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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Immune Responses of BALB/c Mice Administrated via Oral Route to a Combined Salmonella Typhimurium Ghost Vaccine
Kim, Pan Gil ; Ha, Yeon Jo ; Lee, Su Man ; Kim, Sam Woong ; Gal, Sang Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1197~1203
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1197
Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) JOL389 and χ3339 are strong virulent strains against mouse. ST χ8554 is derived by deletion of the asd gene from ST χ3339. Plasmid pMMP184 carrying a ghost cassette was transformed into ST χ8554, and ST χ8554 ghost cells were prepared and administrated via the oral route to BALB/c mice. Change in the amount of total IgG was not elicited to boosting of single ST χ8554 ghost cells, but the content was increased from 6 weeks after the 3
administration. However, when the ST JOL389 ghost cells is administered together with ST χ8554 ghost cells, the content of total IgG was increased in 2 weeks post primary administration. It was found that the content of total IgG of the group mixed with ST JOL389 ghost cells showed an increased value of 8 times or more at 10 weeks when compared with the group of ST χ8554 ghost cells. The content of IgG1, IgG2a, and sIgA in both groups increased from 4 weeks postprimary administration. As a challenge test of virulent ST χ3339, χ8554 (pMMP184) and χ8554 (pMMP184)/JOL389 ghost cell groups showed protection of 50% or more when compared to the control group. These results suggest that the preparation of combined ghost cells from a strong virulent ST increases immunity more than a single strain.
Genetic Relationships of Sandfish (Arctoscopus japonicas) from Five Different Areas of Korea and Japan Based on Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Analyses
Kim, Eun-Mi ; Kang, Hyun-Sook ; Kang, Jung-Ha ; Kim, Dong-Gyun ; An, Cheul Min ; Lee, Hae Won ; Park, Jung Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1204~1213
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1204
A comprehensive analysis of the population structure of the sandfish (Arctoscopus japonicas), the most abundant fishery resource in the East Sea of Korea, has not been carried out, despite its importance in Korea. The present study examined the genetic diversity and differences between five populations (two Japanese and three Korean populations) of A. japonicas captured in the East Sea using both the 401 bp sequence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, cytochrome b) and five microsatellite DNA (msDNA) markers. The results of the analysis using the Cyt b sequence revealed 27 haplotypes. Based on msDNA variations, the estimated expected heterozygosity (H
) in each population ranged from 0.68 (Gampo, Korea) to 0.7765 (Erimo, Japan). Pairwise F
and AMOVA tests using both the Cyt b sequence and msDNA data pointed to significant differences between the Korean and Japanese populations (mtDNA; F
=0.2648, p<0.05, msDNA; F
=0.0814, p<0.05). These results were similar to the results of UPGMA, PCA, and structure analysis. In these analyses, the five populations were assigned to two groups (Korean populations and Japanese populations). These results shed light on the genetic diversity and relationships of A. japonicas and contribute to research on the evaluation, conservation, and utilization of Korean A. japonicas as genetic resources.
The Effects of Pueraria and Rehmannia Glutinosa Intake and Exercise on Epigenetic Modification in Ovariectomized Rat Skeletal Muscle
Jung, Hyun Ji ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Kwon, Oran ; Lee, Won Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1214~1222
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1214
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pueraria lobate-root based combination supplementation containing Rehmannia glutinosa and exercise on histone modification in ovariectomized rat hindlimb skeletal muscle. Sixty rats were fed with high fat diet and randomly assigned into the following groups for 8 weeks: 1)HSV; High fat+Sedentary+Vehicle, 2)HSP; High fat+Sedentary+PR, 3)HSH; High fat+Sedentary+Estradiol, 4)HEV; High fat+Ex+Vehicle, 5)HEP; High fat+Ex+PR, 6)HEH; High fat+Ex+Estradiol. Exercise consisted of low intensity treadmill exercise(1-4th wk:15 m/min for 30 min, 5-8th wk: 18 m/min for 40 min, 5 times/week). The result of this study showed that exercise and Pueraria and Rehmannia glutinosa intake suppressed weight gain. Furthermore, exercise and Pueraria and Rehmannia glutinosa intake increased muscle mass. This study observed H3K9 acetylation and demethylation in plantaris muscle in exercised group, but no difference in soleus muscle. To test whether the decrease in HDAC4, HDAC5 and G9a mRNA levels after exercise and Pueraria/Rehmannia glutinosa intake, HDAC4, HDAC5 and G9a mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Only exercise induced HDAC5 and G9a mRNA reduction in plantaris muscle, but not in soleus muscle. In conclusion, these data demonstrates that exercise and Pueraria/Rehmannia glutinosa intake effect on body compositions. These changes are regulated by epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation and methylation. Future studies should focus on gene-specific epigenetics and other epigenetic mechanism for Pueraria/Rehmannia glutinosa intake.
Effect of Oryzalin on the Gravitropic Response and Ethylene Production in Maize Roots
Kim, Chungsu ; Mulkey, Timothy J. ; Kim, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Soon Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1223~1229
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1223
Oryzalin is a dinitroaniline herbicide, which disrupts the arrangement of microtubules. Microtubules and microfilaments are cytoskeletal components that are thought to play a role in the sedimentation of statoliths and the formation of cell walls. Statoliths regulate the perception of gravity by columella cells in the root tip. To determine the effect of oryzalin on the gravitropic response, ethylene production in primary roots of maize was investigated. Treatment with 10
M oryzalin to the root tip inhibited the growth and gravitropic response of the roots. However, the treatment had no effect on the elongation zone of the roots. An application of 10
M oryzalin for 15 hr to the root tip caused root tip swelling. The application of 1-aminocycopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), a precursor of ethylene, to the root tip also inhibited the gravitropic response. To understand the role of oryzalin in the regulation of the growth and gravitropic response of roots, ethylene production in the primary roots of maize was measured following treatment with oryzalin. Oryzalin stimulated ethylene production via the activation of ACC oxidase (ACO) and ACC synthase (ACS), and it increased the expression of ACO and ACS genes. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) played a key role in the asymmetric elongation rates observed during gravitropism. The results suggest that oryzalin alters the gravitropic response of maize roots through modification of the arrangement of microtubules. This might reduce the distribution of IAA in the upper and lower sides of the elongation zone and increase ethylene production, thereby inhibiting growth and gravitropic responses.
The Effects of the Expression of GATA Binding Protein 6 on Heart and Brain Development
Seo, Jungwon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1230~1234
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1230
GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) is a transcription factor that is expressed in the early blastocyst stage and controls the expression of important genes in the differentiation and development of the heart, pancreas, and intestine. This study confirmed the role of GATA6 in cell differentiation and organ development using mouse embryonic stem cells and zebrafish, respectively. First, the mouse embryonic stem cells were differentiated into pacemaker cardiomyocytes. An RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of the GATA6 gene was greatly increased from day 4 of differentiation. The expression of GATA6 was upregulated prior to increased expression of NK2 homeobox 5 (Nkx2.5) and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), which are critical transcription factors involved in regulating heart formation. To examine the role of GATA6 in development, GATA6 morpholino was microinjected into zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of GATA6 expression significantly decreased the heart size and heart rate in the zebrafish compared to a control. In addition, the brains were degenerated in the GATA6 morpholino-injected zebrafish. Acridine orange staining showed that knockdown of GATA6 expression increased apoptotic cells in the brain. Interestingly, knockdown of GATA6 expression decreased apoptotic cells in the early bud stage. This study points to the importance of the GATA6 gene in heart and brain development.
Induction of Apoptosis by Hwangheuk-san in AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells through the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Activation of Caspases
Hong, Su Hyun ; Park, Cheol ; Kim, Kyoung Min ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1235~1243
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1235
Hwangheuk-san (HHS) is a Korean multi-herb formula comprising four medicinal herbs. HHS, which was recorded in “Dongeuibogam,” has been used to treat patients with inflammation syndromes and digestive tract cancer for hundreds of years. However, little is known about its anti-tumor efficacy. The present study investigated the pro-apoptotic effect and mode of action of HHS against AGS human gastric carcinoma cells. HHS inhibited the cell growth of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and an accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. HHS-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein expression, down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. The treatment of AGS cells with HHS significantly elevated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, apoptosis-inducing concentrations of HHS induced the activation of both caspase-9 and -8, initiator caspases of the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic and death receptor-mediated extrinsic pathways, respectively, and caspase-3, accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase. However, ROS scavenger and pan-caspases inhibitor significantly blocked HHS-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that HHS induces apoptosis through ROS- and caspase-dependent mechanisms and that HHS may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the control of human gastric cancer.
Study of the Status of Naturalized Plants in Busan City, South Korea
Lee, Chang-Woo ; Cho, Hye-Jeong ; Kang, Min-Jung ; Huh, Man-Kyu ; Hwang, In-Chun ; Choi, Byoung-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1244~1254
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1244
Naturalized plants were identified and recorded in Busan city based on field surveys and related literature. These plants consisted of 156 taxa in total, belonging to 31 families, 95 genera, 147 species, and 9 varieties. The Compositae had the highest diversity among 31 families, with 44 taxa, followed by Gramineae, with 24 taxa, and Leguminosae, with 10 taxa Among the plants, 68.6% (107 taxa) were annuals and biennials, and 30.1% (47 taxa) were perennials. There was one shrub (Amorpha fruticosa) and one tree (Robinia pseudoacacia). Naturalized degree 5 plants, as common and abundant plant, founded 26 taxa (96.3%) were most highly ratio from Korean naturalized plants. According to the results of the analysis based on place of origin, 50 (32.1%) taxa were from Europe, and 48 (30.8%) taxa were from North America. Epecophyten was the most common of the naturalized plants, with 123 taxa Sixty-six (42.3%) taxa were introduced during period 1, and 15 (9.6%) were introduced during period 4. Ergasiophygophyten (50.6%) and Kenophyten (32.1%) were the dominant plants in these introduction periods. In conclusion, Busan city acts as a conduit for the introduction of naturalized plants. A sustainable management and monitoring strategy may be needed to prevent the introduction and naturalization of plants.
Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanol Extract of Cnidium officinale in Human Leukemia U937 Cells through Activation of AMPK
Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Choi, Yung Hyun ; Park, Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1255~1264
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1255
Cnidium officinale, a traditional herb, has diverse beneficial pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antiangiogenesis effects. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of apoptosis by C. officinale are poorly defined. The present study investigated the proapoptotic effects of water, ethanol, and methanol extract of C. officinale (WECO, EECO, and MECO, respectively) in human leukemia U937 cells. The antiproliferative activity of EECO was higher than that of WECO and MECO. The antiproliferative effect of EECO treatment in U937 cells was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death, including increased populations of annexin-V positive cells, the formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA fragmentation, and increased numbers of cells with a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm). EECO-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4) and down-regulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1), Bcl-2, and total Bid. The EECO treatment also induced the proteolytic activation of caspases (-3, -8, and -9), and degradation of caspase-3 substrate proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), β-catenin, and phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1). In addition, the EECO treatment effectively activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. However, compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK, significantly reduced EECO-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that AMPK is a key regulator of apoptosis in response to EECO in human leukemia U937 cells.
Anti-diabetic Effects of Barnyard Millet Miryang 3 [Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun)] Grains on Blood Glucose in C57BL/KsJ-db/db Mice
Kwon, Gi Hyun ; Jun, Do Youn ; Lee, Ji Young ; Park, Jueun ; Woo, Mi Hee ; Yoon, Young Ho ; Ko, Jee Youn ; Oh, In-Seok ; Kim, Young Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1265~1272
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1265
Barnyard millet Miryang 3 [Echinochloa esculenta (A. Braun)] grains have recently been acknowledged for beneficial health properties due to phenolic ingredients and dietary fiber. This study has been conducted on the anti-diabetic activity of barnyard millet Miryang 3 which shows the strongest anti-inflammatory activity among barnyard millet inhabiting in South Korea. When 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract of barnyard millet Miryang 3 grains were orally administered into db/db diabetic mice for 8 weeks (600 mg/kg/day), the glucose level in blood following fasting appeared to be improved compared to the control group. The results of glucose tolerance test and blood lipid profile assay were similar to those of the metformin-administered positive control group. In addition, the level of body weight increase (8.54±2.24) was lower than the level of metformin-administered group (10.36±3.15); however, there was no subtle difference with negative and positive control groups in terms of food efficiency rates. In addition, total cholesterol levels of the 80% EtOH extract-administered group (160.7±7.6) were significantly reduced compared to the diabetic control group (229.3±47.8) and metformin-administered group (176.0±25.6). Consequently, these results show that barnyard millet grains alleviates many of the diabetic symptoms in vivo non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and suggest that barnyard millet grains can be applicable in developing new functional food materials.
Characterization of Agarase from an Isolated Marine Bacterium, Simiduia sp. SH-1
Lee, Sol-Ji ; Oh, Soo-Jeong ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1273~1279
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1273
Agarase from a novel agar-degrading bacterium isolated from seawater in Namhae at Gyeongsangnamdo province of Korea was characterized. The SH-1 strain was selected from thousands of colonies on Marine agar 2216 media. Almost full 16S rRNA gene sequence of the agarolytic SH-1 strain showed 99% similarity with that of bacteria of Simiduia genus and named as Simiduia sp. SH-1. Agarase production was growth related, and activity was declined from stationary phase. Secreted agarase was prepared from culture media and characterized. It showed maximum activity of 698.6 units/L at pH 7.0 and 30℃ in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer. Agarase activity decreased as the temperature increased from an optimum of 30℃, with 90% and 75% activity at 40℃ and 50℃, respectively. Agarase was not heat resistant. Slightly lower agarase activity was observed at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.0, without statistical difference, and 80% and 75% activity were observed at pH 5.0 and 8.0, respectively. Neoagarotetraose and neoagarobiose were the main final products of agarose, indicating that it is β-agarase. Simiduia sp. SH-1 and its β-agarase would be useful for the industrial production of neoagarotetraose and neoagarobiose, which have a whitening effect on skin, delaying starch degradation, and inhibiting bacterial growth.
Physicochemical Properties of Fish-meat Gels Prepared from Farmed-fish
Kim, Hyung Kwang ; Kim, Se Jong ; Karadeniz, Fatih ; Kwon, Myeong Sook ; Bae, Min-Joo ; Gao, Ya ; Lee, Seul-Gi ; Jang, Byeong Guen ; Jung, Jun Mo ; Kim, Seo yeon ; Kong, Chang-Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1280~1289
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1280
Fish-meat gel is being produced mostly relying on surimi and raw materials imported from Southeast Asia and North America and present in small amount in local markets. In this study, common farmed local fishes were examined as stable and reliable sources of surimi for fish-meat gel production. For testing, five main farmed-fish of Korea, namely; Bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus), Red sea bream (Pagrus major), Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), Common mulle (Mugil cephalus), and Finespotted flounder (Pleuronichthys cornutus) were used following a traditional washing process. The quality of the surimi was determined by the values of water content, whiteness index, gel strength and impurity. Accordingly, fish-meat gel and surimi quality experiments were carried out by measuring compressive and texture properties, expressible moisture content, Hunter color scale values and SDS-page protein patterns. Also gel characteristics were compared with that of FA and RA grade surimi (Alaska Pollock). Fish-meat gels were prepared by salt mincing the farmed-fish surimi with NaCl (2% w/w) and moisture adjustment to 84% by ice water adding. Prepared fish-meat paste was filled into 20-25 cm long polyvinylidene chloride casings and heated at 90℃ for 20 min. The whiteness values of fish-meat gels produced from surimi were increased by using farmed-fish and became comparable to that of FA Alaska Pollock gel. Among all tested farmed-fish, P. olivaceus and P. major exhibited better properties than RA Alaska Pollock and similar properties to FA Alaska Pollock. Therefore, current data suggests that fish farming can be an efficient and sustainable fish-meat source for fish-meat gel production in Korea.
Growth Characteristics of a Pyruvate Decarboxylase Mutant Strain of Zymomonas mobilis
Xun, Zhao ; Peter L., Rogers ; Kwon, Eilhann E. ; Jeong, Sang Chul ; Jeon, Young Jae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1290~1297
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1290
Studies of the inactivation of a gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase, pdc, in an ethanol-producing bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis, identified a mutant strain with 50% reduced PDC activity. To evaluate the possibility of a carbon-flux shift from an ethanol pathway toward higher value fermentation products, including pyruvate, succinate, and lactate, fermentation studies were carried out. Despite attempts to silence pdc expression in the wild-type strain ZM4 using cat-inserted pdc and pdc-deleted homologs by electroporation, the strain isolated showed partial gene activation. Fermentation experiments with the PDC mutant strain showed that the reduced expression level of PDC activity resulted in decreased rates of substrate uptake and ethanol production, together with increased pyruvate accumulation of 2.5 g l
, although lactate and succinate concentrations were not significantly enhanced in these modified strains. Despite numerous attempts, no strains were isolated in which complete pdc inactivation occurred. This result indicates that the ethanol fermentation pathway of this bacterium is totally dependent on the activity of the PDC enzyme. To ensure a redox balance of intracellular NAD and NADH levels, other enzymes, such as lactate dehydrogenase for lactate, and enzymes involved in the production of succinic acid, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and malic enzymes, may be needed for their increased end-product production.
Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Meso-dihydroguaiaretic Acid from Machilus thunbergii
Kwon, Hyun Sook ; Lee, Kyung Dong ; Kim, Su Cheol ; Cho, Soo Jeong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1298~1303
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1298
Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae) is an evergreen tree cultivated in Korea and Japan. M. thunbergii has long been used as a traditional medicine in Korea, China, and Japan to treat various diseases, including edema, abdominal pain, and abdominal distension. In this study, dried stem bark of M. thunbergii extracted in methanol and extract was partitioned into n-hexane, CHCl
, and BuOH. The CHCl
-soluble extracts chromatographed on silica gel column using a CHCl
/acetone and n-hexane/EtOAc mixture to afford Compound 1 and 2. Two dibenzylbutane lignans, macelignan (1) and meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (2), were isolated from the CHCl
-soluble extract of M. thunbergii stem bark. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by
C-NMR spectroscopic data analyses and a comparison with literature data. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated. Among these compounds, Compound 2 strongly inhibited the monophenolase (IC
=10.2 μM) activity of tyrosinase. A kinetic analysis showed that Compound 2 was a competitive inhibitor. The apparent inhibition constant (K
) for Compound 2 binding to free enzyme was 4.8 μM. Based on these results, it can be concluded that meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (2) is a potential candidate for the treatment of melanin biosynthesis-related skin diseases.
An Approach to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Period Circadian Clock 3 (PER3) Gene and Proposed Functional Associations with Exercise Training in a Thoroughbred Horse
Do, Kyoung-Tag ; Cho, Byung-Wook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1304~1310
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1304
The period circadian clock gene 3 (PER3) plays a role in the mammalian circadian clocksystem. A regular exercise regime may affect the PER3 transcription in skeletal muscle. Although the effects of day length on circadian and circannual processes are well established in humans and mice, the influence of exercise on these processes in the horse has not been investigated. The present study investigated the expression of the PER3 gene following exercise in a thoroughbred breed of Korean horse. In addition, a comprehensive in silico nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) analysis of the horse PER3 gene and predicted effects of nsSNPs on proteins were examined. The expression of PER3 in skeletal muscle was significantly upregulated after exercise. Four nsSNPs were functionally annotated and analyzed by computational prediction. The total free energy and RMSD values of PER3 gene showed causative mutations. The results showed that nsSNP s395916798 (G72R) was associated with residues that have stabilizing effects on structure and function of PER3 gene. This study documented role of PER3 gene in phenotypic adaptation related to exercise in skeletal muscle. Further, the SNPs in PER3 could serve as useful biomarkers of early recovery after exercise in racehorses.
Changes in Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Properties of Jeju Citrus sudachi as Influenced by Maturity
Lee, Ji Eun ; Kim, Ji Hye ; Kim, Min Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1311~1318
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1311
The effects of fruit maturation on changes in the total phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids of methanolic extracts of Citrus sudachi, in addition to its antioxidant and antidiabetic activities, were determined. Generally, the concentration of these chemical constituents increased as C. sudachi reached maturity. C. sudachi contained high levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids at maturity, contributing 6339.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent per 100 g, 2364.2 mg of rutin equivalent per 100 g, and 678.7 mg/ml, respectively. The scavenging activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals and the reducing power of mature fruits were significantly higher at all data points than those of immature fruits (p<0.05). In contrast, the ferrous ion chelating activity of mature and immature C. sudachi fruits was similar. The 50% effective concentrations (EC
) of mature fruits were 4.1±0.10 mg/ml for scavenging DPPH radicals, 3.1±0.02 mg/ml for scavenging hydrogen peroxide, 3.9±0.01 mg/ml for scavenging nitric oxide, and 3.8±0.02 mg/ml for chelating ferrous ion. The antidiabetic activity of C. sudachi was studied in vitro using the α-glucosidase inhibitory method. The inhibitory activity of mature C. sudachi fruits on α-glucosidase was higher than that of immature fruits. These results suggest that the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of C. sudachi change during maturation. These findings can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products, as well as their use as health supplements and nutraceuticals.
Antibacterial Effect of Bacteria Isolated from the Korean Traditional Foods against Pathogenic Bacteria
Moon, Kyung-Mi ; Heo, Moon-Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1319~1323
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1319
Aquaculture continues to be an ever-growing sector. However, high-density farming increases disease outbreaks due to deteriorating water quality and internal stress. To prevent disease, the most common method chemotherapy is using antibiotic administration. In this study, probiotic bacteria were isolated from Korean traditional foods, such a Gochu pickle and cutlassfish salted seafood. Various bacteria were isolated, and their 16S rDNA sequences were analyzed. The antimicrobial activities of four isolates from Gochu pickle and seven isolates from cutlassfish salted seafood were assayed, in addition to the antibacterial activity of culture pellet and supernatant. The antibacterial activity of the pellet was higher than that of the supernatant. Isolate JKM-2 showed the highest antibacterial activity against Streptococcus iniae (43 mm), S. parauberis (40 mm), S. mutans (35 mm), and Vibrio vuinificus (26.5 mm). The sequences of the isolated strains were compared with those of Bacillus subtilis (97.71%), B. tequilensis (97.71%), Brevibacterium halotolerans (97.71%), B. subtilis (97.63%), B. subtilis (97.63%), B. mojavensis (97.54%), B. vallismortis (97.46%), B. nanillea (97.45%), B. methylotrophicus (97.37%), and B. ssiamensis (97.37%). Future through analysis and new strains confirmed the bacterial cell material investigation of JKM-3, and to ensure sufficient stability, it is desired to verify the utility value as a substitute material for antibiotics by application to the form of the industry.
The Clinical Evaluation between Overtraining Syndrome and Exercise-related Immunity
Choi, Seung-Jun ; Park, Song-young ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1324~1330
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1324
The present study was performed to analyze and review the physical and immune responses to overtraining syndrome in humans. Overreaching refers to the initial phage of overtraining syndrome and has been known as a physical fatigue which is mainly from metabolic imbalance. It has been known that overtraining also results in a loss of adaptability which may lead to an attenuation of exercise performance, sleeping disorder, central fatigue, neurohormonal changes, difficulty recovery to physical stress, and immunological changes. Additionally, overtraining syndrome is characterized by persistent fatigue, poor performance in sport due to the prolonged and strenuous physical training. Also, previous studies reported that endurance athletes experienced a high incidence of URTI during intense training and the post training. And also, high-performance athletes reported that suppression of cell mediated and anti-body mediated immune function. NK cell numbers were also reduced in the period of overtraining syndrome. Major components of prevention and treatment for the overtraining syndrome are screening, education, and detraining. Furthermore, the combination of these prevention and treatment strategies will be much helpful. Therefore, the current review will be helpful for athletes and individuals who are at the risk of overtraining syndrome.
Anticarcinogenic Effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC)
Kong, Il-Keun ; Kim, Hyun Hee ; Min, Gyesik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 11, 2015, Pages 1331~1337
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1331
S-allylcysteine (SAC) is an aged garlic derived water soluble organosulfur compound and has been suggested to have anticarcinogenic activity against diverse types of cancer cells. This review summarizes the cellular signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms whereby SAC exerts its effects on cellular proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and metastasis based on the results from both in vitro and in vivo studies. SAC activates proapoptotic proteins including Bax and caspase-3, but suppresses antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins to bring about cancer cell death through mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway. SAC also inhibits cellular proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in which SAC reduces expression and activation of NF-κB, cyclins, Cdks, PCNA and c-Jun, but elevates expression of cell cycle inhibitor proteins p16 and p21 through suppression of both PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. And, SAC inhibits invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by inducing suppression of both angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through decreased cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and increased E-cadherin expression which were then caused by suppression of inhibitory transcription factors Id-1 and SLUG from SAC-mediated inactivation of both MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, SAC prevents toxic compound-induced carcinogenesis by inducing antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione-s-transferase (GST). Thus, SAC can be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of cancer.