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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
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Effects of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Fruit Extract on Ultraviolet-induced Apoptosis of Skin Fibroblasts
Hwang, In Sik ; Koh, Eun Kyoung ; Kim, Ji Eun ; Lee, Young Ju ; Kwak, Moon Hwa ; Go, Jun ; Sung, Ji Eun ; Song, Sung Hwa ; Hwang, Dae Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 467~475
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.467
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a well-known and rich source of biologically active compounds, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, vitamins, tannins, and oleic acid. The effects of sea buckthorn fruit extract (SBFE) on ultraviolet (UV)-induced cell death was investigated in SK-MEL-2 cells cotreated with UV and a low concentration (LoC), medium concentration (MeC), or high concentration (HiC) of SBFE. Cell viability gradually decreased in accordance with an increase in the UV dose. The cell viability of the UV+SBFE cotreated cells increased significantly compared to that of UV+vehicle-treated cells during the application of an appropriate UV radiation dose (400 mJ). In addition, the number of 4`,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), propidium iodine (PI)-, and annexin V-stained apoptotic cells was higher in the UV+vehicle-treated cells than in the UV untreated cells. The decrease of apoptotic cell numbers varied in each treated group, but it was most significant in the SBFE-treated group. The number of PI-stained cells dramatically decreased in accordance with the concentration of SBFE, and the maximum decrease was detected in the UV+HiC-treated group. In addition, Bax expression increased and Bcl-2 expression decreased in the SBFE-treated group compared with the UV-only treated group. The level of caspase-3 remained constant in all the groups. These results suggest that SBFE may contribute to a recovery from UV-induced cell death through the regulation of apoptotic protein expression and that it may have potential therapeutic utility in ameliorating UV-induced skin ageing.
Inhibitory Effects of Lyophilized Dropwort Vinegar Powder on Adipocyte Differentiation and Inflammation
Park, Yun-Hee ; Choi, Jun-Hyeok ; Whang, Key ; Lee, Syng-Ook ; Yang, Seun-Ah ; Yu, Mi Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 476~484
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.476
Obesity, which is characterized by a state of mild chronic inflammation, is known to cause metabolic diseases. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of lyophilized dropwort vinegar powder (DVP) on adipocyte differentiation and inflammation in T3-L1 preadipocyte and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. DVP inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by a mixture of IBMX, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). Western blot analysis of cell lysates showed that DVP decreased the levels of two major transcription factors involved in adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-
) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein
). DVP also significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), and this was accompanied by a decrease in inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression. These results demonstrate that DVP inhibits MDI-induced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The findings indicate that this natural product may be a good candidate as to prevent metabolic diseases.
Whitening Effect of Poria cocas Ethanol Extract by Inhibition of Melanin Synthesis
Park, Hye-Jung ; Kwon, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Moon-Moo ; Lee, Kyeong Rok ; Hong, Il ; Lee, Do Gyeong ; Oh, Yunghee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 485~490
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.485
Poria cocas has been reported to be effective in skin whitening. However, the direct effect of P. cocas ethanol extracts (PCEE) on melanin synthesis has not been scientifically studied. To elucidate the direct effect of PCEE on melanogenesis, a 3,4-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DOPA) synthesis assay, tyrosinase activity assay, and Western blotting for melanogenic proteins, including tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2 were performed in mouse B16F1 cells. The results revealed that PGEE inhibited melanin production in a dose-dependent manner by blocking the synthesis of DOPA. Although the activation of tyrosinase was not affected, the expression levels of TRP-1 and TRP-2 were controlled. These results suggest that PCEE has a whitening effect, indicating that it may be a useful agent in the development of whitening cosmetics.
Biological Activity of Extracts of the Starfish Asterias amurensis
Go, Hye-Jin ; Jo, Mi Jeong ; Kim, Tae Young ; Hong, Yong-Ki ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Lee, Byung-Woo ; Park, Nam Gyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 491~497
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.491
Nowadays, starfish is one of problems about interruption of marine ecosystem, so many researchers are focusing on application of the starfish (Asterias amurensis). In this study, we investigated the contractile and relaxant activity of the smooth muscles and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of six different tissues (muscle, gut, liver, tube feet, gonads, and body) of A. amurensis. Frozen samples were extracted with distilled water containing 1% acetic acid. Extracts from all the tissues, except the body tissue, showed potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli D31. The dorsal retractor muscles (DRM) of muscle and gut extracts showed strong contraction responses. On the other hand, contractile activity on esophagus of squid Todarodes pacificus could be detected in all tissues tested. The contractile activity of the liver extract was higher than that of the other tissues. The body, tube feet, and liver extracts showed the contractile activity on the intestine of the panther puffer fish (Takifugu pardalis). Relaxation response on the DRM of starfish (A. pectinifera) was observed in all tissues tested. Increased antioxidant activity was observed in the gut, liver, and body extracts. The results suggest that the starfish (A. amurensis) is a potential source of novel bioactive compounds.
Screening of Hyaluronidase Inhibitor in Korean Medicinal Plants
Hwang, Seon Gu ; Yang, Anna ; Kim, Soo Jung ; Kim, Min Kee ; Kim, Sung Soo ; Oh, Hyun Jung ; Lee, Jung Dae ; Lee, Eun Ju ; Nam, Kung-Woo ; Han, Man-Deuk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 498~504
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.498
Mammalian hyaluronidases (HAase, EC 18.104.22.168) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyse N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (1-4) glycosidic bonds in hyaluronic acid, which is found in skin, cartilage, and the vitreous body. Although HAase is generally present in an inactive form within subcellular lysosomes, it is released in an active form in some types of inflammation and tissue injuries, thereby contributing to the inflammatory response. The HAase inhibitory activity of 500 methanolic extracts of 500 species from medicinal plants was screened using a Morgan microplate assay. The viscosity of the hyaluronic acid was measured with an Ubbelohde viscometer. Three MeOH extracts inhibited more than 50% of HAase activity at a concentration of 2 mg/ml. HAase inhibitory rates (%) of three species of medicinal plant extracts, Styrax japonica, Deutzia coreana, and Osmanthus insularis were 57.28%, 53.50%, and 53.19%, respectively. The rate of HAase inhibition of the extracts was dose dependent. In the HAase inhibitory assay using the Ubbelohde viscometer, the results were in good agreement with the results from the Morgan assay. The results suggest that HAase inhibitory compounds extracted from the stem of S. japonica, D. coreana, and O. insularis might be multifunctional and prevent the degradation of hyaluronic acid and the induction of allergic reactions and inflammation.
Pro-apoptotic and Anti-adipogenic Effects of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum) Grains on 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
Jun, Do Youn ; Lee, Ji Young ; Han, Cho Rong ; Kim, Kwan-Pil ; Seo, Myung Chul ; Nam, Min Hee ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 505~514
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.505
To examine the anti-obese activity of miscellaneous cereal grains, 80% ethanol extracts from eight selected miscellaneous cereal grains were compared for their cytotoxic effects on 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes. The ethanol extract of proso millet exhibited the highest cytotoxicity. Further fractionation of the ethanol extract with methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol showed that the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract was mainly partitioned into the butanol fraction. As compared with differentiated mature adipocytes, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were more susceptible to the cyctotoxicity of the butanol fraction. When each organic solvent fraction (25
) was added during the differentiation period for 6 days, the cell viability was not affected significantly except for the butanol fraction, but the intracellular lipid accumulation declined to a level of 81.5%~50.3% of the control. The Oil Red O staining data also demonstrated that the ethanol extract as well as the butanol fraction could inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The presence of the butanol extract during the induced adipocytic differentiation also resulted in a significant reduction in the expression levels of critical adipogenesis mediators
, aP2, and LPL) to a barely detectable or undetectable level and the cells retained the fibroblast-like morphology of 3T3-L1. In 3T3-L1 cells, the cytotoxicity of the butanol fraction (50-100
) was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (
) loss, caspase-3 activation, and PARP degradation. Taken together, these results indicate that proso millet grains possess pro-apoptotic and anti-adipocytic activities toward adipocytes, which can be applicable to prevention of obesity.
Anti-thrombosis Activity of the Aerial Part of Aruncus dioicus var kamtschaticus
Kim, Mi-Sun ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 515~521
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.515
The oriental traditional medicine, Aruncus dioicus var kamtschaticus (ADK) is used for hemostasis (blood stopping) and the promotion of blood circulation. Recently, the demands of the aerial part of ADK as edible mountain herbs are rapidly increased due to its unique fragrance and bioactivity. In this study, to evaluate the anti-thrombosis activity of ADK, ethanol extract and organic solvent fractions were prepared from aerial parts of ADK, and their anticoagulation and anti-platelet aggregation activities were determined. In an anticoagulation activity assay, the ethanol extract of ADK increased the thrombin time, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 1.4-2.3 times at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Among the fractions, the ethylacetate fraction showed strong inhibitory effects against blood clotting factors, as shown in an extension of the aPTT. In contrast, the butanol fraction strongly promoted blood clotting. In an anti-platelet aggregation assay, the activity of the ethanol extract was comparable to that of aspirin, a commercial anti-platelet aggregation agent, and the butanol fraction showed 2-fold higher aggregation inhibitory activity than aspirin. The aforementioned ethanol extract and active fractions have ignorable hemolytic activity against human red blood cells up to a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. Considering the high content of total polyphenol, total flavonoid, and total sugar of the ethylacetate and butanol fractions, the purified active substances have potential as safe and novel anti-thrombosis agents. This report provides the first evidence of anti-thrombosis activity of ADK.
Seasonal Variations in the Bacterial Community of Gwangyang Bay Seawater
Park, Seong Chan ; Lee, Ji Hee ; Kang, Joo Won ; Baik, Keun Sik ; Seong, Chi Nam ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 522~531
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.522
Seasonal variations in the bacterial community of Gwangyang Bay seawater were analyzed using both isolation and cultivation-independent methods. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis was applied to 200 bacterial isolates. Bacterial isolates were composed of four phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Pyrosequencing was conducted, in addition to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of genomic DNA extracted directly from the water samples. The bacterial sequences obtained by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes consisted of 24 phyla in the spring and summer, 39 in the fall, and 32 in the winter. The diversity index was high in the fall, whereas the dominancy index was high in the spring. In the spring, phylum Firmicutes was dominant, whereas phylum Proteobacteria dominated in the other three seasons. The second most dominant phyla were Proteobacteria in the spring, Firmicutes in the summer, and Bacteroidetes both in the fall and winter. Bacilliaceae was the most predominant family in the spring. Rhodobacteraceae and Bacilliaceae dominated in the summer, and Rhodobacteraceae dominated in the winter. Neither was dominant in the fall Twenty-seven bands purified from DGGE profiles were cloned and analyzed phylogenetically. In the spring, phylum Firmicutes dominated, followed by Proteobacteria. Proteobacteria dominated in all other seasons. Thus, two cultivation-independent methods for determination of seasonal variation patterns at the phylum level were in accordance with each other.
Spatial and Temporal Variability of Phytoplankton at Hwadang-ri, Goseng-gun
Kang, Man Ki ; Huh, Man Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 532~542
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.532
This study describe seasonal patterns in the variation of phytoplankton frequency in the water surface and basal layers and their spatial distributions at seven stations in Hwadang-ri, Goseng-gun in 2013. The phytoplankton community at Hwadang-ri was very diverse, with 60 taxa identified, representing three classes. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) exhibited the greatest diversity, with 41 taxa identified. These were followed by the dinoflagellates Dinophyceae, Cryptophyceae, and Eugenophyceae, with 16 taxa, two taxa, and one taxon, respectively. Water surfaces were shown with the relative individual density or abundance across areas. Except in January, Shannon-Weaver indices of diversity of the water surface layer were lower than those of the basal layer. In addition, evenness indices of the basal layer were higher than those of the water surface layer, except in January. For the community as a whole, the values of
-diversity were low for the seven stations: 1.125 for the water surface layer and 1.481 for the basal layer. Seasonal values for
-diversity were similar at the seven stations: 1.725 for the water surface layer and 1.347 for the basal layer. The phytoplankton community showed high taxonomic homogeneity in all four seasons, in addition to similar trends in seasonal development at depths in the same stations. However, the size distribution of the abundance and biomass showed a statistically significant west-east difference.
Removal of Nitrate in River Water by Microorganisms in Saturated-Zone Soil: Laboratory-Scale Column Test
Park, Jungyong ; Ahn, Yeonghee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 543~548
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.543
Aquifer recharge and recovery is a technology used to ensure a stable supply of clean water. During the process, river water is injected into a soil aquifer and stored. The stored water is then recovered and used to produce drinking water. It is important to understand quality improvement of the injected water while it is stored in the aquifer. In the present study, a lab-scale column reactor containing saturated-zone soil was employed to mimic an aquifer. The reactor was used to investigate microbial removal of nitrate that is a major inorganic contaminant detected in the Nakdong River. The reactor was introduced with river water that contained nitrate at concentrations (5.07, 6.81, 8.27, and 11.07 mg
) detected downstream of the Nakdong River in the past 2 years. The nitrate concentrations decreased during the introduced water is retained in the reactor. Effluent from the reactor contained 1.49 mg
or less and had an average pH of 7.98 regardless of the nitrate concentrations of the influent. However abiotic control reactor showed similar nitrate-concentrations in its influent and effluent. Considering the result of abiotic control, the decreased nitrate concentration observed in the test column suggested that microorganisms in saturated-zone soil removed nitrate in the river water introduced into the reactor. Results of this study will be used to better understand microbial improvement of water quality in aquifer recharge and recovery technology.
Quality Characteristics and Biological Activity of Fermented Black Garlic with Probiotics
Tak, Hyun-Min ; Kim, Gyeong-Min ; Kim, Jong-Su ; Hwang, Cho-Rong ; Kang, Min-Jung ; Shin, Jung-Hye ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 549~557
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.549
This study examined the quality characteristics of fermented black garlic (BG) with probiotics. Nine strains of probiotics were tested in media containing 20% BG. Four of the strains grew well in the BG media: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. casei, and L. plantarum. These four strains were used to make 10, 20, and 30% BG fermented product, respectively. The number of viable cells, pH, acidity, S-allyl cysteine (SAC) concentration, and nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (ROS) generation in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells were measured. L. plantarum showed the best growth of all the strains in the BG media. The pH of all the samples decreased during fermentation, and the acidity increased acidity. However, they did not differ significantly from the pH and acidity of the control. In all four strains, the SAC content did not differ before and after fermentation. However, the SAC content increased, depending on the BG concentration. NO production was inhibited in the L. rhamnosus inoculation strain compared to the other strains. ROS generation was also significantly inhibited in the L. plantarum inoculation strain compared to the other strains. The results show that the characteristics of BG fermentation products are determined by the fermentation strain. Therefore, fermentation products with particular characteristics can be produced using a single strain or mixed strains.
Effects of Ethylsalicylic Acid on Growth and Rubisco/Rubisco Activase in Tobacco Plant Cultured under Cadmium Treatment in vitro
Roh, Kwang Soo ; Cui, Qiu Jie ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 558~566
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.558
Growth induced by cadmium (Cd) and ethylsalicylic acid (ESA) and the effect of ESA on rubisco/rubisco activase were studied in tobacco. The effect of denaturants on rubisco/rubisco activase was also investigated. In order to determine optimal concentration of ESA for growth of tobacco, tobacco was treated with
-10 mM. It was found that its growth was the highest at
mM ESA. In the experiment using control, Cd treated group, ESA treated group, and Cd and ESA mixture group, ESA alone showed the highest growth and Cd showed the lowest growth. Cd treated group was the lowest in both rubisco/rubisco activase content and activity. ESA reduced the rubisco/rubisco activase content, but increased their activity. The activity of rubisco was inhibited by treating L-cysteine, urea, thiourea,
-mercaptoethanol, and EDTA other than guanidine-HCl in control group. L-cysteine, urea, thiourea, and guanidine-HCl treatments showed no change, but
-mercaptoethanol and EDTA increased rubisco activase activity. In conclusion, ESA inhibited the content of rubisco and promoted its activity, whereas promoted the content of rubisco activase and inhibited its activity. In addition, the content and activity of rubisco and rubisco activase inhibited by Cd were recovered by ESA. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase by Cd and ESA was inhibited by the denaturant and the recovery of ESA inhibited by Cd was lost by the denaturant.
Gene Expression Analysis of Immune Cell Activation Markers in Extracts of Platycodon grandiflorum Containing Medicinal Herbs
Kang, Shin Ae ; Chun, Sung Sik ; Kang, Shin Kwon ; Chung, Young Chul ; Cheon, Eun Woo ; Cho, Sang Uk ; Jung, Kyung Hwa ; Ahn, Soon Cheol ; Yu, Hak Sun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 567~572
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.567
Extracts of Platycodon grandiflorum have been reported to show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-metastatic, and hepato-protective effects. This study was designed to evaluate T-cell activation and M1/M2 differential macrophage activation by extracts of P. grandiflorum or P. grandiflorum containing various medicinal herbs. Using real-time RT-PCR, we analyzed expression levels of c-fos, and CD40L (T-cell activation markers) in splenocytes and iNOS, Ym1, and ARG1 in RAW 246.7 cells after treatment of CC (hot water extract of P. grandiflorum), MAEK (hot water extract of P. grandiflorum [82%] and six different plants), and HWAL (hot water extract of P. grandiflorum [7%] and eight different plants. The results showed that MAEK significantly elevated the expression of T-cell activation markers of splenocytes, with the c-fos gene activated more than 10-fold and the CD40L gene activated more than 6-fold. Although CD40L was significantly increased by CC and HWAL, the increase was only about 2-fold. In addition, CC and HWAL did not significantly activate the expression of the c-fos gene. On the other hand, CC elevated the M1 activation marker iNOS, and HWAL elevated the M2 activation marker Ym1 and ARG1 gene expression. In conclusion, MAEK could be used as an immune stimulant because of its ability to activate T cells (elicited c-fos and CD40L gene expression), whereas HWAL could serve as an anti-inflammatory agent because of its differential activation of M2 macrophages.
The Role of Angiogenesis in Obesity
Yoon, Michung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 573~587
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.573
Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillary blood vessels, is a tightly regulated process. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis only takes place during embryonic development, wound healing, and female menstruation. Dysregulation of angiogenesis is associated with many diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and proliferative retinopathy. The growth and expansion of adipose tissue require the formation of new blood vessels. Adipose tissue is probably the most highly vascularized tissue in the body, as each adipocyte is surrounded by capillaries, and the angiogenic vessels supply nutrients and oxygen to adipocytes. Accumulating evidence shows that capillary endothelial cells communicate with adipocytes via paracrine signaling pathways, extracellular components, and direct cell-cell interactions. Activated adipocytes produce multiple angiogenic factors, including VEGF, FGF-2, leptin, and HGF, which either alone or cooperatively stimulate the expansion and metabolism of adipose tissue by increasing adipose tissue vasculature. Recently, it was demonstrated that antiangiogenic herbal Ob-X extracts and Korean red ginseng extracts reduce adipose tissue mass and suppress obesity by inhibiting angiogenesis in obese mice. Thus, angiogenesis inhibitors provide a promising therapeutic approach for controlling human obesity and related disorders.
RalA-binding Protein 1 is an Important Regulator of Tumor Angiogenesis
Lee, Seunghyung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 5, 2014, Pages 588~593
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.5.588
Tumor angiogenesis is important in tumorigenesis and therapeutic interventions in cancer. To know inhibitor and effector of tumor angiogenesis in cancer, the specific gene of tumor and angiogenesis may develop the mechanisms of cancer suppression and therapy. Recently, we described the role of RalA-binding protein 1 (RLIP76) in tumor angiogenesis. Tumor vascular volumes were diminished, and vessels were fewer in number, shorter, and narrower in RLIP76 knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Moreover, angiogenesis in basement membrane matrix plugs was blunted in the knockout mice in the absence of tumor cells, with endothelial cells isolated from the lungs of these animals exhibiting defects in migration, proliferation, and cord formation in vitro. RLIP76 is expressed in most human tissues and is overexpressed in many tumor types. In addition, the protein regulates tumorigenesis and angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. As the export of chemotherapy agents is a prominent cellular function of RLIP76, it is a major factor in mechanisms of drug resistance. Moreover, RLIP76 acts as a selective effector of the small GTPase, R-Ras, and regulates R-Ras signaling, leading to cell spreading and migration. Furthermore, in skin carcinogenesis, RLIP76 knockout mice are resistant, with tumors that form showing diminished angiogenesis. Thus, RLIP76 is required for efficient endothelial cell function and angiogenesis in solid tumors.