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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
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TALEN Constructs and Validation for Targeting of SETDB1 Genomic DNA
Noh, Hee-Jung ; Kang, Yoonsung ; Kim, Keun-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1269~1275
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1269
TALEN is a newly developed gene engineering method to knock out specific genes. It contains a DNA binding domain and a Fok1 nuclease domain in the TALEN plasmid. Therefore, the engineered TALEN construct can bind to any region of genomic DNA and cut the target nucleotide, thereby inducing mutation. In this study, we constructed two TALEN constructs targeted to a protein initiation codon (DBEX2) or the 25th upstream region (DBPR25) to enable mRNA synthesis of SETDB1 HMTase. We performed the TALEN cloning in two steps. The first step was from module vectors to pFUS array vectors. We confirmed successful cloning with a colony PCR experiment and Esp31 restriction enzyme digestion, which resulted in a smear band and a 1 Kb insert band, respectively The second step of the cloning was from a pFUS array vector to a mammalian TALEN expression vector. The engineered TALEN construct was sequenced with specific primers in an expression vector. As expected, a specific array from the module vectors was shown in the sequencing analysis. The specific module sequences were regularly arrayed in every 100 bp, and SETDB1 expression totally disappeared in the TALEN-DBEX2 transfection. PCR amplification targeting of DBEX2 was performed, and the PCR product was digested with a T7E1 restriction enzyme. The expression of SETDB1 was down-regulated in the TALEN-DBPR25 transfection. Morphological changes were also observed in the two TALEN constructs with transfected HeLa cells. These results suggest that the engineered TALEN constructs in two strategic approaches are very useful to knock-out of the SETDB1 gene and to study gene function.
Cadms/SynCAMs/Necls/TSLCs Interact with Multi-PDZ Domain Protein MUPP1
Jang, Won Hee ; Jeong, Young Joo ; Choi, Sun Hee ; Kim, Sang-Jin ; Urm, Sang-Hwa ; Moon, Il Soo ; Seog, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1276~1283
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1276
Cell adhesion molecules determine the cell-cell binding and the interactions between cells and extracellular signals. Cell-cell junctional complexes, which maintain the structural integrity of tissues, consist of more than 50 proteins including multi-PDZ domain protein 1 (MUPP1). MUPP1 contains 13 postsynaptic density-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domains and serves a scaffolding function for transmembrane proteins and cytoskeletal proteins or signaling proteins, but the mechanism how MUPP1 links and stabilizes the juxtamembrane proteins has not yet been elucidated. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with PDZ domains of MUPP1. We found an interaction between MUPP1 and cell adhesion molecule 1 (Cadm1, also known as SynCAM1, Necl-2, or TSLC1). Cadm1 bound to the second PDZ domain of MUPP1. The carboxyl (C)-terminal end of Cadm1 has a type II PDZ-association motif (-Y-F-I) which was essential for the interaction with MUPP1 in the yeast two-hybrid assay. MUPP1 also bound to the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail region of other Cadm family members (Cadm2, Cadm3, and Cadm4). In addition, these protein-protein interactions were observed in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay and by co-immunoprecipitation. Anti-MUPP1 antibody co-immunoprecipitated Cadm1 and Cadm4 with MUPP1 from mouse brain extracts. These results suggest that MUPP1 could mediate interaction between Cadms and cytoskeletal proteins.
Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Induces FATP1 Expression in C2C12 Myotubes
Kim, Hye Jin ; Lee, Won Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1284~1290
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1284
Fatty acid transporter protein 1 (FATP1) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and modulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism. However, the influence of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a master regulator of skeletal muscle cells, on FATP1 in skeletal muscle cells has not been demonstrated. To investigate the effect of IGF-I on FATP1 and the expression of the IGFBP5 protein, differentiated C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cells were treated with 20 ng/ml of IGF-I at different time points. The results showed that IGF-I increased FATP1 and IGFBP5 protein expression in a time-dependent manner. To determine whether this induction of FATP1 by the IGF-I treatment was regulated pretranslationally, the mRNA level of FATP1 was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The IGF-I treatment resulted in very rapid induction of the FATP1 mRNA transcript in C2C12 myotubes. FATP1 mRNA increased 169% and 132% after 24 and 48 h of the IGF-I treatment, respectively, and it returned to control levels after 72 h of the treatment, suggesting that the FATP1 gene is regulated pretranslationally by IGF-I in skeletal muscle cells. This is the first evidence that IGF-I can regulate the expression of FATP1. In conclusion, IGF-I induced rapid transcriptional modification of the FATP1 gene in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and had modulating effects on fatty acid uptake proteins and oxidative proteins.
Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Peroxiredoxin 2 cDNA from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)
Moon, Ji Young ; Park, Eun Hee ; Kong, Hee Jeong ; Kim, Young-Ok ; Kim, Dong-Gyun ; An, Cheul Min ; Nam, Bo-Hye ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1291~1300
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1291
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a ubiquitous family of antioxidant enzymes that participate in a variety of biological processes, including
-mediated signal transduction, molecular chaperoning, and mitochondrial function. In this study, we isolated and characterized a Prx 2 cDNA from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). The abalone Prx 2 cDNA encoded a 199-amino acid polypeptide that belongs to a class of typical 2-Cys Prxs that contain peroxidatic and resolving cysteines. The deduced abalone Prx 2 protein showed strong homology (64-99%) with Prx 2 proteins from other species, including mollusk, fish, amphibians, and mammals, and it was most closely related to disk abalone (H. discus discus) Prx 2. Abalone Prx 2 mRNA was ubiquitously detected in tested tissues, and its expression was comparatively high in the mantle, gills, liver, foot, and digestive duct. The expression level of abalone Prx 2 mRNA was 106.7-fold, 51.9-fold, and 437.8-fold higher, respectively, in the gills, digestive duct, and liver than in the muscles. The expression level of abalone Prx 2 mRNA in the liver peaked at 6 hr postinfection with Vibrio parahemolyticus and decreased at 12 hr postinfection. The expression level of abalone Prx 2 mRNA in hemocytes was drastically increased at 1 hr postinfection with V. parahemolyticus. These results suggest that abalone Prx 2 is conserved through evolution and that it may play a role similar to that of its mammalian counterpart.
Composition of a Medium for Serum-free Culture of an Adipose-derived Stem Cell Line Established with a Simian Virus 40 T Antigen
Kim, Gyu Bin ; Joo, Woo Hong ; Kim, Dong Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1301~1307
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1301
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered promising tools for tissue regeneration. However, ADSCs have very poor proliferation capacity. Therefore, fetal bovine serum (FBS) is generally added to the culture media of ADSCs. As FBS contains many uncharacterized components that may affect cellular functions, methods for serum-free cultures of ADSCs have been widely investigated. In this study, to develop an efficient method for a serum-free culture of ADSC-T, we used an ADSC line established by introducing the simian virus 40 (SV40) T gene into primary ADSCs. We then investigated the effect of amino acids, vitamins, and other components on the growth of ADSC-T. When the ADSC-T cells were plated with DMEM/F12 serum-free medium, the cells did not proliferate, and the mixture of amino acids, vitamins, and B27 supplement did not increase the growth of the cells. However, when the ADSC-T cells were provided with serum-free DMEM/F12 after they had been cultured with serum-supplemented DMEM for 24 h, the cells proliferated, and the vitamins and B27 supplement increased the cell growth. Stem-Pro serum-free medium also appeared to be useful as a suspension culture for the ADSC-T cells. The ADSC-T cells secreted large amounts of proteins of around 70 kDa. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and fibroblast growth factor basic (FGF basic) were secreted by ADSC-T in larger amounts in the serum-free culture than in the serum-supplemented culture.
Biological Control of Plant Growth Using the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3
Pyo, Jae Sung ; Shrestha, Sarmila Amatya ; Park, Song Hee ; Kang, Jae Seon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1308~1315
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1308
Biological control using the plant growth-promoting Rhizobacterium (PGPR) has received significant attention in recent years. PGPR has been linked with promoting growth in economically important crops, such as potatoes, tomatoes, and rice. Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 (Moja-3), isolated from food waste, possesses antifungal properties against Aspergillus terreus, A. fumagatus, A. flavus, and Fusarium redolense, and it may have potential in the development of products for industrial applications. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of spraying the PGPR Bacillus mojavensis KJS-3 on the growth of altari radish (leaf number, leaf length, leaf weight, root length, and rhizome length, adjacent portion diameter, and weight) and lettuce (leaf number, length, width, and weight). Three different concentrations of the foliar spray treatment of B. mojavensis KJS-3 were applied to the altari radish and lettuce: the recommended standard concentration of
, half the standard concentration of
, and double the standard concentration of
). The B. mojavensis strain foliar spray treatment increased the growth of the leaves and roots of the altari radish and increased the growth of the lettuce leaves. For both plants, the recommended concentration of B. mojavensis KJS-3 produced better growth than half the standard concentration, and the growth was similar with the double dose. This study demonstrates positive effects of Moja-3, suggesting it may be a potential new bio-fertilizer for improving the growth of altari radish and lettuce.
Isolation of Anticarcinogenic Isoflavone-conjugated Glycoproteins from a Submerged Liquid Culture of Agaricus blazei Mycelia by the Autolysis Process
Kim, So Young ; Kim, Young Suk ; Jang, Joung Soon ; Kim, Boh Hyun ; Rakib, Abdur Md. ; Kim, Gon Sup ; Kim, Jeong Ok ; Ha, Yeong Lae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1316~1324
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1316
Most beta-glucans obtained from various fruit bodies of mushrooms and mushroom mycelial cultures have high-molecular weight glycoproteins, conjugated with beta-glucans. We report that isoflavone-conjugated glycolproteins (designated as gluvone) were isolated and exhibited stronger anticarcinogenic activities. Agaricus blazei mycelia (ABM) was cultured in a liquid medium containing soybean flakes for 14 days. The liquid culture was autolyzed by incubating at
(pH 5.5) for 3 h. A crude glycoprotein (CGP) fraction with a cytotoxic effect on a mouse ascite cancer cell line (S-180) and a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was isolated from the autolyzed ABM cultures by 80% ethanol treatment. Gluvone was isolated from the CGP with Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. It exhibited a stronger anticancer effect than CGP against the S-180 cell-induced female ICR mouse ascites carcinogenesis. Gluvone with 9,400 daltons was identified as a glycoprotein conjugated with isoflavone. According to HPLC and GC analysis, in conjunction with
-NMR spectral analysis, it contained 60% carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, and ribose), 31% protein, and 2% isoflavone (daidzein and genistein), which is a novel material. These results indicate that a strong anticarcinogenic gluvone was isolated from the autolyzed product of a submerged liquid culture of ABM, suggesting that autolysis could be a useful tool to produce antitumor agents.
Flavor Components in Dried Fruit of the Chinese Matrimony Vine during Storage
Choi, Sung-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1325~1329
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1325
Gugija (Lycii chinese Miller) is traditionally consumed as a Chinese medicinal material in food, tea, or alcoholic beverages. Gugija has beneficial healthy components, but it produces an off-flavor during storage. This study compared the flavor components of fresh-dried Gugija and stale-dried Gugija. The flavor compounds in one fresh sample (sample 1) and one stale sample (sample 2) were extracted by the simultaneous distillation and extraction method. The concentrated aroma extracts were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-five compounds, including 17 aldehydes, 8 alcohols, 6 terpene compounds, 4 esters, 3 ketones, and 3 pyrazines, were isolated in sample 1. Thirty-four compounds, including 12 aldehydes, 3 alcohols, 5 terpene compounds, 2 esters, 3 ketones, 3 pyrazines, and 1 acid, were isolated in sample 2. The main aroma components of sample 1 were 2-methyl butanal, 2-methyl propanol having sweet odor, and hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenol having grass odor, and phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol having floral odor, and alkyl pyrazines having nutty odor. These compounds were decreased in sample 2, and several compounds containing isovaleric acid, which has a disagreeable, rancid-cheese odor were found newley.
Expression of Adenylyl Cyclase Genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis under Hypoxic and Nitric Oxide Conditions
Jeon, Han-Seung ; Yang, Ki-Hoon ; Ko, In-Jeong ; Oh, Jeong-Il ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1330~1338
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1330
In Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv 16 adenylyl cyclase (AC) genes have been identified, while 10 AC genes have been found in non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis. Expression of 6 AC genes (MSMEG_0218, MSMEG_3243, MSMEG_3780, MSMEG_4279, MSMEG_4477, and MSMEG_6154) among 10 AC genes in M. smegmatis was increased when M. smegmatis was subjected to hypoxic growth conditions. On the other hand, only MSMEG_3780 and MSMEG_4279 were slightly induced in the presence of NO. The cAMP levels in cells and culture media were 450- and 9.8-fold increased, respectively, when M. smegmatis was grown under hypoxic conditions relative to those grown aerobically. Intracellular levels of cAMP were increased 5.8-fold on the exposure to NO. The DevSR two-component system is known to be involved in the induction of many genes whose expression is induced under hypoxic conditions and in the presence of NO. Expression of 6 hypoxically induced AC genes was observed to be induced in a devR deletion mutant grown under hypoxic conditions, indicating that the induction of the 6 AC genes under hypoxic conditions is independent of the DevSR two-component system. In order to identify a trans-acting regulatory element that is pertinent in the hypoxic induction of MSMEG_3780, ligand-fishing analysis was performed using the upstream DNA of MSMEG_3780 and MSMEG_5136 protein was identified.
Tissue Distribution of HuR Protein in Crohn`s Disease and IBD Experimental Model
Choi, Hye Jin ; Park, Jae-Hong ; Park, Jiyeon ; Kim, Juil ; Park, Seong-Hwan ; Oh, Chang Gyu ; Do, Kee Hun ; Song, Bo Gyoung ; Lee, Seung Joon ; Moon, Yuseok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1339~1344
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1339
Inflammatory bowel disease is an immune disorder associated with chronic mucosal inflammation and severe ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract. Antibodies against proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF
, are currently used as promising therapeutic agents against the disease. Stabilization of the transcript is a crucial post-transcriptional process in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we assessed the expression and histological distribution of the HuR protein, an important transcript stabilizer, in tissues from experimental animals and patients with Crohn`s disease. The total and cytosolic levels of the HuR protein were enhanced in the intestinal epithelia from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice compared to those in control tissues from normal mice. Moreover, the expression of HuR was very high only in the mucosal and glandular epithelium, and the relative localization of the protein was sequestered in the lower parts of the villus during the DSS insult. The expression of HuR was significantly higher in mucosal lesions than in normal-looking areas. Consistent with the data from the animal model, the expression of HuR was confined to the mucosal and glandular epithelium. These results suggest that HuR may contribute to the post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory genes during early mucosal insults. More mechanistic investigations are warranted to determine the potential use of HuR as a predictive biomarker or a promising target against IBD.
Hot-water Extract of Rubus Coreanus Miquel Suppresses VEGF-induced Angiogenesis
Kim, Eok-Cheon ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Kim, Tack-Joong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1345~1355
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1345
The interruption of angiogenesis using herbal extracts is now recognized as a useful approach for treating many solid tumors. To date, the best-validated antitumor approach is to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenic pathway. In the present study, we first identified the antiangiogenic activity of a hot-water extract of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCMHE) in vitro and ex vivo. This extract suppressed VEGF-induced angiogenesis, the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). RCMHE also inhibited the VEGF-responsive phosphorylation of VEGFR2. These results clearly show that RCMHE may have potential therapeutic value for angiogenesis-associated human diseases through the suppression of angiogenesis and the interruption of the phosphorylation of VEGFR2.
Ghrelin Attenuates Dexamethasone-induced T-cell Apoptosis by Suppression of the Glucocorticoid Receptor
Lee, Jun Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1356~1363
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1356
Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid orexigenic peptide hormone that is secreted predominantly by tX/A cells in the stomach, and it plays a major role in energy homeostasis. Activated ghrelin has an n-octanoyl group covalently linked to the hydroxyl group of the Ser3 residue, which is critical for its binding to the G-protein coupled growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHS-R1a). According to recent reports, both ghrelin and its receptor, GHS-R1a, are expressed by a variety of immune cells, including T- and B-lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells, and ghrelin stimulation of leukocytes provides a potent immunomodulatory signal controlling systemic and age-associated inflammation and thymic involution. Here, we report that ghrelin protected murine thymocytes from dexamethasone (DEX)-induced cell death both in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, we explored the molecular mechanisms of the antiapoptotic effect of ghrelin. According to our experiments, ghrelin inhibited the expression of proapoptotic proteins via the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) phosphorylation. As a result, ghrelin inhibited the proapoptotic activation of proteins, such as Caspase-3, PARP, and Bim. These data suggest that ghrelin, through GHS-R, inhibits the pathway to apoptosis by regulation of the proapoptotic protein activation signal pathway. They provide evidence that blocking apoptosis is an essential function of ghrelin during the development of thymocytes.
Effect of Ascorbic Acid on the Gravitropic Response of Primary Roots in Maize
Kim, Chung Su ; Mulkey, Timothy J. ; Kim, Soon Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1364~1370
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1364
Ascorbic acid (AA) is a multifunctional metabolite in plants that is essential for plant development and growth. We examined the effect of AA, an antioxidant, on the gravitropic response of primary roots in maize. The application of
M AA to the elongation zone did not affect the gravitropic response and slightly inhibited the root growth. However, treatment with both
M AA at the root tip increased the gravitropic response and inhibited root growth. Differences in indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) activity between the upper and lower hemispheres of the root resulted in differential elongation along the horizontal root. Roots are extremely sensitive to IAA, and increasing the amount of IAA in the lower hemisphere of the root inhibited elongation. Therefore, we examined the effect of IAA in the presence of AA. The inhibitory effect of AA on the gravitropic response was greater in combination with IAA. To understand the role of AA in the regulation of root growth and the gravitropic response, we measured ethylene production in the presence of AA in the primary roots of maize. AA stimulated ethylene production via the activation of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene, which regulates the conversion of ACC to ethylene. These results suggest that AA alters the gravitropic response of maize roots through modification of the action of ethylene.
Expressional Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Infection
Lee, Young Mee ; Kim, Jung-Eun ; Noh, Jae Koo ; Kim, Hyun Chul ; Park, Choul-Ji ; Park, Jong-Won ; Kim, Kyung-Kil ; Lee, Jeong-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1371~1377
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1371
Superoxide dismutase is a family of important antioxidant metalloenzymes and catalyzes the dismutation of toxic superoxide anions into dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide. A recent study identified the partial superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The same study reported that it strongly induced benzo[a]pyrene and that it was an indicator of aquatic oxidative stress responses. However, its transcriptional response against viral infection has not been investigated. In the present study, the spatial and temporal expression profiles were analyzed to investigate the function of Of-SOD in the antiviral response. The Of-SOD transcripts were ubiquitously detected at various levels in diverse tissues in a real-time PCR. The expression of Of-SOD was significantly higher in the muscles, liver, and brain but extremely low in the stomach and spleen. Following a VHSV challenge, the expression of Of-SOD increased within 3 h in the kidneys and decreased to the original level 2 days postchallenge. In muscle, liver, and brain, Of-SOD mRNA was similarly up-regulated at 3-6 h postchallenge and then decreased to the basal level. Although the expression pattern and induction time differed slightly depending on the tissue, the transcript of Of-SOD consistently increased in the acute infection response, but the expression was low in the chronic response. The expression of Of-SOD was induced after the VHSV infection, and Of-SOD was probably involved in the immune response against the viral challenge. These results suggest that SOD may play important roles in the immune defense system of P. olivaceus and perhaps contribute to the protective effects against oxidative stress in olive flounder.
The Functional Role of Phospholipase D Isozymes in Apoptosis
Min, Do Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 12, 2014, Pages 1378~1382
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.12.1378
Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipid to phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid secondary messenger. Two forms of PLD isozymes, phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD1 and PLD2, have been identified. PLD has emerged as a critical regulator of cell proliferation and survival signaling, and dysregulation of PLD occurs in a various illnesses, including cancer. PLD activity is essential for cell survival and protection from apoptosis. Overexpression of PLD isozymes or PLD-generated PA attenuates the expression of apoptotic genes and confers resistance to apoptosis. The apoptosis-related molecular mechanisms of PLD remain largely unknown. Recently, the dynamics of PLD turnover during apoptosis have been reported. The cleavage of PLD isozymes as specific substrates of caspase differentially regulates apoptosis. PLD1 is cleaved at one internal site, and PLD2 is cleaved two sites at the front of the N-terminus. The cleavage of PLD1 reduces its enzymatic activity, probably via the dissociation of two catalytic motifs, whereas the cleavage of PLD2 does not affect the catalytic motifs and its activity. Thus, PLD2 maintains antiapoptotic capacity, despite its cleavage. Therefore, the differential cleavage pattern of PLD isozymes by caspase affects its enzymatic activity and antiapoptotic function. Thus, PLD is considered a potential target for cancer therapy. We summarize recent studies regarding the functional role of PLD in apoptosis.