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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 12 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 11 - Nov 2014
Volume 24, Issue 10 - Oct 2014
Volume 24, Issue 9 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 8 - Aug 2014
Volume 24, Issue 7 - Jul 2014
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
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Genetic Diversity and Phenetic Relationships of Genus Oxalis in Korea Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers
Huh, Man Kyu ; Choi, Byoung-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 707~712
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.707
We evaluated the phenetic relationships within six taxa of genus Oxalis L. in Korea with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten primers produced 125 bands for six taxa, and the mean number of bands per primer was 12.5. Across the six taxa, 121 (96.8%) bands were polymorphic, and only four were monomorphic. The mean number of RAPD phenotypes across the six taxa varied from 3.6 (O. stricta and O. corymbosa) to 4.8 (O. corniculata for. rubrifolia). In a simple measure of intraspecies variability according to the percentage of polymorphic bands, O. stricta and O. corymbosa exhibited the lowest variation (28.8%), and O. corniculata for. rubrifolia showed the highest (38.4%). A mean of 32.7% of the loci was polymorphic within taxa. The total interspecies genetic diversity (
) and intraspecies genetic diversity (
) was 0.362 and 0.122, respectively. On a per-locus basis, the proportion of total genetic variation due to differences among species (
) was 0.663. This indicates that about 66.3% of the total variation was among species. The node of O. stricta and O. corniculata for. rubrifolia was strongly supported, with a high bootstrap value in the NJ tree and sistered with O. corniculata. According to RAPD analysis, the number of chromosomes was not congruent with a phenetic relationship.
Antioxidative and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ardisia arborescens Ethanol Extract
Jin, Kyong-Suk ; Lee, Ji Young ; Kwon, Hyun Ju ; Kim, Byung Woo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 713~720
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.713
In this study, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of Ardisia arborescens ethanol extract (AAEE) were evaluated using in vitro assays and a cell culture model system. AAEE exhibited potent scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), similar to ascorbic acid, which was used as a positive control. Moreover, AAEE effectively suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and hydrogen peroxide (
)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, AAEE induced the expression of antioxidative enzymes, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), in addition to their upstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), in a dose-dependent manner. The upstream signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) might regulate the modulation of HO-1, TrxR1, and Nrf2 expression. On the other hand, AAEE inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) formation, without cytotoxicity. Suppression of NO formation was the result of AEEE-induced down-regulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The suppression of NO and iNOS by AAEE might be modulated by their upstream transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)-
, and activator protein (AP)-1 pathways. Taken together, these results provide important new insights into the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of A. arborescens. AAAEE might represent a promising material in the field of nutraceuticals.
In vivo Growth Inhibition of Sarcoma-180 Cells by a β-Glucan from the Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum
Han, Man-Deuk ; Kim, Yong Hyun ; Kim, Wan Jong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 721~727
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.721
-glucan, a polysaccharide (GLP) isolated from the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum, was previously shown to have inhibitory effects against tumor-bearing mice in vivo. We investigated the apoptotic effect of mushroom-derived
-glucan in a sarcoma-180 tumor cell- bearing mice model using an ELISA to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor-
) in the mice. The morphology of the tumor cells was assessed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). GLP was injected into the tumor-bearing mice at a dose (i.p.) of 20 mg/kg for 10 days. After 30 days, the tumor mass from the inguinal region was collected, weighed, and assayed using TEM and a TNF-
ELISA kit. The tumors that developed in the mice treated with GLP were 71.4% smaller than those in the control group, showing the ability of GLP to inhibit tumor growth. The levels of TNF-
in the serum of the sarcoma-180 bearing mice were 12 times greater than in the serum of the nonbearing tumor mice. An ultrastructural study demonstrated that the GLP-treated sarcoma-180 tumor cells were condensed, with rearranged chromatin. In addition, the marginated chromatin in nucleus induced the nuclear compartment, and there were many vacuolization in the cell. GLP could be an effective apoptosis-inducing compound in sarcoma-type cancers.
Antifatigue Effect of Eel and Plant Mix Extracts during Aerobic Running Training in Sprague Dawley Rats
Kang, Min-Jung ; Hwang, Cho-Rong ; Lee, Soo Jung ; Shin, Jung-Hye ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 728~736
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.728
The purpose of this study was to improve and strengthen the function of eel extract prepared with 5 brix eel extract (EE), 5 brix eel and plant mix (black garlic, ginseng, black jujube) 0.35 ml extracts prepared and treated with the extract (EIM-1), and 0.7 ml (EIM-2) divided group. The extracts were administered to rats for five weeks during running training, and the lipid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities were tested. The lipid content in liver and serum were lower than the normal group difference was not significant between groups. Serum total cholesterol was lower in the experimental group than the control group the mixed extract significantly lower level. HDL-cholesterol levels in the eel extract and eel mixed extract significantly increased by feeding the EIM-1 is 2.0 times, EIM-2 is increased by 2.3 times. Liver glycogen content in the experimental group performed the exercise group compared with the normal control group was significantly lower than in EIM is significantly higher than the control group. The TBARS content in the liver and serum was significantly higher than the normal group was lower than the control group. GOT and GPT were significantly decreased compared to the control group. Hepatic catalase activity was significantly increased in the EIM-1 group, and SOD and GSH-px activities were increased in the EIM-1 and EIM-2 groups. Supplementation with the eel and plant mix extract increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, intake of the eel and plant mix extract could improve the antioxidant status and combat different types of oxidative stress.
Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Extracts
Lim, Sun Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 737~742
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.737
The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition of raw and dried abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) and to determine the effect of abalone extracts on cytotoxic activity and anti-oxidant properties. Dried abalone was extracted with acetone/methylene chloride (A+M) and methanol (MeOH), and the extracts were fractionated using n-hexane, 85% aq. methanol (MeOH), butanol (BuOH), and water. Cytotoxic activity against HT-29 cancer cell lines was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Antioxidant activity was measured using a fluorescence sensitive dye, 2'-7' dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The fatty acid composition of dried abalone was higher (22:6n-3) than that of raw abalone, and it had a lower percentage of 20:4n-6 than raw abalone. Analysis of cell viability showed that the crude extract treatments and fractions were cytotoxic, suppressing the growth of HT-29 cancer cell lines (p<0.05). The A+M extract showed a higher cytotoxic effect on the growth of HT-29 cells compared to the MeOH extract. Among the fractions, the 85% aq. MeOH fraction showed the strongest cytotoxicity against the growth of HT-29 cells. The highest activity in terms of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) was likewise obtained with the use of 85% aq. MeOH. Our results suggest that the 85% aq. MeOH fraction has a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human cancer cells.
Effect of Fermented Angelica gigas Nakai on Lipid Metabolism in Orotic Acid Model Rats
Ahn, Hee-Young ; Park, Kyu-Rim ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 743~749
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.743
The aim of this study was to identify the effect of fermented Angelica gigas Nakai (A. gigas) on lipid metabolism in orotic acid-induced fatty liver model rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four dietary groups (n=6 per group): a normal (N) group fed a standard diet only, OA control, OA acid plus 5% (w/w) A. gigas (OAG), and OA plus 5% (w/w) fermented A. gigas (OFAG). OA treatment induced enlargement of the liver and accumulation of hepatic triglycerides. The consum ption of fermented A. gigas reduced triglyceride concentrations in the liver and increased the serum lipid concentrations to normal levels. Furthermore, OA treatment significantly decreased serum triglyc eride concentrations without diminishing mRNA expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protei n (MTP) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Hepatic MTP mRNA expression increased 1.08-fold in response to OA treatment, despite triglyceride accumulation in the liver relative to that of the normal group. OFAG administration was slightly lower as compared to the OA treatment. This result suggests that MTP mRNA expression is not always correlated with hepatic triglyceride accumulation in the OA-induced fatty liver model. However, PDI mRNA expression was significantly increased in the OAG and OFAG groups (1.62-fold and 1.63-fold, respectively) compared with the normal group. The hepatocytes in the OA group contained numerous large fat droplets. These were slightly reduced in the OFAG group.
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Citrus unshiu Peels Fermented with Aspergillus niger
Lee, Sun Yi ; Hyun, Ju Mi ; Kim, Sang Suk ; Park, Suk Man ; Park, Kyung Jin ; Choi, Young Hun ; Kim, Sang Hun ; Yu, Sun Nyoung ; Ahn, Soon Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 750~756
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.750
Citrus, yield of which is the highest among fruits produced in Korea, is extensively consumed for processed food items. The amount of by-products of citrus produced from the processing within a short period after the harvest is tremendous. These by-products are mostly dumped into land or neglected because of cost involved in processing them. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of the by-products as a new material by examining the anti-inflammatory activity of fermented extracts of citrus peels. The peels of 'unshu' (Citrus unshiu) was fermented with Aspergillus niger and their extracts before or after fermentation were analyzed using HPLC. The analysis showed that neohesperidin level considerably increased and the two new compounds were synthesized after fermentation. The anti-inflammatory activity of the fermented extracts was examined on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Fermented unshu extracts significantly enhanced the decrease of nitric oxide (NO) production, iNOS and COX-2 expression, comparing with those of unfermented extracts. Also TNF-
and IL-6 production, both of which are pro-inflammatory cytokine, were more inhibited in fermented extracts. These results showed that the fermentation and promotion of the function of the by-products of citrus peels will help find a new application.
Antibacterial Effect of Bacteria Isolated from the Plant Rhizosphere against Pathogenic Bacteria of Fish
Jeong, Ji-Woon ; Park, So-Hyun ; Kim, Dong-Hwi ; Jeun, Yong-Chull ; Heo, Moon-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 757~761
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.757
Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an important aquaculture fish species in Jeju Island, South Korea. Due to the intensification of flounder fish farming, huge amounts of chemical antibiotics are used against several fish diseases. This has many harmful side effects on fish, as well as human consumers. Hence, an alternative to chemical antibiotic agents is needed for disease control. In this study, three strains of rhizobacteria (BRH433-2, TRH415-2, and THJ609-3) were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants. Assays of their antibacterial activity against fish pathogens, such as S. iniae, S. parauberis, V. anguillarum, and E. tarda, were performed with untreated broth culture (without cell separation), supernatant, and precipitated pellets separated by centrifugation. Among these, the cell suspension prepared from the precipitated pellet showed significant antimicrobial activity when compared with that of the untreated broth culture and centrifugal supernatant. These results indicate that the three isolated rhizobacterial strains exhibit antibacterial activity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of the BRH-433-2, THJ609-3, and TRH415-2 strains showed the highest similarity to Burkholderia gladioli (99.5%), Pseudomonas baetica (97.7%), and P. koreensis and P. baetica (98.4%), respectively. We suggest that the strains hold promise in disease management of fish.
Expressional Analysis of Two Genes (Scd1 and Idi1) Down-regulated by Starvation Stress
Cho, Junho ; Kwon, Young-Sook ; Kim, Dong-Il ; Kim, Bok Jo ; Kwon, Kisang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 762~768
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.762
Diet exerts a major stress on the body and may affect gene expression and physiological functions. Understanding of cellular responses during starvation is necessary in developing strategies to reduce damage caused by diet. In this study, we isolated 10 genes (Comt, RGN, Scd1, Temt, Idi1, Fabp5, Car3, Cyp2c70, Pinx1, and Poldip3) that are down-regulated in starvation and are closely related to liver metabolism. Water supply during starvation had no effect on the induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and ERQC. The genes down-regulated by starvation were associated with many related pathways rather than limited to the liver homeostasis pathway. Water supply during starvation is important. However, maintaining NaCl homeostasis is more important. The results are thought to be closely related to gender-specific metabolism in starvation and NaCl.
Anisomycin, an Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis, Overcomes TRAIL Resistance in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells via Caspases Activation and Bid Downregulation
Jin, Cheng-Yun ; Park, Cheol ; Hong, Su Hyun ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 769~776
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.769
Anisomycin, also known as flagecidin, is an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseolus that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the ribosomal 28S subunit. The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a protein that induces apoptotic cell death. TRAIL primarily causes apoptosis in tumor cells by binding to death receptors. Many human cancer cell lines are refractory to TRAIL-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated whether anisomycin could enhance TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells. Treatment with anisomycin and TRAIL alone did not reduce cell viability in Hep3B cells. However, in the presence of TRAIL, the anisomycin concentration dependently reduced the cell viability. Our results indicate that anisomycin sensitizes Hep3B cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and that this occurs, at least partly, via caspase activation. Interestingly, Bid knockdown by small interfering RNA significantly reduced the induction of apoptosis in combination with anisomycin and TRAIL, indicating that anisomycin effectively acts to lower the threshold at which TRAIL-mediated truncated Bid triggers the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis program in Hep3B cells. Therefore, the use of TRAIL in combination with anisomycin might provide an effective therapeutic strategy for the safe treatment of some TRAIL-resistant cancer cells.
Effects of Zizyphi Spinosae Extract on Cisplatin and t-Butylhydroperoxide Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rabbits
Kim, Jae Young ; Kim, Chung Hui ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 777~783
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.777
Cathepsin D (CtsD), an aspartyl peptidase, is involved in apoptosis, resulting in the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria in cells. Here, we investigated microRNA regulation of CtsD expression in 3T3-L1 cells. First, we observed the expression of CtsD in cells in response to doxorubicin (Dox). As expected, the level of CtsD mRNA increased in 3T3-L1 cells exposed to Dox in a dose-dependent manner. The cellular viability of ectopically expressed CtsD cells was decreased. Next, we used the miRanda program to search for particular microRNA targeting CtsD. MiR-145 was selected as a putative controller of CtsD because it had a high mirSVR score. In a reporter assay, the luciferase activity of cells containing the CtsD 3'-UTR region decreased in cells transfected with a miR-145 mimic compared to that of a control. The level of CtsD expression was down-regulated in preadipocytes ectopically expressing miR-145 and up-regulated by an miR-145 inhibitor. Cells also suppressed miR-145 expression when exposed to Dox. The miR-145 inhibitor reduced the cellular viability of 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-145 regulates CtsD-mediated cell death in adipocytes. These findings may have valuable implications concerning the molecular mechanism of CtsD-mediated cell death in obesity, suggesting that CtsD could be a useful therapeutic tool for the prevention and treatment of obesity by regulating fat cell numbers.
Bifidogenic Effects of the Oral Administration of Fly Maggot Extract on Organic Acid, Cecal Microorganisms, Thymus and Spleen Weights, and Blood Lipids in Rats
Park, Byung-Sung ; Park, Sang-Oh ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 784~790
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.784
Housefly (Musca domestica L.) maggots are used as biomedical material. Ethanolic extracts of fly maggot (EM) were orally administered to male rats at levels of 0 (control group), 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 mg per 100 g live weight for 40 days. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C decreased by 17.90, 17.60, and 16.37%, respectively, whereas HDL-C increased by 20.48% in the EM group compared with these parameters in a control group (p<0.05). Thymus and spleen weights dose-dependently increased by 21.42% and 21.42%, respectively, but abdominal fat decreased by 39.66% after EM administration compared with that in the control group (p<0.05). IgG, IgA, and IgM increased 35.14, 68.65, and 190.16%, respectively, in the EM groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus increased by 41.68% and 35.55%, respectively, in the EM groups compared with the control group, and Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Streptococcus decreased by 24.96, 46.37, 25.00, and 34.05%, respectively, in the EM groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). Compared with the control group, total organic acids, acetic acid, and propionic acid increased by 31.11, 49.34, and 24.88%, whereas butyric acid, isobutyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid decreased by 30.79, 72.64, 32.90, and 63.16% respectively, in the EM groups (p<0.05). These results suggest that EM has a bifidogenic effect on immune cell development, blood lipid levels, and abdominal fat reduction by increasing the production of organic acid and numbers of cecal microorganisms in animals.
Comparison of Mitochondria-related Conserved Genes in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Lee, Dong-Geun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 791~797
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.791
Sixty-two conserved orthologous groups (OGs) of proteins, in 63 prokaryotes and seven eukaryotes were analyzed to identify essential proteins in the mitochondria of eukaryotes, and their counterparts in prokaryotes. Twenty OGs were common in eukaryotic mitochondria, and all were translation related. Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an obligate parasitic eukaryote, shares no common mitochondrial OGs with the other 69 organisms. Seventeen conserved OGs were mitochondria related in the 69 organisms. Mitochondria related- and nonrelated-OGs were divided into prokaryotic genomes (p<0.001, paired t-test) unlike eukaryotic genomes in the distance value analysis. The most commonly conserved mitochondria-related OG was COG0048-KOG1750 (ribosomal small subunit S12), whereas it was COG0100-KOG0407 (ribosomal small subunit S11) in nonrelated OGs. These results could be applied in scientific research to determine phylogenetic relationships and in areas such as drug development.
Repression of Cathepsin D Expression in Adipocytes by MicroRNA-145
Kim, Hyun-Ji ; Bae, In-Seon ; Seo, Kang-Seok ; Kim, Sang Hoon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 798~803
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.798
Cathepsin D (CtsD), an aspartyl peptidase, is involved in apoptosis, resulting in the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria in cells. Here, we investigated microRNA regulation of CtsD expression in 3T3-L1 cells First, we observed the expression of CtsD in cells in response to doxorubicin (Dox). As expected, the level of CtsD mRNA was increased in 3T3-L1 cells exposed to Dox in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular viability of ectopically expressed CtsD cells was also decreased. Next, we used the miRanda program to search for particular microRNA targeting CtsD. MiR-145 was selected as a putative controller for CtsD because miR-145 had a high mirSVR score. In a reporter assay, the luciferase activity of cells containing the CtsD 3'-UTR region was decreased in cells transfected with miR-145 mimic compared to that of a control. The level of CtsD expression was down-regulated in preadipocytes ectopically expressing miR-145 and up-regulated by an miR-145 inhibitor. Cells also suppressed miR-145 expression when exposed to Dox. The miR-145 inhibitor reduced the cellular viability of 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-145 regulates CtsD-mediated cell death in adipocytes. These findings may have valuable implications concerning the molecular mechanism of CtsD-mediated cell death in obesity, suggesting that CtaD could be a useful therapeutic tool for the prevention and treatment of obesity by regulating fat cell numbers.
In vivo Micronucleus Test of Cyclohexanone and Mutagenicity Classification According to a Globally Harmonized System
Kim, Soo-Jin ; Rim, Kyung-Taek ; Lim, Cheol-Hong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 24, issue 7, 2014, Pages 804~811
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2014.24.7.804
A micronucleus test of cyclohexanone has not yet been conducted. To classify the chemical hazard posed by cyclohexanone according to a globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (GHS), we investigated its mutagenicity by micronucleus induction in ICR bone marrow cells of 7-weeek-old male mice. The mice were administered three dosages of the chemical for 24 hr via the oral route. After 24 hr, the mice were sacrificed, and their bone marrow cells were prepared for smearing slides. Based on counts of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) of 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes, cyclohexanone did not inhibit bone marrow cell proliferation in any of the treated groups, but it resulted in micronucleus induction. According to the results of the mammalian bone marrow micronucleus test, this chemical is mutagenic and classified as category 2 in the GHS.