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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
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Anti-inflammatory Effect of Flavonoids Kaempferol and Biochanin A-enriched Extract of Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) Grains in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells
Lee, Ji Young ; Jun, Do Youn ; Yoon, Young Ho ; Ko, Jee Youn ; Woo, Koan Sik ; Woo, Mi Hee ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1157~1167
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1157
In order to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of five selected cereal grains-proso millet, hwanggeumchal sorghum, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, and adlay-the inhibitory activities of 80% ethanol (EtOH) extracts obtained from the individual grains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) generation were investigated in RAW264.7 cells. The EtOH extract of barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea) grains exhibited more potent anti-inflammatory activity than that of the other grains. When the EtOH extract of barnyard millet grains was sequentially fractionated with n-hexane, methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol, the majority of the anti-inflammatory activity was detected in the MC fraction, followed by the EtOAc fraction. Pretreatment with the MC fraction caused downregulation of the expression levels of iNOS- and COX-2-specific transcripts and proteins, as well as proinflammatory cytokine gene transcripts (IL-
, IL-6, and TNF-
) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Additionally, the MC fraction could suppress not only the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of cytosolic NF-kB, but also the LPS-induced activation of MAPKs, such as ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK. Further analysis of the MC fraction by HPLC identified kaempferol, biochanin A, and formononetin as the major phenolic components. Both kaempferol and biochanin A, but not formononetin, could exert anti-inflammatory effect at the same concentrations as those of the MC fraction. Consequently, these results indicate that kaempferol and biochanin A are among the most effective anti-inflammatory phenolic components in barnyard millet grains. This finding suggests that barnyard millet grains and the MC extract enriched in kaempferol and biochanin A could be beneficial functional food sources that have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Identification of a SNP in Cattle HGD Gene with its Effect on Economic Trait in Hanwoo
Han, Jung-Min ; Kong, Hong Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1168~1173
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1168
The homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene, which consists of 14 exons and spans approximately 42630bp on Bos taurus autosome 1 (BTA 1), is one of the six enzymes required for catabolism of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. It has been reported that BTA1 harbors quantitative trait loci that effect marbling score (MS), carcass weight (CW), and longissimus muscle area (LMA) in cattle. The aim of this study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HGD gene and to analyze their association with economic traits in Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Genetic polymorphisms were screened by direct sequencing, which detected 10 SNPs (T11187C, T11301A, T11398G, G29833A, G34256T, G34257C, T34284C, T42333G, T42348C, and T42468C). Six polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping, and economic traits were analyzed using a general linear model in Korean cattle (n=90). The observed genotype frequencies for G34256T were 0.5843(GG), 0.3708(GT), and 0.0449(TT). In addition, 0.3596(GG), 0.3708(GC), and 0.2697(CC) were observed for the G34257C mutation. Statistical association analysis revealed that G34256T polymorphisms were significantly associated with MS, and G34257C polymorphisms were significantly associated with MS and LMA (p<0.05). Further study is needed in order to use the genetic variant as a marker for marker-assisted selection in Korean cattle.
Genetic Variation in Mutants Induced by Gamma Ray in Hypsizigus marmoreus
Kim, Jong-Bong ; Yu, Dong-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1174~1179
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1174
This research was carried out to evaluate whether gamma ray is a useful tool for breeding new strains of mushrooms. For this research, 5 mutant groups, 20 strains of Hypsizigus marmoreus, 2 strains of Lyophyllum decastes, and 1 strain of Lyophyllum shimeji were used. Monokaryon spores from one variety of H. marmoreus were irradiated with 50~2,000 Gy of gamma ray. The propriety dose was 50~200 Gy for mutagenesis. Mutant monokaryon mycelia crossed each order to become dikaryon mycelia. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA were amplified using PCR, and the products were sequenced. The sequences of the ITS regions (16 partial rDNA, complete ITS1, 5.8 rDNA and partial rDNA) were analyzed by PCR, and strains of H. marmoreus, L. decastes, and L. shimeji were auto-sequenced. The lengths of the sequenced ITSs were 1,052~1,143 nucleotides. Genetic matrices were calculated using Nei-Li's genetic distance coefficient based on ITS sequence. The dissimilarities were 0~3.35% in strains of H. Hypsizigus. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on ITS sequences using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 23 strains and 5 mutant groups were divided into 12 clusters; the mutant groups fell into different clusters. These results show that mushroom spores were mutated effectively by gamma ray; therefore, gamma ray could be a useful tool for breeding new strains of mushrooms.
Differential Effects of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Autophagy-related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster
Kim, Hee Yeon ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Hwang, Ji Sun ; Lee, Won Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1180~1186
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1180
Autophagy, the lysosomal degradation pathway, is an intracellular recycling system that is necessary for the metabolic benefits of exercise and for producing lasting beneficial effects of exercise in various diseases. However, the most recent studies have only examined the effect of a single bout of exercise or resistance exercise on autophagic responses. To determine the differential effects of acute and chronic exercise on the expression of autophagy-related genes in D. melanogaster, white-eyed mutant D. melanogaster were assigned randomly to four groups: control, acute exercise, 2 hr chronic exercise, and 3 hr chronic exercise. The flies were exercised using a mechanized platform known as the Power Tower. Our results revealed that a single bout of exercise resulted in increased mRNA levels of the Atg8a gene (~20%, p<0.05). However, Atg1 and Atg6 mRNA expression were not induced by acute exercise. Transcript levels of Atg6 (~29%, p<0.05) related to the nucleation of autophagosomes were significantly induced by 2 hr of chronic exercise. However, this chronic exercise was not enough to increase Atg1 and Atg8a mRNA expression. On the other hand, 3 hr of exercise for 7 days significantly increased Atg1, Atg6, and Atg8a gene expression-about 57%, 37%, and 71%, respectively (p<0.05). These results suggest that a single bout of exercise is not enough to induce full activation of selected autophagy-related genes in D. melanogaster. Our results demonstrated that chronic regular exercise induced autophagy-related gene expression, suggesting that chronic regular exercise training might be required to activate autophagic responses important for producing beneficial effects of exercise in various diseases.
Analysis of Genes Expressed during Pepper-Phytophthora capsici Interaction using EST Technology
Kim, Dongyoung ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ; Choi, Woobong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1187~1192
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1187
Pepper, consumed as a typical spice food around world, is mainly cultivated in warm countries, including Korea, China, and Mexico. Phytophthora capsici is a pathogen on several economically important crops, including pepper. The oomycete attacks the roots, stems, leaves, and fruit of the host plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying development of the disease, the genes expressed during pepper-P. capsici interaction were explored by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from pepper leaves challenged with P. capsici for three days, resulting in an early stage of symptom development for comparable interaction. A comprehensive analysis of single-pass sequencing of 5,760 randomly selected cDNA clones extracted 5,148 high-quality entries for contig assembly, which generated 2,990 unigenes. A homology search of the unigenes with BLASTX resulted in 2,409 matches, of which 606 showed classified functional catalogs.
Antioxidant Activity of Chestnut (Castanea crenata S.et Z.) bur Fermented by Lactobacillus casei
Jun, Dong Ha ; Cho, Woo-A ; Lee, Jae Bong ; Jang, Min Jung ; You, Mi Suk ; Park, Jung Youl ; Kim, Sea Hyun ; Lee, Jin Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1193~1199
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1193
The aim of this study was to show the antioxidant properties of chestnut (Castanea crenata) bur extracts fermented by Lactobacillus casei. The chestnut has been used as a cosmetic material in Korea for many years. This study showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were inhibited by the fermentation materials of chestnut bur extracts. The antioxidant activities were analyzed and expressed as EDA, ABTS, reducing power, SOD-like activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, and nitric oxide scavenging ability. The antioxidant activities of fermentation materials from L. casei of chestnut bur extracts were higher than those of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and ascorbic acid (AA). Therefore, we expect that fermentation materials from L. casei of chestnut bur extracts are valuable resources as natural antioxidants and functional cosmetics ingredients.
Protective Effects of Crude Mucin and Saponin from Dioscorea Rhizoma on Gastric Ulcer Induced by Alcohol in Rats
Park, Young Mi ; Lim, Jae Hwan ; Jeong, Hyung Jin ; Seo, Eul Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1200~1208
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1200
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crude mucin and saponin from Dioscorea Rhizoma on acute gastric ulcers in rats. The gastric ulcer group (GU group) and mucin-applied group (DR-M group) exhibited serious bleeding of the mucous membrane of the stomach due to the ulcers, as well as blood congestion for three days. The saponin-applied group (DR-S group) exhibited less mucous membrane bleeding, and reddened and inflamed membranes recovered dramatically within 24 hours. After developing an acute pgastric ulcer, the tissues of the stomach, intestine, and liver in the control group and the DR-M group exhibited edema in the submucous membrane, as well as serious bleeding. However, the DR-S group recovered quickly from mucous membrane bleeding due to gastric ulcer. The DR-M group did not show any notable changes in serum formation or activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the GU rats. Increased AST and ALT activities were detected from the first day with saponin application in the gastric ulcer rats. As the AST and ALT activities decreased, the gastric ulcers recovered with the increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Accordingly, this study suggest that mucin in Dioscorea Rhizomahas no effect on the recovery of damaged stomachs due to gastric ulcers, but saponin is mainly responsible for decreasing tissue damage by activating antioxidant enzymes.
Antihyperlipidemic Activities of a Chemically Engineered Sulfated Mushroom β-glucan on High Fat Dietary-induced Hyperlipidemia in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Kim, Yong Hyun ; Han, Kook-Il ; Jeon, Miae ; Hwang, Seon Gu ; Jung, Eui-Gil ; Kwon, Hyun-Jung ; Han, Man-Deuk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1209~1216
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1209
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water-soluble sulfated
-glucan (SBG) obtained from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia on the antihyperlipidemic and serum lipid levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for two weeks to induce obesity. They were ten divided into five groups-normal control diet group (NC), high-fat control diet group (HC), high-fat diet and 200 mg/kg of SBG group (HC-HSBG), high-fat diet and 20 mg/kg of SBG group (HC-LSBG), and high-fat diet and 20 mg/kg of lovastatin group (HC-Lov)-and fed one of five diets for two more weeks. Although food intake and final body weight after four weeks of SBG consumption were similar in the five experimental groups, food efficiency ratio was higher in the high-fat diet groups(2, 3, 4, and 5) than in the NC group. In evaluating the hematological parameters of the rats, the neutrophil and monocyte ratios were higher in the HC-HSBG, HC-LSBG, and HC-Lov groups than in the HC group. Serum lipid profiles were analyzed after a 12 hr fast at the end of the study. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly lower in the HC-HSBG and HC-LSBG groups than in the HC group. These results suggest that chemically engineered sulfated mushroom
-glucan (SBG) might contribute to lower cholesterol and lipid levels in blood.
Antioxidant Activities of Solvent Extracts from Rosa multiflora
Yeo, Jin Sil ; Chun, Sung Sik ; Choi, Jeong Hwa ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1217~1223
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1217
This study was attempted to investigate antioxidant activities of water and ethanol extract from Rosa multiflora (RM) by in vitro assays measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-di-2-ethyl-benzthiazoline sulphonate (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power activity, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity, total phenol and total flavonoid content. The water and ethanol extracts from RM scavenged the DPPH radical and ABTS radical in a dose-dependent manner at the concentration range from 10 to
. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of water extract was higher than that of ethanol extract.
of DPPH radical scavenging activity of water and ethanol extract were
. The reducing power activity of water extract was higher than that of ethanol extract. The nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity of the RM extract was similar to their DPPH radical scavenging activity.
of ABTs radical scavenging activity of water and ethanol extract was
. The reducing power activity of water extract (0.775) was higher than that of ethanol extract (0.568). Total phenolic content of water extract (140.74 mg/g) was higher than that of the ethanol extracts (37.83 mg/g). Total flavonoid content of water extract (45.31 mg/g) was higher than that of the ethanol extracts (42.68 mg/g). This results suggest that water extract of RM may be useful as potential antioxidant sources.
Antiadipogenic Effects of Red Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Sprout Extract in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Kim, Da Hye ; Kim, Sang Jun ; Jeong, Seung-Il ; Cheon, Chun Jin ; Kim, Seon-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1224~1230
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1224
The red radish (Raphanus sativus L.; RR) sprout is a plant of the cruciferous family. In this study, we elucidated the effect of the water extract of RR sprout (RRSE) against
-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase enzyme activity and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase enzyme activity was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by RRSE treatment. RSSE also abolished adipocyte differentiation and lipid and triglyceride accumulation without cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, RRSE modulated the expression of the proteins related to adipogenic transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)
, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), and CCAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)
. RRSE also suppressed expression of the proteins responsible for lipid synthesis, transport, and storage: adiponectin, fatty acid synthesis (FAS), perilipin, and fatty acid bind protein-4 (FABP4). This study showed that RRS treatment has the potential to inhibit obesity by controlling the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and adipogenic proteins.
Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus strains Isolated from Kimchi
Choi, Hye Jung ; Lim, Bo Ram ; Kim, Dong Wan ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ; Joo, Woo Hong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1231~1237
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1231
The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and functional properties of four potential probiotic strains isolated from Kimchi, traditional Korean fermented vegetables. Based on being higher tolerance to bile salts and showing higher acid resistance or hydrophobic properties, one Lactobacillus arizonensis strain (BCNU 9032) and three L. brevis strains (BCNU 9037, BCNU 9098 and BCNU 9101) were selected in the screening experiment. All strains can survived up to 99% after 3h culture in pH 2.5 and resistant to 1% bile salts. These strains also showed good antimicrobial activities against a number of food borne pathogens, especially against Escherichia coli and Shigella sonnei. The ability to lower cholesterol levels of L. arizonensis BCNU 9032 and L. brevis 9037 were demonstrated by bile salt hydrolytic activity and cholesterol assimilation tests. Moreover, L. brevis BCNU 9098 and BCNU 9101 showed higher adherence to Caco-2 cells (12.76 and 11.86%, respectively) than Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a commercial probiotic strain used worldwide. The results suggest that these strains could be used as probiotics.
Comparison of MicroRNA Expression in Placenta-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bone Marrow-derived Stem Cells
Kim, Soo Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1238~1243
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1238
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used as cellular therapeutic agents. They have their own characteristic stemness, and thus, they can be used in the treatment of many chronic diseases and in anticancer therapy. MSC therapy has many advantages over chemical therapy. MSC therapy is based on self or homogeneous origin; as such, it is expected to be effective in the treatment of various diseases. In addition, microRNAs in particular have been studied for their structure and function, and they are also expected to prove effective for use as therapeutic agents in cancer or chronic diseases. MicroRNAs are largely associated with metabolism and homeostasis. Therefore, over- or under-expression of microRNAs leads to chronic diseases. Conversely, effective control of the expression of specific microRNAs reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. However, there have been no reports thus far on the synergistic effects of MSCs and microRNAs. Therefore, in this study, we examined the relationship between MSCs and microRNAs using placenta-derived MSCs (PDSCs), bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs), and fibroblast (WI-38) cells. We studied the expression of some microRNAs in MSCs and compared the expression in each cell line and cell passage. As a result, we found that the expression of microRNA-34a was higher in PDSCs than in BM-MSCs and that the expression of microRNA-27a, 33a, 33b, and 211 was higher in BM-MSCs than in PDSCs. Therefore, we expect that each MSC line will be used as cell therapy, considering its expressed functional microRNA.
Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum on the Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis in HCT-116 Human Colon Cancer Cells
Hong, Su Hyun ; Park, Cheol ; Han, Min Ho ; Kim, Hong Jae ; Lee, Moon Hee ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1244~1251
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1244
Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) has been known to possess many biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy activity and anti-obesity and hyperlipidemia effects. However, little research has been conducted regarding its anticancer effects, with the exception of its ability to stimulate apoptosis in skin cells. There has also been no study regarding PG-induced autophagy. The modulation of autophagy is recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. Depending on the type of cancer and the context, autophagy can suppress or help cancer cells to overcome metabolic stress and the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether or not extracts from PG-induced cell death were connected with autophagy and apoptosis in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. PG stimulation decreased cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis, which was partially dependent on the activation of caspases. PG treatment also resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles simultaneously with regulation of autophagy-related genes. Interestingly, a PG-mediated apoptotic effect was further triggered by pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenin and bafilomycin A1. However, cell viability recovered quite well with bafilomycin A1 treatment. These findings show that PG treatment promotes both autophagy and apoptosis and that PG-induced autophagic response might play a role in the autophagic cell death of HCT-116 cells.
Effects of Acetamide and Lactamide on the Viability of Frozen-thawed Mammalian Cells
Kim, Hyun ; Cho, Young Moo ; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu ; Seong, Hwan-Hoo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1252~1257
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1252
While dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the most commonly used cryoprotectant agent in the cryopreservation of cultured mammalian cells, it has been reported to cause differentiation of some cell lines by DNA methylation and associated histone modifications. To avoid the side effects of DMSO in cryopreservation, other agents might be more appropriate for maintaining the stable differentiation of cultured cell phenotypes through cryopreservation. All cryoprotectants should be highly soluble in water and display low cell toxicity. Cryoprotective agents have been shown to be effective in animal sperm preservation, and eight types of amides were examined in the cryopreservation of cultured mouse endothelial cells. Among the amides examined, acetamide and lactamide were effective cryoprotectants for cultured mammalian cells. The most effective concentration of lactamide, 1.5 M, had an even lower cryoprotective ability than 1M DMSO. Because successful cryopreservation of cultured cells is hampered by osmotic stress, the adequate ionic concentration was determined by diluting phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in the 1.5M lactamide solution. The most effective concentration was
, which minimized osmotic stress during the cryopreservation of cultured cells. As the addition of high molecular weight materials in cryopreservation media improves the viability of cells, the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA), hydroxyethyl-starch (HES), and dextran were examined. The best combination of lactamide-based media for cryopreservation was found to be 1.5 M lactamide in
with 1% BSA.
Development of an Economic-trait Genetic Marker by Applying Next-generation Sequencing Technologies in a Whole Genome
Gim, Jeong-An ; Kim, Heui-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 11, 2014, Pages 1258~1267
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.11.1258
Developing economic traits with a high growth rate, robustness, and disease resistance in livestock is an important challenge. RFLP and AFLP are the classical methods used to develop economic traits. Whole-genome-based economic traits have recently been detected with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. However, NGS technologies are rather costly for use in studies, and RNA-seq, RAD-Seq, RRL, MSG, and GBS have been used to overcome the issue of high costs. In this study, recent NGS-based studies were reviewed, particularly those that focused on minimum costs and maximum effects. Then, we presented further prospects on how to apply for selection of high economic-trait livestock.