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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Allium hookeri Extract Improves Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in C57BL/KSJ Db/db Obese Mouse via Regulation of Hepatic Lipogenesis and Glucose Metabolism
Kim, Ji-Soo ; Heo, Jin-Sun ; Choi, Jong-Won ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Sohn, Kie-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1081~1090
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1081
Diabetes has been one of major health risks in industrialized countries. Allium hookeri is a wild herb distributed in India and Myanmar. The root of the plant has been used as food and medicine in Southeast Asia. We investigated Allium hookeri extract improves type 2 diabetes mellitus in C57BL/KSJ db/db obese mouse. C57BL/KSJ db/db obese mouse arise out of Type 2 diabetes and we treated Allium hookeri methanol extract 400 mg/kg (AH 400), 800 mg/kg (AH 800), positive control group (thiazolidinedine;TZDs) were administered orally for 8weeks. AH treated group normalized lipid enzyme system (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol) and serum glucose, HbA1c and plasma insulin level. AH treated group recovered β-cell damage by hyperglycemia and fatty liver disease. AH treated group significantly up regulated expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase4 (PDK4), Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP 1) and fork head box O1 (FOX 01) proteins in C57BL/KSJ db/db obese mouse liver. And we found that AH treated group decreased hepatic malondialdehyde formation in C57BL/KSJ db/db obese mouse liver. These results indicate that Allium hookeri methanol extract might be a potential anti-diabetic agent and could be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Expression Analysis of Oryza sativa Ascorbate Peroxidase 1 (OsAPx1) in Response to Different Phytohormones and Pathogens
Wang, Yiming ; Wu, Jingni ; Choi, Young Whan ; Jun, Tae Hwan ; Kwon, Soon Wook ; Choi, In Soo ; Kim, Yong Chul ; Gupta, Ravi ; Kim, Sun Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1091~1097
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1091
We have isolated and characterized an ascorbate peroxidase (APx) gene, OsAPx1 from rice. Northern and Western blot analyses indicated that at young seedling stage, OsAPx1 mRNA was expressed highly in root, shoot apical meristem (SAM) and leaf sheath than leaf. In mature plant, OsAPx1 gene expressed highly in root, stem and flower but weakly in leaf. OsAPx1 gene and protein expression level was induced in leaves inoculated with Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Phytohormones treatment showed that OsAPx1 was up-regulated by jasmonic acid (JA), but was down regulated by ABA and SA co-treatments with JA, resulting that they have antagonistic effect on pathogen responsive OsAPx1 expression. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that Arabidopsis AtAPx1 has a close relationship with OsAPx1. In AtAPx1 knock out lines, the accumulation of O
are all highly detected than wild type, revealing that the high concentration of exogenous H
cause the intercellular superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in AtAPx1 knockout plant. These results suggested that OsAPx1 gene may be associated with the pathogen defense cascades as the mediator for balancing redox state by acting ROS scavenger and is associated with response to the pathogen defense via Jasmonic acid signaling pathway.
Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Induces FABPpm Expression in C2C12 Myotubes
Kim, Hye Jin ; Yoon, Hae Min ; Lee, Won Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1098~1102
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1098
FABPpm (plasma membrane-bound fatty acid binding protein ) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. The principal role of this protein is modulating fatty acid uptake and metabolism. The influence of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which is a major regulator of skeletal muscle cells, on FABPpm in skeletal muscle cells has not been investigated. To determine the effect of IGF-I on the expression of FABPpm, differentiated C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cells were treated with 20 ng/ml of IGF-I for different times. IGF-I increased the expression of FABPpm in a time-dependent manner. The mRNA level of FABPpm was measured by real-time quantitative PCR to determine whether the IGF-1-induced induction of FABPpm was regulated pretranslationally. The IGF-I treatment resulted in very rapid induction of the FABPpm mRNA transcript in the C2C12 myotubes. After 24 and 48 hr of the IGF-I treatment, FABPpm mRNA increased 130 and 179%, respectively. The increase in the protein expression returned to control levels after 72 hr of the IGF-I treatment, suggesting that IGF-1 regulated the FABPpm gene pretranslationally in skeletal muscle cells. This is the first evidence that IGF-I has a modulatory effect on the expression of FABPpm. In conclusion, IGF-I induced rapid transcriptional modification of the FABPpm gene in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells and exerted modulatory effects on FABPpm.
Activation of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Induces GluA2 Internalization in the Hippocampus
Ryu, Keun Oh ; Seok, Heon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1103~1109
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1103
Cholinergic innervation of the hippocampus is known to be correlated with learning and memory. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) modulate synaptic plasticity and produced long-term synaptic depression (LTD) in the hippocampus. However, the exact mechanisms by which the cholinergic system modifies synaptic functions in the hippocampus have yet to be determined. This study introduces an acetylcholine receptor-mediated LTD that requires internalization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptors on the postsynaptic surface and their intracellular mechanism in the hippocampus. In the present study, we showed that the application of the cholinergic agonist CCh reduced the surface expression of GluA2 on synapses and that this reduction was prevented by the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist pirenzepine in primary hippocampal neurons. The interaction between GluA2 and the glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) was disrupted in a hippocampal slice from a rat upon CCh simulation. Under the same conditions, the binding of GluA2 to adaptin-α, a protein involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, was enhanced. The current data suggest that the activation of LTD, mediated by the acetylcholine receptor, requires the internalization of the GluA2 subunits of AMPA receptors and that this may be controlled by the disruption of GRIP1 in the PDZ ligand domain of GluA2. Therefore, we can hypothesize that one mechanism underlying the LTD mediated by the M1 mAChR is the internalization of the GluA2 AMPAR subunits from the plasma membrane in the hippocampal cholinergic system.
Physiological Functions of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Broth Containing Fagopyrum esculentum and Saccharina japonica
Jeon, Sung-Jong ; Kim, Ae-Ryoung ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1110~1114
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1110
In this study, we investigated the potential of Lactobacillus brevis AR1 fermented broth containing various grains (Fagopyrum esculentum, Scotch oat, Sesamum indicum, Glycine max Merr, Castanea crenata, Oryza sativa L., Hordeum vulgare L., Perilla frutescens var. japonica Hara, or Triticum aestivum L.) or Saccharina japonica as a source of collagen synthesis in cosmetic products. The treatment of Lb. brevis AR1 fermented broths containing F. esculentum or S. japonica water extracts was markedly increased the synthesis of collagen in fibroblasts. The collagen synthesis capacity of the S. japonica fermentation product was higher than that of β-glucan, which was used as a positive control. Under controlled conditions in broths containing F. esculentum or the S. japonica extracts with 4% monosodium glutamate (MSG), Lb. brevis AR1 produced γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at a concentration of 180 mM, with an 84.5% GABA conversion rate after 72 h. Both the F. esculentum and S. japonica fermentation broths produced by Lb. brevis AR1 reduced inflammatory responses on mouse skin and did not show cell cytotoxicity in fibroblasts. These results suggest that both the F. esculentum and S. japonica fermentation products of Lb. brevis AR1 could be used as functional materials in cosmetic products to combat wrinkles and skin inflammation.
Antioxidant Effect of Nelumbo nucifera G. Leaf Extract and Inhibition of MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and Tyrosinase Expression in a B16F10 Melanoma Cell Line
Yoo, Dan-Hee ; Joo, Da-Hye ; Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1115~1123
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1115
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of Nelumbo nucifera G. leaf (NNL) extract as a cosmetic additive. The electron-donating ability of the NNL extract at a concentration of 1,000 μg/ml was 67.83%. In xanthine oxidase, the inhibition effect of the NNL extract was 92.7% at the same concentration. For whitening effects, tyrosinase inhibition effect of NNL extract was 42.7% at a 1,000 μg/ml concentration. The cell toxicity of the NNL extract was examined in melanoma cells (B16F10) using a 3-[4, 5–dimethyl–thiazol–2–yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. The cell toxicity assay revealed that the NNL extract had a toxicity of 81.61% at a concentration of 1,000 μg/ml The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1), tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2), and tyrosinase protein expression inhibitory effect by Western blot of NNL extract were measured by a Western blot at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml. At a 100 μg/ml concentration of the NNL extract, the expression of the MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and tyrosinase protein was decreased by 69.59%, 27.74%, 67.33%, and 67.78% respectively. The MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2 and tyrosinase mRNA expression inhibitory effect were measured by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml. GAPDH was used as a positive control. At a concentration of 100 μg/ml of the NNL extract, the expression of MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and tyrosinase mRNA was decreased by 67.51%, 71.36%, 85.74%, and 83.64%, respectively. These findings suggest that the NNL extract has antioxidant and whitening effects and that it has great potential as a cosmetic ingredient.
Effect of Preservation Conditions on the Stability of Samul-tang Decoctions
Park, In Hwa ; Kim, Yeon Hak ; Choi, Seong Hwan ; Yu, Sun Nyoung ; Kim, Sang Hun ; Ahn, Soon Cheol ; Cho, Su In ; Lee, In ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1124~1131
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1124
Consumer interest in the stability of medicinal herb extracts during storage has increased. Although the advent of new technologies has improved preservation conditions, increasing the storage time, there are few studies on the preservation of herb extracts. The purpose of this study was to perform microscopic observations of Samul-tang decoctions under various preservation conditions. The storage temperature (a high temperature, room temperature, with or without light, refrigeration, or cryopreservation) and storage time (0, 15, 30, 90, and 180 days) were given to each condition Macroscopic morphology, pH, UV absorption, HPLC, and bacteriological studies were performed to determine microscopic changes in Samul-tang decoctions. The biological activity (tyrosinase inhibition) of the Samul-tang decoctions was also examined. There were no major changes in the indicated observation items when the extracts were stored in each condition. However, at higher storage temperatures and longer storage times, microscopic changes increased, although no bacteria were detected. Furthermore, the higher the storage temperature was and the longer the storage time was, the bigger the change was, despite of minor microscopic changes. Therefore, to maintain the stability of herbal extracts during storage, it is recommended to keep the Samul-tang decoction in the preservation condition of refrigeration and cryopreservation or without light rather than high temperature and room temperature as possible.
Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Solvent Fractions from the Peel of the Native Jeju Citrus ‘Hongkyool’ and ‘Pyunkyool’
Hyun, Ju Mi ; Park, Kyung Jin ; Kim, Sang Suk ; Park, Suk Man ; Lee, Young Jae ; An, Hyun Joo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1132~1138
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1132
This study investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of unripe fruit peel solvent fractions of the native jeju citrus ‘Hongkyool’ (Citrus tachibana Tanaka) and ‘Pyunkyool’ (C. tangerina Hort. ex Tanaka). The total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content were highest in the butanol fraction of both ‘Hongkyool’ (534.4 mg/g, 431.8 mg/g) and ‘Pyunkyool’ (342.9 mg/g, 415.7 mg/g). In both cultivars, the butanol fraction showed the strong antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging. The DPPH radical scavenging of the butanol fraction from ‘Hongkyool’ and ‘Pyunkyool’ was 89% and 64% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, respectively. The ABTS radical scavenging of the butanol fraction from ‘Hongkyool’ and ‘Pyunkyool‘ was 94% and 85% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml, respectively. We investigated the effect of the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from ‘Hongkyool’ and ‘Pyunkyool’ on LPS-induced NO production, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 protein expression in Raw 264.7 cells. At concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/ml of the ‘Hongkyool’ ethyl acetate fraction, the anti-inflammatory effect was excellent. These results suggest that ethyl acetate and butanol fractions from ‘Hongkyool’ and ‘Pyunkyool’ could be useful functional materials, with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.
Effects of Injection of Red Wine on Physico-chemical Characteristics of Pork Loin Ham
Ha, So-Ra ; Choi, Jung-Seok ; Jin, Sang-Keun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1139~1147
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1139
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of injection of red wine on physico-chemical characteristics of pork loin ham during cold storage. The pork loin hams were manufactured by injection of red wine as Control (0%), T1 (3%), T2 (6%), T3 (9%), and were analyzed, while stored at 10±1℃ for 4 weeks, respectively. As a result of the injection of red wine, the pH values of pork loin ham were reduced, whereas WHC values were increased compared to the control (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in cooking loss. In meat color, as injection of red wine increased, the lightness values were reduced, and redness values were increased during 4 weeks. In texture profile analysis, values in shear force, brittleness, gumminess and adhesiveness were increased as red wine injection increased (p<0.05). But, injection of red wine reduced the VBN values until 2 weeks. Treatment groups with more than 3% red wine showed lower TMC values than control until 3 weeks (p<0.05), whereas Lactobacillus counts were significantly increased by injection of red wine since 2 weeks. In conclusion, red wines showed the effect of increasing the quality characteristics related to physical and storage in pork loin ham during cold storage, and proper injection level was 3% when pork loin ham processed.
Microbiological and Chemical Changes of Complete Feed during Spoilage
Yi, Kwonjung ; Yeon, Jae-Sung ; Kim, Juhyeon ; Kim, Sam Churl ; Moon, Hyung-In ; Jeon, Che Ok ; Lee, Sang Suk ; Kim, Dong-Woon ; Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1148~1155
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1148
Commercial complete feeds contain enough nutrients to support animal growth and it is easy to be spoiled under proper temperature and humid conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate microbiological and chemical changes on complete feed for milking cow under open-air exposure with moisture 33% at 30℃ during 15 days. pH decreased 6.29 to 4.66 and water activity decreased gradually 0.99 to 0.95. Bacteria increased 6.2×10
CFU/g at 5 days and showed 10
CFU/g until 15 days. Fungi increased 10
CFU/g to 8.0×10
CFU/g. During the processing of spoilage, bacteria such as Acinetobacter oleivorans, Pediococcus acidilactici, Acinetobacter oleivorans, Weissella cibaria, and Methylobacterium komagatae were identified and fungi such as Fusarium sp. and Mucor sp. were also identified. Moisture content increased until 10 days (p<0.01). Crude protein was not changed so much whereas crude fat decreased 6.0% to 5.5% (p<0.01). Crude fiber and crude ash changed 2.0~ 3.0% and 4.5~ 4.8% levels with no significance, respectively. Gross energy was not almost changed at 4,400 kcal/g. During spoilage, lactate and propionate increased whereas acetate was not detected. Protease and lipase activities increased significantly during spoilage (p<0.01). Zearalenone content increased 59.2 μg/kg to 623.8 μg/kg, showing 10.5 times more production. During feed spoilage, pH decreased with microbial growth and various chemical changes were occurred.
DEU-7 Derived from Ulmus macrocarpa Improved Immune Functions in Cyclophosphamide-treated Mice
Kang, Kyung-Hwa ; Go, Ji Su ; Lee, Inhwan ; Lee, Sang Ho ; Lee, Sung Do ; Kim, Deok Won ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ; Hwang, HyeJin ; Hyun, Sook Kyung ; KIM, Byoung Woo ; Kim, Chul Min ; Chung, Kyung Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1156~1163
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1156
The present study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of four different medicinal plants in a cyclophosphamide-treated Balb/c mouse model. One of the four plants, Ulmus macrocarpa, showed partial resistance against immune suppression induced by cyclophosphamide. The bark of U. macrocarpa, commonly known as the Chinese elm, has been used as a pharmaceutical material in Korean traditional medicine to treat bacterial inflammation and induce wound healing. In this study, water extract of U. macrocarpa, named DEU-7, was used for its immunomodulating functional activity. DEU-7 increased the weight of the spleen and the number of splenocytes but did not significantly affect the liver, kidney, and thymus in vivo. A splenocyte viability assay confirmed that DEU-7 influenced ex vivo splenocyte survival. DEU-7 also increased the levels of cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-4, and immunoglobulins, such as IgM, IgG, and IgA. These results indicated that DEU-7 is involved in the activation of T and B lymphocytes. In addition, DEU-7 was able to maintain the production of cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-γ, in the condition of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression, suggesting that DEU-7 activated innate immune cells, even under immune suppression. We concluded that DEU-7 aids immunological homeostasis, thereby preventing immune suppression, and aids both innate and adaptive immune response by maintaining the levels of various cytokines and immunoglobulins. Consequently, it is worth investigating the potential of DEU-7 as a supplemental source for immune-enhancing agents.
Chlorphenesin Galactoside Production using Immobilized β-galactosidase-producing Escherichia coli
Jung, Kyung-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1164~1168
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1164
Previous research showed that chlorphenesin galactoside (CPN-Gal), a preservative in cosmetics, was safer than CPN against human skin cells
. To establish a stable and long-term process for CPN-Gal production, we investigated the repeated-batch process. In this process, β-gal-producing recombinant Escherichia coli cells were immobilized in calcium alginate beads, and CPN was converted to CPN-Gal by the transgalactosylation reaction. The process was conducted in a 300 ml flask, which contained E. coli cell-immobilized alginate beads, 33.8 mM of CPN, and 400 g/l of lactose. The pH and temperature were 7.0 and 40℃, respectively. During the repeated-batch operation, four consecutive batch operations were conducted successfully until 192 hr. The conversion yield of CPN to CPN-Gal was 64% during 192 hr, which was higher than the values in previous reports
. Thereafter, however, the conversion yield gradually decreased until the operation was finished at 336 hr. Western blotting of immobilized E. coli cells revealed that β-gal gradually decreased after 192 hr. In addition, alginate beads were cracked when the operation was finished. It is probable that, including this loss of E. coli cells by cracks, deactivation, and product inhibition of E. coli β-gal might lead to a gradual decrease in the production of CPN-Gal after 192 hr. However, as the purification of β-gal is not necessary with β-gal-producing recombinant E. coli cells, β-gal-producing E. coli cells might be a practical and cost-effective approach for enzymatically synthesizing CPN-Gal. It is expected that this process will be extended to long-term production process of CPN-Gal for commercialization.
Comparative Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Honey and Honeycomb Extracts
Kang, Da Hee ; Kim, Min Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1169~1175
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1169
Although many studies have described the physiological effects of bee products, such as honey, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly, the health benefits of honeycomb remain incompletely characterized. We performed a comparative study of the antioxidant properties of honey and honeycomb extracts using two different solvents (water and 95% ethanol). The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the honeycomb extract was higher than that of the honey extract. They also demonstrated that water was more effective than ethanol in extracting total phenols. The in vitro antioxidant properties of the water honeycomb extract were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO
) radical scavenging assays and ferrous ion chelating and reducing power assays. The antioxidant activity of the honeycomb extract exhibited was higher than that of the honey extract. The 50% effective concentrations (EC
) of the honeycomb extract were 7.3±0.26 mg/ml for scavenging DPPH radicals, 6.1±0.22 mg/ml for scavenging NO
radicals, 6.9±0.44 mg/ml for chelating ferrous ions, and 8.2±0.11 mg/ml for reducing power. A correlation analysis revealed that the total phenolics and flavonoids of the honeycomb extract were the major contributors to the radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating, and reducing power. The honeycomb extract was effective in protecting biological systems against various oxidative stresses in vitro. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of honeycomb.
Ulmus Macrocarpa Water Extract Prolongs Splenocyte Life Span
Kang, Kyung-Hwa ; Hyun, Sook Kyung ; Hwang, Hye Jin ; Kim, Byoung Woo ; Kim, Cheol Min ; Chung, Kyung Tae ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1176~1183
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1176
Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in Korean medicinal food material to physical disorder or tonic material. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte life span expansion effects of Ulmus macrocarpa water extract (UMWE) in general cell culture condition. Splenocytes were handled in the presence of 100 μg/ml UMWE for several different time conditions. Live cells were detected with Hoechst 33,342 dye and cell survival molecules were identified through Western blot. Changes in level of cytokine synthesis were evaluated by ELISA. UMWE showed an effect on increased splenocyte survival. UMWE elevated slightly PI3K phosphorylation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation used at 48 hr and 96 hr. Moreover, Bcl-2 was elevated at 48 hr and 96 hr in UMWE-treated splenocytes. UMWE decreased caspase-3 level at 48 hr and 96 hr. ICAD protein increased at 48 hr culturing time. Hematopoietin IL-2 cytokine was down-regulated, however IL-4 hematopoietin cytokine was up-regulated in UMWE treated cell culture media. Increased IFN-γ levels were verified in the supernatant of UMWE-treated cells in all periods (48 hr and 96 hr). Increased patterns in the production of IL-12 cytokine occurred as compared with control after 48 and 96 hr in UMWE-treated-cell cultures. These results suggested that UMWE can prolong splenocyte life span by controlling various signal factors and cytokines.
Oocyte Maturation Process of Zebrafish (Danio rerio), an Emerging Animal Model
Han, Seung Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 10, 2015, Pages 1184~1195
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.10.1184
The zebrafish is an emerging vertebrate model organism in reproductive biology. The oocyte maturation of zebrafish is triggered by maturation inducing hormone (MIH, 17α,20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one). In almost all animals, the oocyte maturation is governed by activation of pre-MPF which consists of cyclinB and inactive Cdk1. In the oocyte of Xenopus and mice, the activity of Cdk1 is regulated in two ways, one is the interaction with cyclinB and the other is phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of T14/Y15 residues on the Cdk1 by Wee1 and Cdc25. Unlike Xenopus and mice that have a sufficient amount of pre-MPF, pre-MPF is absent in GV oocyte of most teleost including zebrafish. Therefore, the activation of MPF during zebrafish oocyte maturation might totally depend on de novo synthesis of cyclinB proteins. It is reported that the translation of maternal mRNA is regulated by combination of several RNA binding proteins such as CPEB, Dazl, Pum1/Pum2, and insulin-like growth factor2 mRNA-binding protein 3 in the zebrafish oocytes. However, the definitive mechanism of these proteins to regulate the translation of stored maternal mRNAs remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the investigation of the maturation process of the zebrafish oocyte will provide new information that can help identify the role of translational control in early vertebrate oocyte maturation.