxidant activities were dependent upon the total phenolic content. No significant difference was found in the total serum protein levels among the rats in the Ex-con group by interval running training and the rats in the BHFs-fed groups. However, the albumin level was significantly higher in the Ex-BHF2 to Ex-con group. AST and ALT activities significantly decreased in the BHFs-fed groups compared to the Ex-con group. In terms of changes in the serum lipid profiles, no significant difference was found between the specimens that underwent interval running training and those that did not undergo interval running training. Triglyceride levels, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HTR levels in the serum were significantly decreased in the Ex-BHF2 to Ex-con group. No significant difference was found in the total lipid levels in the livers of the BHFs-fed groups and the Ex-con group. The triglyceride levels and total cholesterol levels in the Ex-BHF2 group were significantly lower compared to another group. Hepatic catalase activity was significantly increased in the Ex-BHF2 group, but SOD and GSH-px activities were significantly increased as the concentration of the BHF. The antioxidant enzyme activities by supplementation of BHFs increased; thus, three intakes of BHF each day could improve antioxidant status against different types of oxidative stress.
Down-regulation of Tyrosinase, MITF, TRP-1, and TRP-2 Expressions by Juniperus rigida Sieb. in Murine B16F10 Melanoma
Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Jun, Hye-Ji ; Lee, In-Chul ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1445~1453
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1445
Human skin is constantly exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, polluted air, and chemical products. UV rays, in particular, will affect the skin in a variety of ways, including causing wrinkles, fine lines, rough skin, and xeroderma, thereby resulting in skin aging. This study aimed to investigate the whitening effects of Juniperus rigida Sieb., which is a cedar tree that is found throughout the world. The whitening efficacy that was measured by tyrosinase inhibition revealed 49.4% efficacy in water extract and 80.0% efficacy in ethanol extract. Among the B16F10 black cells, the effect of the ethanol extract was higher than the effect of the water extract in the restrain creation of melanin pigment, tyrosinase, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2). Thus, the results of these studies demonstrated that the ethanol extract had greater efficacy than the water extract and Juniperus rigida Sieb. Ethanol extracts could be utilized as materials for functional cosmetics, such as whitening products.
Effects of Water Temperature and Estradiol-17β on the Sex Ratio and Growth of the Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica
Kim, Dae-Jung ; Lee, Nam-Sil ; Kim, Shin-Kown ; Lee, Bae-Ik ; Seong, Ki-Baik ; Kim, Kyung-Kil ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1454~1459
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1454
This study investigated the effects that water temperature and the administration of estradiol-17
(E2) had on the sex ratio and growth of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Glass eels (total length
6.5 cm) were differentiated into an E2 group and an E2-free group and then they were reared for about four months at three water temperature levels of
. The results showed that the young eels survived normally at the rearing water temperature of
, and grew to a mean size of 20 cm (total length). In the E2-free group, temperature was not found to increase the sex ratio (feminizing rates); however, the sex ratio of the E2-administrated group was found to be a little higher at a high temperature (
). The growth of the E2 group was lower than the growth of the E2-free group at
and the E2 concentration levels in the plasma at
were found to be significant after the end of the E2 administration period (178 days). Therefore, we thought that long-term administration of E2 must be considered to be the reason for growth decline in spite of the prominent sex ratio effect. Our results indicate that temperature was not related to an increase in the feminizing rate (sex ratio) in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, and other environmental factors (rearing density, salinity, etc.) that have the possibility of inducing ovarian differentiation must be investigated.
Anticoagulant and Fibrinolytic Activities of Hwanggeumchal Sorghum In Vitro
Kim, Min Soo ; Oh, In Taek ; Jun, Do Youn ; Lee, Ji Young ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ; Kwak, Do Yeon ; Seo, Myung Chul ; Woo, Koan Sik ; Ko, Jee Yeon ; Jung, Tae Wook ; Nam, Min Hee ; Woo, Mi Hee ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1460~1470
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1460
To examine whether miscellaneous cereal grains have an antithrombotic effect, we investigated the anticoagulant activity of 80% ethanol extracts from eleven selected miscellaneous cereal grains. The 80% ethanol extract of hwanggeumchal sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) showed the highest anticoagulant activity, followed by that of green foxtail millet grains, in terms of thrombin time (TT). When the ethanol extract of hwanggeumchal sorghum was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, the majority of the TT-inhibitory activity was detected in the hexane and methylene chloride fractions. Whereas aspirin (final conc. 480
) prolonged TT by 2-fold, the ethanol extract, hexane fraction, and methylene chloride fraction in the same dose prolonged TT by 2.2-fold, 2.9-fold, and 2.5-fold, respectively. The ethanol extract of hwanggeumchal sorghum could delay activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) as well as prothrombin time (PT). Although the APTT-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was mainly partitioned into the hexane and methylene chloride fractions, the PT-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was solely partitioned into the hexane fraction. The APTT- and PT-inhibitory activities of these organic solvent fractions were more potent than those of the control warfarin (final conc. 3.13 mg/ml). The TT-inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was heat-stable and acid-stable. The ethanol extract, hexane fraction, and methylene chloride fraction of hwanggeumchal sorghum appeared to possess a direct fibrinolytic activity toward fibrin clotting. These results show that hwanggeumchal sorghum can exert anticoagulant and fibrinolytic effects and, thus, have the potential to be applicable as antithrombotic dietary sources.
Analysis of an Immobilized β-Galactosidase Reactor with Competitive Product Inhibition Kinetics
Kang, Byung Chul ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1471~1476
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1471
The present study deals with the immobilization of Kluyveromyces lactis
-galactosidase on a weak ionic exchange resin (Duolite A568) as polymer support.
-Galactosidase was immobilized using the adsorption method. A kinetic study of the immobilized enzyme was performed in a packed-bed reactor. The adsorption of the enzyme followed a typical Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The adsorption parameters of k and n were 14.6 and 1.74, respectively. The initial rates method was used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized enzymes. The Michaelis-Menten constant (
) for the immobilized enzyme (120 mM) was higher than it was for the free enzyme (79 mM). The effect of competitive inhibition kinetics was studied by changing the concentration of galactose in a recycling packed-bed reactor. The kinetic model with competitive inhibition by galactose was best fitted to the experimental results with
values of 46.3
, 120 mM, and 24.4 mM, respectively. In a continuous packed-bed reactor, increasing the flow rate of the lactose solution decreased the conversion efficiency of lactose at different input lactose concentrations. Continuous operation of 11 days was conducted to investigate the stability of a long-term operation. The retained activity of the immobilized enzymes was 63% and the half-life of the immobilized enzyme was found to be 15 days.
Changes in Meat Quality and Natural Di-peptides in the Loin and Ham Cuts of Korean Native Black Pigs during Cold Storage
Kim, Dongwook ; Gil, Juae ; Kim, Hee-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Park, Beom-Young ; Lee, Sung-Ki ; Jang, Aera ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1477~1485
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1477
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the meat quality and natural di-peptide (carnosine and anserine) content in the loin and ham cuts of female, Korean Native Black Pigs (KNBP) during cold storage for 10 days. The pH value of the loin and the ham cuts increased with an increase in the number of storage days. The lightness (
) of the loin cuts did not show any significant difference; however, the lightness of the ham cuts was decreased at storage day 10 (p<0.05). The redness (
) of the ham was higher than the redness of the loin (p<0.05) during the entire 10-days of storage. The water holding capacity of the loin was decreased from 78.5% to 67.9% during storage (p<0.05). The total number of microorganisms and coliforms was increased in both the loin and the ham during storage, and the initial total microbial contamination was higher in the ham cut (5.16 log CFU/g) than it was in the loin cut (4.87 log CFU/g). The carnosine content of the loin and the ham was in the range of 1.12-1.35 mg/ml and no significant difference was found between those two pork cuts. The anserine content of the ham cut was higher than it was in the loin cut until storage day 3. The ratio of carnosine and anserine increased with an increase in the number of storage days and it ranged from 27.6-59.7 for the loin cut and from 20.1-51.2 for the ham cut. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the loin and the ham cuts significantly decreased as the number of storage days increased. For both types of KNBP cuts, lipid oxidation and volatile basic nitrogen significantly increased after storage day 5. These results found that natural antioxidants carnosine and anserine decreased as the number of storage days increased, and anserine decreased more rapidly than carnosine (p<0.05).
Protease Properties of Protease-Producing Bacteria Isolated from the Digestive Tract of Octopus vulgaris
Liu, Qing ; Ren, Pei ; Piao, Meizi ; Yang, Ji-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1486~1494
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1486
A high protease-producing strain was isolated and identified from the digestive tract of octopus vulgaris by detecting a hydrolysis circle of protease and its activity. The strain was identified by morphology observation, biochemical experiments, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The protease obtained from the strain was purified by a three-step process involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, carboxy methyl-cellulose (CM-52) cation-exchange chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex A50 anion-exchange chromatography. The properties of protease were characterized as well. The strain Bacillus sp. QDV-3, which produced the highest activity of protease, was isolated. On the basis of the phenotypic and biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, the isolate was identified as follows: domain: Bacteria; phylum: Firmicutes; class: Bacilli; order: Bacillales; family: Bacillaceae; and genus: Bacillus. The isolate was shown to have a 99.2% similarity with Bacillus flexus. A high active protease designated as QDV-E, with a molecular weight of 61.6 kDa, was obtained. The enzyme was found to be active in the pH range of 9.0-9.5 and its optimum temperature was
. The protease activity retained more than 96% at the temperature of
for 60 min. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) inhibited the enzyme activity, thus confirming that this protease isolated from Bacillus sp. QDV-3 is an alkaline serine protease. Metal ions,
, were determined to enhance the protease activity, whereas
were found to inactivate the enzyme.
Effects of Hizikia fusiforme Fractions on Melanin Synthesis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells
Choi, Eun Ok ; Kim, Hyang Suk ; Han, Min Ho ; Choi, Yung Hyun ; Park, Cheol ; Kim, Byung Woo ; Hwang, Hye Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1495~1500
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1495
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-melanogenic effects of Hizikia fusiforme (HF) fractions in
-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Ethanol extractions of Hizikia fusiforme (EEHF) were subjected to fraction by using dichloromethane (CFHF), ethyl acetate (EAFHF), butanol (BFHF), and water (WFHF). EEHF, CFHF, and EAFHF inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. The melanin contents were inhibited by 40.5% and 33.2% in response to treatment with 50
of EEHF and CFHF, respectively. In addition, tyrosinase activities showed a 53.3% and 54.1% reduction in treatment with 50
of EEHF and CFHF. Western blotting analysis showed that EEHF, CFHF, and EAFHF inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, and MITF expression in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these findings indicate that ethanol and dichloromethane fractions of Hizikia fusiforme, which inhibit melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, are effective skin-whitening agents.
The Effect of Ishige okamurae Extracts on Antioxidant Activity and Serum Lipid Content in Ovariectomized Rats
Kim, Bokyung ; Kim, Mihyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1501~1508
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1501
This study investigated antioxidant activity and the lipid content of serum for the possible outcome of improving the activity of Ishige okamurae extracts in ovariectomized rats. The antioxidant effects of an Ishige okamurae water extract and an Ishige okamurae ethanol extract were measured by evaluating DPPH free radical scavenging activity and SOD-like activity. Fifty, seven-week old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: sham-operated rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats (OVX-CON), ovariectomized rats that were treated with 17-beta-estradiol (200
), and ovariectomized rats that were treated with Ishige okamurae extracts (50 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively). The diets were fed to the rats for seven weeks after ovariectomy. The antioxidant activities of the water and ethanol extracts of Ishige okamurae increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the ethanol extract was found to be higher than the water extract. Therefore, we examined the effect of an Ishige okamurae ethanol extract on total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels, and anti-platelet aggregation. The total-cholesterol and triglyceride content of the serum increased in the OVX-CON group compared to the SHAM group, but supplementation with the Ishige okamurae ethanol extract caused these factors to decrease. Notably, the serum LDL-cholesterol concentration in the supplemented 200 mg/kg/day Ishige okamurae ethanol extract group was significantly more reduced than it was in the OVX-CON group. In addition, the platelet aggregation ability was lower in the groups treated with Ishige okamurae than it was in the OVX-CON group. According to these results, the effects of Ishige okamurae extract on serum lipid content in ovariectomized rats were illuminated.
Effects of High-fat Diet on Type-I Muscle Loss in Rats
Baek, Kyung-Wan ; Cha, Hee-Jae ; Park, Jung-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1509~1515
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1509
The term lipotoxicity has been used to describe how excess lipid accumulation leads to cellular dysfunction and death in non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle. While lipotoxicity has been found in cultured skeletal muscle cells with high-fat feeding, the consequences of lipotoxicity in vivo are still unknown, particularly in Type-I muscle, which is metabolically affected by lipotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet on changes in the morphology and apoptotic protein expression of Type-I muscle loss in rats. The rats were fed either a high-fat diet or a normal diet for six weeks, and then lipid accumulation, inflammation response, and nucleus infiltration were measured, and PARP protein expression was cleaved by Oil Red O staining, H & E staining, and Western blot, respectively. Lipid accumulation, inflammation response, nucleus infiltration, and cleaved PARP protein expression were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the high-fat diet group than they were in the normal diet group. The weight of Type-I muscle tended to be lower in the high-fat diet group compared to the normal diet group, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that a high-fat diet triggers cell death in Type-I muscle via lipotoxicity, which suggests that a high-fat diet may be associated with sarcopenia.
Anti-melanogenesis in B16F0 Melanoma Cells by Extract of Fermented Cordyceps militaris Containing High Cordycepin
Cha1, Jae-Young ; Kim, Sung-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1516~1524
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1516
To find a novel skin whitening agent, the effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris (CM
) extract fermented by fungi on anti-melanogenesis in B16F0 mouse melanoma cells was investigated. Fermented CM
was prepared with fungi, including Monascus purpureus (Mp), Aspergillus oryzae (Ao), Aspergillus kawachii (Ak), and Rhizopus oryzae (Ro), respectively. When the content of the phenolics and the flavonoids and the activities of the antioxidant and the mushroom tyrosinase inhibition were measured in the CM fermented by Ak (AkF-CM), the highest content of the phenolics was 46 mg/g dry weight and the highest content of the flavonoids was 0.93 mg/g; the highest activity of the DPPH radical scavenging was 62.74% and the highest activity of the mushroom tyrosinase inhibition was 79.97% CM
. From this result, AkF-CM
exhibited the highest mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity and so it was used in subsequent anti-melanogenesis. B16F0 melanoma cells were treated with 1-10 mg/ml concentrations of AkF-CM
arbutin as the positive control. The melanin content and cell viability of the melanoma cells by arbutin treatment decreased to 43% and 92% of the control, respectively. AkF-CM
treatment at 1, 3, and 5 mg/ml concentrations decreased the extracellular melanin release induced by IBMX treatment by 35%, 45%, and 53%, respectively. AkF-CM
showed inhibitory activity against both intracellular tyrosinase in melanoma cells and mushroom tyrosinase. AkF-CM
reduced the protein level of tyrosinase in the IBMX-stimulated cells. These results indicate that AkF-CM
suppressed the activity and protein content of cellular tyrosinase and decreased the total melanin content in cultured B16F0 melanoma cells.
Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity and Physiological Functionality of Baegilju
Cho, Young Ho ; Byun, Tae Kang ; Lee, Jong-Hwa ; Lee, Gye Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1525~1531
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1525
Baegilju is a famous traditional Korean wine made over the course of 100 days. The physiological functionalities of Baegilju were evaluated using different tests. The spectrophotometric method was used to determine the total concentration of polyphenolics and flavonoids and DPPH and ABTS radicals. A nitrite scavenging assay was used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The fibrin plate method was used for fibrinolysis and to evaluate angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity; finally, the colorimetric determination method was used to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The total polyphenolic content of non-sterilized Baegilju and sterilized Baegilju were 391.59
tannic acid equivalents/ml, respectively; and the flavonoids contents were 284.75
quercetin equivalents/ml, respectively. Baegilju exhibited more excellent antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS radicals, nitrite scavenging activity) than did Cheongju. In addition, the fibrinolytic activity and AChE inhibitory activity were found to be higher in Baegilju than they were in Cheongju. The ACE inhibitory activity of non-sterilized Baegilju, sterilized Baegilju, and Cheongju were 23.62%, 19.99%, and 38.91%, respectively. Therefore, these results suggest that Baegilju has potential as an antioxidant agent and anti-thrombosis agent.
Expression of Tbr2 in the Hippocampus Following Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus
Choi, Yun-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1532~1540
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1532
T-box transcription factor 2 (Tbr2) is a member of the T-box family of transcription factors and it plays an important role in brain development, progenitor cell proliferation, and the modulation of differentiation and function in immune cells, such as CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells. This study aims to elucidate the involvement of Tbr2 in the pathophysiological events following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice. Status epilepticus resulted in prominent neuronal cell death in discrete brain regions, such as CA3, the hilus, and the piriform cortex. Interestingly, when the immunoreactivity of Tbr2 was examined two days after status epilepticus, it was transiently increased in CA3 and in the piriform cortex. Tbr2-positive cells in CA3 and the piriform cortex were double-labeled with CD11b, a marker of microglia and a subset of white blood cells, such as monocytes, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer cells. Moreover, the double-labeled cells with Tbr2 and CD11b showed amoeboid morphology, and this data indicates that Tbr2-expressing cells may be reactive microglia or infiltrating white blood cells. Furthermore, clustered Tbr2-positive cells were observed in the platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1)-positive blood vessels near the CA3 area, which suggests that Tbr2-positive cells may be infiltrating the white blood cells. Based on this data, this study is the first to indicate the involvement of Tbr2 in neuropathophysiology in status epilepticus.
Lectin Histochemistry and Morphological Changes in von Ebner`s Glands in Rats after Glossopharyngeal or Hypoglossal Axotomy
Moon, Yong-Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1541~1552
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1541
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and secretory function of the von Ebner`s gland in parasympathetic or sympathetic nerve innervation. Sprague Dawley rats were sacrificed 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after bilateral glossopharyngeal or hypoglossal nerve axotomy, respectively. The circumvallate papilla portion of the tongue was dissected and we observed morphological changes in the von Ebner`s gland. The properties of glycoconjugate in the von Ebner`s gland were investigated using nine biotinylated lectins (PSA, UEA I, GSL I
, ECL, DBA, SBA, HPA, SJA, or sWGA). Compared with the control group, cytoplasmic vacuoles appeared in the serous acini of the von Ebner`s gland in the 3-day group, and the serous acini were significantly vacuolized and degenerated in the 10-day group after glossopharyngeal nerve axotomy. However, the structure of the von Ebner`s gland did not change after hypoglossal nerve axotomy. In the control group, the von Ebner`s glands secreted glycoconjugates containing
-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine oligomer, and the amount of the secretion decreased significantly in the 10-day group after glossopharyngeal nerve axotomy. However, the amount of the glycoconjugate secretion did not change after hypoglossal nerve axotomy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the glossopharyngeal nerve containing parasympathetic nerve fibers is important for maintaining the structure of and secretory function in the von Ebner`s gland in rats.
Effects of Citrus sunki Peel Extract on Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression
Han, Gu-Seul ; Lee, Sun-Ryung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1553~1556
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1553
Flavonoids are one of the major components found in the peels of citrus fruits. Present evidence has suggested that polymethoxyflavonoids, including nobiletin and tangeretin isolated from Citrus sunki, have many biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-obesity capabilities. Here, we investigated the effect of Citrus sunki peel extract and its possible mechanisms on oxidative stress-induced MMP-1 expression, a major marker of skin photoaging.
induced MMP-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Extract of Citrus sunki peel (1-25
) dose-dependently decreased MMP-1 mRNA levels. When
was combined with Citrus sunki peel extract, the phosphorylation of ERK was further decreased compared to a single treatment with
alone. Moreover, U0216, an MEK inhibitor, markedly prevented the production of MMP-1. These data suggest that Citrus sunki peel extract has demonstrated protective activity against oxidative damage on MMP-1 expression, and ERK MAP kinase may be involved.
Detection of Carbonic Anhydrase in the Gills of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Kim, Soo Cheol ; Choi, Kap Seong ; Kim, Jung Woo ; Choi, Myeong Rak ; Han, Kyeong Ho ; Lee, Won Kyo ; Kho, Kang Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 23, issue 12, 2013, Pages 1557~1561
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2013.23.12.1557
Carbonic anhydrase isozymes are a widespread, zinc-containing metalloenzyme family. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of
. This reaction is the main role played by CA enzymes in physiological conditions. This enzyme has been found in virtually all organisms, and at least 16 isozymes have been isolated in mammals. Unlike mammals, there is little information available regarding CA isozymes in the tissues of non-mammalian groups, such as fish. Carbonic anhydrase is very important in the osmotic and acid-base regulation in fish. It is well-known that the gills of fish play the most important role in acid-base relevant ion transfer, the transfer of
, for the maintenance of systemic pH. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, is the most important freshwater fish species in the aquaculture industry of Korea, with annual production increasing each year. In addition, environmental toxicology research has shown that rainbow trout is known to be the species that is most susceptible to environmental toxins. Consequently, carbonic anhydrase was detected in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The isolated protein showed the specific band with a molecular weight of 30 kDa and pI of 7.0, and it was identified as being carbonic anhydrase. The immunohistochemical result demonstrated that the carbonic anhydrase was located in the epithelial cells of the gills.