Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Life Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Hot Water Extracts Containing Baicalin on Modulation of the Immune System in Raw264.7 Cells
Park, Hye-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Min ; Kwon, Hyun-Ju ; Lee, Hyun-Tae ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Kim, Tae Hoon ; Kim, Moon-Moo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 219~226
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.219
The immune system protects the body from bacterial infection and disease, as well as cancer that develops following the mutation of cells. Aging exerts adverse effects on the immune system, such as chronic inflammation, resulting in rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effectiveness of Scutellaria baicalensis, which contains baicalin. HPLC analysis showed that S. baicalensis hot water extracts (SBWE) contained 42.2 mg/g of baicalin. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of SBWE, an MTT assay was carried out in Raw264.7 cells. No cytotoxicity was observed below 160
of SBWE. SBWE at 40
reduced the amount of nitric oxide produced by macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide by 40%. In addition, SBWE inhibited phagocytosis stimulated with zymosan. Furthermore, the content of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (
) produced by the macrophages was decreased in the presence of SBWE in a dose-dependent manner. SBWE also inhibited the production of interleukin-1 beta (
) in a time course experiment. Moreover, treatment with 20
of SBWE remarkably decreased the expression level of cyclooxynase-2. The results provide evidence that SBWE may exert an anti-inflammatory effect through modulation of the immune system.
Effect of p-Coumaric Acid, Benzoic Acid, and Salicylic Acid on the Activity of Glutathione Reductase and Catalase in in vitro Grown Tobacco Plants
Kim, Sang A ; Roh, Kwang Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 227~233
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.227
Effects of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), benzoic acid (BA), and salicylic acid (SA) on the activities of glutathione reductase and catalase were studied in in vitro grown tobacco plants. After culturing the tobacco plants in MS medium containing
mM of p-CA, BA, and SA, the increase in the activities of two enzymes, glutathione reductase and catalase, were compared from day 20 to day 50 day, with an interval of 10 days. The growth of the tobacco plants treated with p-CA, BA, and SA was the highest on day 50. Analysis of the effect of the three substances on the activity of glutathione reductase showed that BA and p-CA decreased the activity of the enzyme compared with a control, and SA increased the activity of the enzyme. All of them showed the highest activity on day 40. SA increased the activity of catalase, but BA and p-CA reduced the activity of this enzyme. In all the experimental groups, the activity was the highest on day 40. In conclusion, p-CA and BA appear to promote the growth of tobacco plants. The growth was the best on day 50, but the activity of the antioxidative enzyme was inhibited. On the contrary, SA seemed to inhibit the growth of the tobacco plants but to promote the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase. The growth of the plants treated with SA was best on day 40.
Isolation and Identification of a Novel Anticancer Compound from Solanum nigrum
Yun, Hee Jung ; Jung, Jong Hun ; Hyun, Sook Kyung ; Kim, Byung Woo ; Kwon, Hyun Ju ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 234~241
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.234
To identify and isolate anticancer active compounds from Solanum nigrum, S. nigrum was extracted with MeOH and then fractionated with various organic solvents (
, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and
). The cytotoxic effects of the MeOH extracts from S. nigrum and its organic solvent-soluble fractions were also tested in HT29 cells. All the MeOH extracts of S. nigrum and its organic-solvent extracts induced cytotoxicity in the HT29 cells. Among the extracts,
was the most effective. The
extract was purified further by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, Diaion HP- 20, and RP-18 column chromatography. An active anticancer compound, Des-N-26-methylene-dihydrotomatidine, was isolated with a molecular weight of 416 and a molecular formula of
. Analysis of the cytotoxic effects of Des-N-26-methylene-dihydrotomatidine on the HT29 cells compared to those of tomatine and tomatidine are similar in its structure, is higher than tomatidine above the 40
concentration, but lower than tomatine. This is the first study to describe the anticancer activity of Des-N-26-methylene-dihydrotomatidin, isolated from S. nigrum. Des-N-26- methylene-dihydrotomatidine seems to have potential as a natural bioactive compound.
Isolation and Identification of a Photosensitizer from Pueraria thunbergiana Leaves that Induces Apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 Cells
Lee, Jun Young ; Kim, Mi Kyeong ; Ha, Jun Young ; Kim, Yong Gyun ; Hong, Chang Oh ; Kim, So Young ; Kim, Chung-Hwan ; Kim, Keun Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 242~251
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.242
The objective of this study was to isolate a photosensitizer from Pueraria thunbergiana leaves that induces apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 cells. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography were used to isolate active compounds from extracts of P. thunbergiana leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and FAB-mass spectroscopy. A substance, named M4-3, was purified from the leaves of P. thunbergiana using various chromatography methods, and the absorbance of the substance was measured. The absorbance was highest at 410 nm, suggesting that the M4-3 substance was a different compound from chlorophyll a and b, which absorb at 410, 502, 533, and 607 nm. Further analyses revealed that the M4-3 compound was a
-hydoxy pheophorbide, a methyl ester with a molecular weight of 662. M4-3 was identified as a derivative compound of pheophorbide, with a structure that magnesium comes away from the porphyrin ring. The results of the analysis of the cytotoxicity of the M4-3 substance against the SK-HEP-1 cells revealed that it inhibited rates of cell growth by 40% and 80% at a concentration of 0.04
, respectively. The M4-3 compound was found to be a photosensitizer for cytotoxicity because it was appeared only in light condition as examining activity in different irradiation conditions (light condition and nonlight condition) under the same concentration. Analysis of morphological changes in the cells following cell death induced by exposure to the M4-3 substance reveled representative phenomena of apoptosis (nuclear condensation, vesicle formation, and fragmentation of DNA). The induction of apoptosis was attributed to the compound's photodynamic activity.
Isolation, Quality Evaluation, and Seasonal Changes of Bakkenolide B in Petasites japonicus by HPLC
Kim, Tae Hoon ; Kim, Do Youn ; Jung, Won Jung ; Nagaiya, Ravichandran ; Son, Beung Gu ; Park, Young Hoon ; Kang, Jum Soon ; Lee, Young Jae ; Im, Dong-Soon ; Lee, Young-Geun ; Choi, Yung Hyun ; Choi, Young-Whan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 252~259
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.252
The leaves of Peatasites japonicus are a traditional oriental medicine with diverse biological activities. A simple and specific analytical method for the quantitative determination of bakkenolide B constituents from methanolic extract of the leaves of P. japonicus was developed. Bakkenolide B was isolated from the leaves of P. japonicus, and its structure was elucidated based on 1D, 2D NMR, and GC-MS spectral data. A liquid chromatographic method was developed to evaluate the quality of P. japonicus through determination of major active compound, bakkenolide B. The wavelengths at 254 and 215 nm were chosen to determine bakkenolide B. The recovery of the method was in the range of 98.6 to 103.1%, and bakkenolide B showed good linearity (
=0.999) within test ranges. The developed method was applied to the determination of bakkenolide B in the plant part and seasonal changes. The results showed that the content of bakkenolide B in the leaf was higher than in the petiole and rhizome. In this study, a simple, rapid, and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine the percentage and composition of bakkenolide B in P. japonicus procured from different Petasites species plants in South Korea. The method can be employed in routine quantitative analysis and quality control of different products in the market.
Prokinetic Activity of Ethanolic Extracts from Dried Citrus unshiu Peels in Mice
Lee, Hyun-Tai ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 260~265
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.260
Dried Citrus unshiu peels (Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium; ANP) are used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders in East Asia, including Korea. In the present study, an ethanolic extract of ANP (ANP-E) exhibited no significant toxicity in mice, even at an oral dose of 5 g/kg. The effects of ANP-E on GI motor function were investigated by measuring the intestinal transit rate (ITR) of Evans blue in normal mice and mice with experimental GI motility dysfunction (i.e., peritoneal irritation by acetic acid; PIA). In normal mice, ANP-E significantly increased the ITR in a dose-dependent manner. The ITR in the PIA mice was significantly retarded compared to that in the normal mice. However, ANP-E significantly inhibited this retardation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in all the models, the potency of ANP-E appeared to be same or higher than that of cisapride, which was used predominantly for the treatment of various GI motility disorders in humans in the 1900s but was removed from the market in 2000 due to fatal side effects. The results suggest that ANP-E has potential as a new prokinetic agent that could be used as a substitute for cisapride.
Chemical Composition and in vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Commercially Available Essential Oils against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria
Yoo, Yeong Wol ; Lee, Hyo Jeong ; Kim, Seung ; Bae, Min Suk ; Lee, Mi Ja ; Shim, Jung-Hyun ; Cho, Seung Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 266~273
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.266
In the present study, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of commercially available essential oils in Korea were investigated. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that they exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against gram positive, gram negative, and multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The antimicrobial activity of five of the essential oils against 40 organisms was assessed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC values were in the ranges of 0.0625-0.5% (v/w) for lemongrass and manuka, 0.03125-1.0% (v/w) for tea tree, 0.0625-1.0% (v/w) for thyme, and 1-4% (v/w) for ravensara, depending on the pathogens studied. This study revealed that, among the essential oils tested, lemongrass and thyme oil showed broad antimicrobial activity against infectious bacteria. The antioxidant activities and the reducing power of the essential oils were determined with a 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Thyme oil exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity comparing with ascorbic acid. This is the first report on the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of commercially available essential oils against infectious bacteria and MDR strains acquired from Korean hospitals.
Sargassum sp. Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Suppresses Lipid Accumulation in vitro
Kim, Jung-Ae ; Karadeniz, Fatih ; Ahn, Byul-Nim ; Kwon, Myeong Sook ; Mun, Ok-Ju ; Kim, Mihyang ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Yu, Ki Hwan ; Kim, Yuck Yong ; Kong, Chang-Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 274~283
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.274
Oxidative stress causes tissue damage and facilitates the progression of metabolic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular heart diseases, and obesity. Lipid accumulation and obesity-related complications have been observed in the presence of extensive oxidative stress. As part of an ongoing study to develop therapeutic supplements, Sargassum sp. were tested for their ability to scavenge free radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as to suppress lipid accumulation. Three species, S. hemiphyllum, S. thunbergii, and Sargassum horneri, were shown to scavenge free radicals in a di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) assay. In addition, Sargassum sp. was shown to scavenge intracellular ROS and to decrease nitric oxide (NO) production in
and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that Sargassum sp. possess huge potential to relieve oxidative stress and related complications, as well as lipid-induced oxidation. They indicate that S. hemiphyllum, S. thunbergii, and S. horneri are potent functional supplements that can produce beneficial health effects through antioxidant and antiobesity activities, with S. hemiphyllum being the most potent among the Sargassum sp. tested. A potential mechanism for the effect of Sargassum sp. on the suppression of lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes through deactivation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
) is presented.
Inhibitory Effects of Phyllostachys bambusoides on Melanin Synthesis and Tyrosinase Activity in Cultured Human Melanoma Cells
Huh, Man Kyu ; Han, Min Ho ; Park, Cheol ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 284~289
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.284
Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme that controls the production of melanin. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusoides) on tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis has not been studied. We analyzed the effects of leaf and inner film fractions of bamboo extracts on the inhibition of tyrosinase activity and on melanin production. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the extracts of bamboo down-regulated the production of melanocytes. In addition, the extracts of bamboo reduced tyrosinase activity and the melanin content in vitro. Our results suggest that bamboo extract may constrain melanin synthesis by inhibition of the activity and expression of tyrosinase.
Anxiolytic Effects of Quercetin: Involvement of GABAergic System
Jung, Ji Wook ; Lee, Seungheon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 290~296
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.290
The present experiment investigated putative anxiolytic-like effects of quercetin using an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board apparatus test in mice. Quercetin is a flavonoid widely distributed in nature. Quercetin (1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was orally administered to ICR mice 1 h before a behavioral evaluation in the EPM. Control mice were treated with an equal volume of vehicle, and positive control mice were treated with buspirone (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The mice administered quercetin (5 mg/kg) spent a significantly longer percentage of time in the open arms of the EPM and their percentage of entries into the open arms was significantly increased compared to the vehicle-treated controls (p<0.05). The anxiolytic-like activities of quercetin were antagonized by trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (a
agonist, 20 mg/kg) but not by flumazenil (a
antagonist, 10 mg/kg) or WAY-100635 (a
antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg). Moreover, there were no changes in the locomotor activity or myorelaxant effects in any group compared with the vehicle-treated controls. In the hole-board apparatus test, the number of head-dips increased significantly in the single treatment with quercetin (5 mg/kg) group compared to the vehicle-treated controls (p<0.05). These findings suggest that quercetin can promote anxiolytic-like activity, mediated by the GABAergic nervous system, in mice.
Effects of Eisenia bicyclis Extracts on the Proliferation and Activity of Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
Kim, Seoyeon ; Jeon, Myeong-Jeong ; Cheon, Jihyeon ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Kong, Changsuk ; Kim, Yuck Yong ; Yu, Ki Hwan ; Kim, Mihyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 297~303
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.297
The effects of Eisenia bicyclis extracts on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was tested in an MTT assay. Treatment with E. bicyclis ethanol extract increased cell proliferation by approximately 128% at a concentration of 10
. The ALP activities in the MC3T3-E1 cells was 179% higher when the E. bicyclis ethanol extract was processed at a concentration of 50
. The proliferation of RAW 264.7 osteoclastic cells decreased significantly in response to treatment with the E. bicyclis extracts. Moreover, the proliferation of the RAW 264.7 osteoclastic cells treated with E. bicyclis hot water extract decreased by nearly 80%. In addition, the E. bicyclis extract reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cells from osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. These results indicate that E. bicyclis extracts have an anabolic effect on bone through the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and suggest that the extracts could be used in the treatment of common metabolic bone diseases.
Evaluation of Biological Activities of Fermented Hizikia fusiformis Extracts
Park, Seong Hwan ; Lee, Sol Jee ; Jeon, MyeongJeong ; Kim, Seo-Yeon ; Mun, Ok-Ju ; Kim, Mihyang ; Kong, Chang-Suk ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Yu, Ki Hwan ; Kim, Yuck Young ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 304~310
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.304
Antioxidative, immunostimulating, and antihypertensive activities of hot water extracts of fermented Hizikia fusiformis were evaluated. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria generally increased the biological activities of H. fusiformis. Fermentation with isolated Weissella sp. SH-1 resulted in 13.83-62.15% DPPH radical scavenging activity and 34.90-59.25% SOD-like activity. The maximal inhibition of ACE was 82.25%, and the maximal reduction in NO production was 46.53%. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei resulted in 11.98-72.84% DPPH radical scavenging activity and 14.17-33.62% of SOD-like activity. The maximal inhibition of ACE was 73.31%, and the maximal reduction in NO production was 65.20%. These results hint at the applicability of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the diverse biological activities of H. fusiformis and to develop functional materials or foods.
Distal Myopathy with Rimmed Vacuoles Confirmed by Whole Exome Sequencing
Seo, Seong Don ; Park, Hyung Jun ; Song, Hyun Seok ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Park, Jin-Mo ; Hong, Young Bin ; Chung, Ki Wha ; Choi, Byung-Ok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 311~317
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.311
Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) or hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2 is an autosomal recessive muscular disorder characterized by early adult-onset weakness of distal muscles and rimmed vacuoles in muscle biopsy. Mutations in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-ace-tylmannosamine kinase (GNE) gene are associated with the development of DMRV. In this study, whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed compound heterozygous GNE mutations of p.Asp176Val and p.Val572Leu in a patient with distal limb weakness. Three hundred healthy controls did not show these mutations. All other variants found in distal myopathy-relevant genes were polymorphic. These findings confirmed that the patient had DMRV. This work underscores the usefulness of WES in improving the molecular diagnosis of myopathy.
Serological Investigation of the Infection Rate of Chlamydophila pneumonia among Residents of a Single University Dormitory
Ryu, Jea Ki ; Kim, Hyun-Kyung ; Kim, Dong-Chan ; Lee, Suk Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 318~322
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.318
Chlamydophila pneumonia is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia throughout the world. It causes mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents and young adults. Older adults may experience more severe disease and repeated infections. To the best of our knowledge, no study has attempted to investigate the prevalence of C. pneumonia in a closed community in Korea. We compared the infection rate of C. pneumonia among university dormitory residents using the miro-immunofluorescence (MIF) method. Antibody titers of IgG (1:32 or more) indicate past infection of C. pneumonia. A recent infection was defined as serum with a high titer of IgG (1:512 or more) or a positive IgM (1:16 or more). The past infection rate of C. pneumonia among the university dormitory residents was 71.7%. The recent infection rate of C. pneumonia according to IgG and IgM titers was 28.3% and 23.3%, respectively. The past infection positive rate according to the number of residence months was 1 month (50%), 7 months (71.4%), 13 months (66.7%), and 35 months (89.5%). The recent infection positive rate according to IgG antibody titers was 1 month (50%), 7 months (28.6%), 13 months (33.3%), and 35 months (10.5%). The recent infection rate of C. pneumonia according to IgM antibody titers was 1 month (41.7%), 7 months (28.6%), 13 months (26.7%), and 35 months (5.3%). The results suggest that the past infection rate of C. pneumonia is increased by the number of residence months in a closed community and that the recent infection rate of C. pneumonia according to IgG and IgM serological tests is decreased by the number of residence months.
Transcriptional Regulation of MicroRNA-17 by PPARγ in Adipogenesis
Bae, In-Seon ; Kim, Hyun-Ji ; Chung, Ki Yong ; Choi, Inho ; Kim, Sang Hoon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 323~328
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.323
MicroRNAs comprise a family of small noncoding RNAs that modulate physiological processes, including adipogenesis. MicroRNA-17 (miR-17) promotes adipocyte differentiation and enhances lipid accumulation. The transcriptional regulation of miR-17 during adipogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether miR-17 is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
), which is a key regulator of adipogenesis. The levels of miR-17 and the expression of
increased after the induction of adipocyte differentiation. Three putative peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) were identified in the miR-17 promoter region. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays, we observed the interaction of
with the miR-17 promoter. Mutagenesis experiments showed that the -677/-655 region of the miR-17 promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that
is essential for transcriptional activation of the miR-17 gene, thereby contributing to understanding the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis in adipocytes.
Comparison of Anti-inflammatory Activities among Ethanol Extracts of Sophora flavescens, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Dictamnus dasycarpus, and their Mixtures in RAW 246.7 Murine Macrophages
Han, Min Ho ; Lee, Moon Hee ; Hong, Su Hyun ; Choi, Yung Hyun ; Moon, Ju Sung ; Song, Myung Kyu ; Kim, Min Ju ; Shin, Su Jin ; Hwang, Hye Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 3, 2014, Pages 329~335
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.3.329
Sophora flavescens, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Dictamnus dasycarpus have been widely used in folk medicine for several inflammatory disorders in Korea and China. In this study, we compared the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extracts of S. flavescens (EESF), G. uralensis (EEGU) and D. dasycarpus (EEDS), and their mixtures (medicinal herber mixtures, MHMIXs) on production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Our data indicated that treatment with EESF, EEGU and EEDD significantly inhibited the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin
) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The ethanol extracts and MHMIXs also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-
) and tumor necrosis
) by suppressing their protein expression, respectively. Interestingly, MHMIX-1, which basic ingredients are EESF, EEGU and EEDS in the proportion 3:1:1, more safely and effectively inhibits the LPS-induced inflammatory status in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages compared to ethanol extracts of each medicinal herb and other MHMIXs without causing any cytotoxic effects. Our study provides scientific evidence to support that a berbal mixture, MHMIX-1 may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases by inhibiting inflammatory regulator responses in activated macrophages.