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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Enhanced Production of Astaxanthin by Archaea Chaperonin in Escherichia coli
Seo, Yong Bae ; Lee, Jong Kyu ; Jeong, Tae Hyug ; Nam, Soo-Wan ; Kim, Gun-Do ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1339~1346
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1339
The aim of this study is to increase production of carotenoids in recombinant Escherichia coli by Archaea chaperonin. The carotenoids are a widely distributed class of structurally and functionally diverse yellow, orange, and red natural pigments. These pigments are synthesized in bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants, and have been widely used as a feed supplement from poultry rearing to aquaculture. Carotenoids also exhibit diverse biological properties, such as strong antioxidant and antitumor activities, and enhancement of immune responses. In the microbial world, carotenoids are present in both anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and algae and in many fungi. We have previously reported cloning and functional analysis of the carotenoid biosynthesis genes from Paracoccus haeundaensis. The carotenogenic gene cluster involved in astaxanthin production contained seven carotenogenic genes (crtE, crtB, crtI, crtY, crtZ, crtW and crtX genes) and recombinant Escherichia coli harboring seven carotenogenic genes from Paracoccus haeundaensis produced 400 μg/g dry cell weight (DCW) of astaxanthin. In order to increase production of astaxanthin, we have co-expressed chaperone genes (ApCpnA and ApCpnB) in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the astaxanthin biosynthesis genes. This engineered Escherichia coli strain containing both chaperone gene and astaxanthin biosynthesis gene cluster produced 890 μg/g DCW of astaxanthin, resulting 2-fold increased production of astaxanthin.
The Study of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Korean Fleshy Shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Using Newly Developed Microsatellite Markers
Shin, Eun-Ha ; Kong, Hee Jeong ; Nam, Bo-Hye ; Kim, Young-Ok ; Kim, Bong-Seok ; Kim, Dong-Gyun ; An, Cheul Min ; Jung, Hyungtaek ; Kim, Woo-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1347~1353
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1347
The fleshy shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, is the family of Penaeidae and one of the most economically important marine culture species in Korea. However, its genetic characteristics have never been studied. In this study, a total of 240 wild F. chinensis individuals were collected from four locations as follows: Narodo (NRD, n = 60), Beopseongpo (BSP, n = 60), Chaesukpo (CSP, n = 60), and Cheonsuman (CSM, n = 60). Genetic variability and the relationships among four wild F. chinensis populations were analyzed using 13 newly developed microsatellite loci. Relatively high levels of genetic variability (mean allelic richness = 16.87; mean heterozygosity = 0.845) were found among localities. Among the 52 population loci, 13 showed significant deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Neighbor-joining, principal coordinate, and molecular variance analyses revealed the presence of three subpopulations (NRD, CSM, BSP and CSP), which was consistent with clustering based on genetic distance. The mean observed heterozygosity values of the NRD, CSM, BSP, and CSP populations were 0.724, 0.821, 0.814, and 0.785 over all loci, respectively. These genetic variability and differentiation results of the four wild populations can be applied for future genetic improvement using selective breeding and to design suitable management guidelines for Korean F. chinensis culture.
Distribution Status and Phylogenetic Relationship of Myotis aurascens in Jeju Island
Kim, Yoo-Kyung ; Park, Su-Gon ; Kim, Tae-Wook ; Park, Jun-Ho ; Adhikari, Pradeep ; Kim, Ga-Ram ; Park, Seon-Mi ; Lee, Jun-Won ; Han, Sang-Hyun ; Oh, Hong-Shik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1354~1361
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1354
This study was aimed to investigate the distribution status and phylogenetic relationship of Myotis aurascens in Jeju Ialnd, which has not clearly confirmed until now. We found three groups of M. aurascens from three different cave enforcements (CEs). The bat population of Jeju Island had smaller levels of HBL and Hfcu, but greater levels of TL, EL, FAL, and Tra than those of the Korean Peninsula population. Jeju bats had wide range in the lengths of FAL and Hfcu comparing to those of European bats. From the bimonthly monitoring to each finding site, we have actually failed to observe those again, estimating that they use those CEs as the daily-roosting place in activating seasons. The sequences of CYTB and COI genes showed identical sequences among Jeju bats tested, indicating that they are maternally related. The results from molecular phylogeny showed that the sequences of these bats located on the same branch with those for M. aurascens in the phylogenetic trees. Besides, the nucleotide sequences of the Jeju bats showed the closest relation with that of Korean Peninsula. Consequently, these findings indicate that the bats of M. aurascens, verified the natural distribution in Jeju Island, have originated from a single maternal origin and differences in morphological and genetic backgrounds form those of Korean Peninsula and the other countries, and had probably immigrated via Korean Peninsula. These findings will contribute as basic information for understanding the migration history and biogeographic relationship of mammals on Jeju Island in East Asia.
Effect on Cryopreservation Stability of Kimchi Duruchigi Supplemented with Rubus coreanus Miquel Extract
Yang, Mi Ra ; No, Gun Ryoung ; Kang, Suk-Nam ; Kim, Sam Woong ; Kim, Il-Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1362~1369
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1362
The goal of this study was done for evaluating stability according to low-temperature storage of kimchi duruchigi supplemented with a hot water extract of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM). Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the RCM extract prepared from the hot water were detected by 293.34 μg CA/mg and 90.57 μg quecetin/mg, respectively. DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activities of the extract were showed by relatively high values of 70.63 and 57.87%, respectively. Kimchi duruchigi was designed by control (non-treated), T1 (3% RCM extract), T2 (6% RCM extract), and T3 (0.1% ascorbic acid, a positive control). When compared with control and T3 groups, pHs of T1 and T2 groups supplemented with the RCM extract were gently changed depending on the storage time, and water holding capacities of T1 and T2 groups were improved in comparison with control group. Although meat color showed a tendency to most of increase according to the elapsed time, T1 and T2 groups showed less changes than that of control group. Lipid peroxidation appeared in a little bit changes regardless of the processing and storage days, but protein spoilages in T1 and T2 groups were found by lower changes when compared with the control group. As the results of sensory evaluation, T1 and T2 groups during storage had the better taste, flavor and acceptability than those of control and T3 groups. Therefore, we suggest that kimchi duruchigi supplemented with the RCM extract is a possible of improving the storage stability and product preference.
Evaluation of Achyranthes japonica Ethanol Extraction on the Inhibition Effect of Hyluronidase and Lipoxygenase
Cho, Kyung-Soon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1370~1376
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1370
The 1, 1- diphenyl 2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH) is a well-known radical and a trap (scavenger) for other radicals. Hyaluronidase (HAase) is an enzyme that depolymerizes the polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. Lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme was reported to convert the arachidonic, linoleic and other polyunsaturated fatty acid into biologically active metabolites involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate plant extracts as sources of natural antioxidants and to examine whether Achyranthes japonica having significant DPPH, HAase and LOX inhibitory activity. The inhibitory effect of HAase by A. japonica was assayed using a Morgan microplate assay. The antioxidant activity of the A. japonica extracts was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity of the stable 1, 1- diphenyl 2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH) free radical. DPPH scavenging activity of matured roots of A. japonica was evaluated at 4.0 mg/ml was 87.8% and that of young roots was 86.2% at same concentration. The roots of A. japonica showed maximum inhibition of HAase activity (IC
= 27.7 μg/ml). The highest LOX inhibition was recorded in the root extract among three vegetative parts. Inhibition of HAase activity of roots may contribute towards the development of herbal medicines. Although percent inhibition of lipoxygenase by Achyranthes japonica for all young and matured groups for leaves, stems, and roots at different concentrations, there were not show a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Scopoletin in RAW264.7 Macrophages
Lee, Su-Gyeong ; Kim, Moon-Moo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1377~1383
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1377
Scopoletin is a component of several plant such as Erycibe obtusifolia, Aster tataricus, Foeniculum vulgare and Brunfelsia grandiflora. It was reported to have anti-angiogenesis and anti-allergy effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of scopoletin was investigated in Raw264.7 cells, mouse macrophages. The effects of scopoletin on phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) production were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses. It was observed that scopoletin exerted inhibitory effects on both phagocytosis and NO production. In addition, scopoletin decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which were related to NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. In particular, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 were remarkably decreased by treatment with scopoletin. Furthermore, the content of TNFα produced by macrophage was decreased in the presence of scopoletin at 8 hr. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effect of scopoletin could exert by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. The above results suggest scopoletin could be a new remedial agent for anti-inflammation through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expressions as well as supression of phagocytosis and NO production.
Sagantang-induced Apoptotic Cell Death is Associated with the Activation of Caspases in AGS Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells
Park, Cheol ; Hong, Su Hyun ; Choi, Sung Hyun ; Lee, Se-Ra ; Leem, Sun-Hee ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1384~1392
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1384
Sagantang (SGT), a Korean multiherb formula comprising six medicinal herbs, Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Poria cocos Wolf, Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komarov, and Artractylodes japonica Koidzumi, was recorded in “Dongeuibogam.” The present study investigated the anticancer potential of SGT in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells. The results indicated that SGT treatment significantly inhibited the growth and viability of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies, in addition to chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, and the accumulation of annexin-V positive cells. The induction of apoptotic cell death by the SGT treatment was associated with up-regulation of Fas protein expression, truncation of Bid, and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. The SGT treatment also effectively induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which was associated with the activation of caspases (caspase-3, -8, and -9) and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. However, a pan-caspase inhibitor significantly blocked the SGT-induced apoptosis and growth suppression in AGS cells. This study suggests that SGT induces caspase-dependent apoptosis through an extrinsic pathway by upregulating Fas, as well as through an intrinsic pathway by modulating Bcl-2 family members in AGS cells. The results suggest that SGT may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the control of human gastric cancer cells. However, further studies will be needed to confirm the potential of SGT in cancer prevention and therapy in an in vivo model and to identify biological active compounds of SGT.
Enzymatic Production and Adipocyte Differentiation Inhibition of Low-Molecular-Weight-Alginate
Park, Mi-Ji ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1393~1398
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1393
In this study, we investigated the extraction condition of alginate from Laminaria japonica, the enzymatic degradation of the extracted alginate, and the inhibitory activity of the degraded alginate on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The optimal conditions for the efficient extraction, precipitation, and recovery of alginate from the brown seaweed L. japonica were 1% for Na
concentration, 80℃ for extraction temperature, and ethanol for precipitation solvent. In the enzymatic reaction for the production of low-molecular-weight alginate (LMWA) by using alginate lyase from Flavobacterium sp., the initial concentration of Laminaria alginate was 3%. The low-molecular-weight degree from alginate was independent with the enzyme concentration, and the optimal concentration of alginate lyase was found to be 5 unit/ml. Through the enzymatic reaction with 5 unit/ml of alginate lyase at 37℃ for 3 hr, the viscosity and molecular weight of LMWA were 4.5 cp and 307 kDa, respectively. Treatment with LMWA significantly suppressed the accumulation of lipid droplet and triglyceride in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, it seems that LMWA treatment could inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. These results indicate that LMWA or the degraded alginate produced by alginate lyase enzyme can be useful for the development of anti-obesity biosubstances.
Antimicrobial Activities of Corn Silk Extract of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Kang, Hyun-Kyung ; Bae, Il Kwon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1399~1407
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1399
Klebsiella pneumoniae is found in the normal flora of the skin, mouth, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and intestines in human. However, the stain is opportunistic pathogen, which is the causative agent of community acquired pneumonia. Corn silk has been known to be effective for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, including K. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, et al. In this study we focused on the antimicrobial properties of con silk water extract of K. penumoniae. K. pneumoniae isolates K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and broad-spectrum β-lactamase (BSBL), exteded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenemase-producers. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the disk diffusion method. Searches for bla genes were performed by PCR amplication and direct sequencing. MacConkey agar plate medium was prepared using the corn silk extracts (50% or 100%) instead of distilled water for antimicrobial activity test. The microbial growth inhibitory potential of K. pneumoniae was determined by using the MacConkey agar plate spreading method, and the plate was incubated 18 hr at 37℃. Genes encoding β-lactamases including SHV-1 (n=8), SHV-2a (n=8), SHV-5 (n=2), SHV-11 (n=2), SHV-12 (n=18), TEM-1 (n=10), CTX-M-3 (n=2), CTX-M-14 (n=2), CTX-M-15 (n=1), GES-5 (n=5), KPC-2 (n=6), KPC-3 (n=4), and NDM-1 (n=2) were detected. The corn silk extract showed significantly antimicrobial activity against K. pneumoniae ATCC 13883, but BSBLs, ESBLs, and carbapenemase producers were not. Therefore, corn silk extract is thought to be able to assist in the prevention and rapid recovery of infectious disease caused by K. pneumoniae.
Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus Strain as a Potential Biocontrol Agent
Lee, Ye-Ram ; Lee, Sang-Mee ; Jang, Eun-Young ; Hong, Chang-Oh ; Kim, Keun-Ki ; Park, Hyean-Cheal ; g Lee, Sang-Mon ; Kim, Young-Gyun ; Son, Hong-Joo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1408~1414
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1408
In this study, to retain a stable bacterial inoculant, Bacillus strains showing antifungal activity were screened. The improved production, antifungal mechanism, and stability of the antifungal metabolite by a selected strain, AF4, a potent antagonist against phytopathogenic Botrytis cinerea, were also investigated. The AF4 strain was isolated from rhizospheric soil of hot pepper and identified as Bacillus subtilis by phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Strain AF4 did not produce antifungal activity in the absence of a nitrogen source and produced antifungal activity at a broad range of temperatures (25-40℃) and pH (7-10). Optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of antifungal activity were glycerol and casein, respectively. Under improved conditions, the maximum antifungal activity was 140±3 AU/ml, which was higher than in the basal medium. Photomicrographs of strain AF4-treated B. cinerea showed morphological abnormalities of fungal mycelia, demonstrating the role of the antifungal metabolite. The B. subtilis AF4 culture exhibited broad antifungal activity against several phytopathogenic fungi. The antifungal activity was heat-, pH-, solvent-, and protease-stable, indicating its nonproteinous nature. These results suggest that B. subtilis AF4 is a potential candidate for the control of phytopathogenic fungi-derived plant diseases.
Histological Changes in Reproductive Organs of Pubescent Male Mice in Response to ICI 182, 780 Treatment and Recovery of the Organs with Time
Mo, Yun Jeong ; Choi, Hayana ; Cho, Young Kuk ; Park, Mi Suk ; Cho, Hyun Wook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1415~1424
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1415
ICI 182, 780 (ICI) has been used as an estrogen receptor inhibitor in several mammalian species. This study was conducted to observe histological changes in the reproductive system of pubescent male mice following ICI treatment, as well as to investigate the recovery of the organs over time. To accomplish this, ICI at 5 mg/0.1 ml of castor oil was subcutaneously injected into 5-week-old male mice once per week for 4 weeks. The mice were then randomly divided into no-recovery, 150-day recovery, and 300-day recovery groups. The testis of the no-recovery group showed atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, with decreased Sertoli cell numbers and thickness of the germinal epithelium. In the epididymis, the cell height of epithelial tissues was altered, but these changes were not observed in the 300-day recovery group. In the efferent ductule, the luminal diameter was increased, but the cell height of the epithelial tissues was decreased. In the prostate and seminal vesicles, the cell height of the epithelial tissues was increased, and these changes were not observed in the 150-day recovery group. These results show that ICI causes histological changes in pubescent male reproductive organs but that these changes are resolved with time.
LPS Stimulated B Lymphocytes Inhibit the Differentiation of Th1 Lymphocytes
Kim, Ha-Jeong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1425~1431
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1425
The lymphocyte component of the immune system is divided into B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes produce antibodies (humoral immunity) via maturation into plasma cells, and T lymphocytes kill other cells or organisms (cellular immunity). A traditional immunological paradigm is that B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte interactions are a one-way phenomenon, with T lymphocytes helping to induce the terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulin class-switched plasma cells. A deficiency of T lymphocytes was reported to result in defective B lymphocyte function. However, evidence for a reciprocal interaction between B and T lymphocytes is emerging, with B lymphocytes influencing the differentiation and effector function of T lymphocytes. For example, B lymphocytes have been shown to induce direct tolerance of antigen-specific CD8
T lymphocytes and induce T lymphocytes anergy via transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) production. The present study showed that LPS-stimulated B lymphocytes inhibited the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes by inhibiting the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from dendritic cells. An interaction between the B lymphocytes and dendritic cells was not needed for this inhibition, and the B lymphocytes did not alter dendritic cell maturation. B lymphocyte-derived soluble factor (BDSF) suppressed the LPS-induced IL-12p35 transcription in the dendritic cells. Overall, these results point to a novel B lymphocyte- mediated immune suppressive mechanism. The findings cast doubt on the traditional paradigm of immunological interactions involving B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte interactions.
The Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Lipid Profiles, Fibrinolytic Activities, and Nitric Oxide Levels in High-fat-diet induced Rats
Son, Won-Mok ; Kim, Do-Yeon ; Sung, Ki-Dong ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ; Baek, Yeong-Ho ; Park, Song-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1432~1438
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1432
Although exercise training has been utilized to improve vascular function in animals and humans, the impact of moderate intensity exercise training on fibrinolytic activities and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has not been well documented. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of moderate intensity aerobic exercise training on fat mass, blood lipid profiles, fibrinolytic activity, and NO levels in high-fat-diet induced rats. The body weight, fat mass, blood lipid profiles, fibrinolytic activity, and nitrite/nitrate were measured pre- and postexercise (10 weeks) training. The body weight and fat mass reduced significantly in the exercise (EX) group compared to the control (CON) group. Blood lipid profiles and low-density lipoprotein were unchanged in the EX group compared to the CON group. However, triglyceride and free fatty acid were significantly lower in the EX group compared to the CON group, and high-density lipoprotein was significantly greater in the EX group compared to the CON group. In addition, fibrinolytic activity and nitrite/nitrate were significantly greater in the EX compared to the CON group. These results suggest that 10 weeks of the moderated intensity aerobic exercise training improves blood lipid profiles, fibrinolytic activity, and the nitrite/nitrate ratio, which may improve vascular health and reduce obesity-related cardiovascular disease risks in high-fat- diet induced rats.
Roles of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 and TTF-1 in Lung Development and Lung Cancer
Kwak, Inseok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1439~1444
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1439
Steroid receptor coactivators (SRC) are transcriptional coactivators. Among SRCs, SRC-3 is the most studied in relation to different types of tumors. However, the role of SRC-3 in early lung development and lung cancer has not been well studied. The expression profiles of SRC-3 showed that SRC-3 contributed to bronchial and alveolar development in embryonic lung development. SRC-3 was strongly expressed in Clara cells and type II alveolar cells during fetal lung development (E17.5- E18.5), and SRC-3 was expressed in both cell types in the adult lung. TTF-1 was expressed in the lungs of heterozygote SRC-3 mice and Clara cell-specific-CCSP-TAg tumor mice, along with SRC-3 expression. The expression of TTF-1 was localized at transformed Clara cells and multifocal adenocarcinomas in lung cancer mice. However, SRC-3 was not expressed in the multifocal adenocarcinomas, suggesting that SRC-3 might not be involved in the invasiveness of lung cancer. Cotransfection of TTF-1 in Clara cell-specific mtCC cell lines resulted in significant activation of CCSP expression. However, cotransfection of SRC-3 had no significant effects on transient transfection. These in vivo and in vitro results suggest that SRC-3 does not play a significant role in lung tumor progression. In conclusion, SRC-3 is involved in bronchial and alveolar development in fetal and adult lungs, but it does not play an important role in the progression of Clara cell-derived lung cancer.
Field Bioassay for Longhorn Pine Sawyer Beetle Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Korea Based on Aggregation Pheromone 2-(Undecyloxy)ethanol
Lee, Sung-Min ; Hong, Do Kyung ; Park, Jongseong ; Lee, Jinho ; Jang, Sei-Heon ; Lee, ChangWoo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1445~1449
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1445
The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) poses a serious threat to pine forests in Europe and East Asia, leading to a debilitating pine wilt disease. Infected pine trees in Korea are generally fumigated or crushed to small wood chips after felling. Although pine wilt disease often recurs in pest management sites, there are no adequate means to monitor the effectiveness of pest control measures in those sites. Recently, a male-produced aggregation pheromone, 2-(undecyloxy)ethanol, was shown to be useful for attracting several Monochamus species, which are vectors for the pinewood nematodes. In this study, we investigated the abilities of 2-(undecyloxy)ethanol at three different doses (175, 350, and 700 mg), as well as host plant volatiles (α-pinene and ethanol), to attract M. alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) at a pine forest in Pohang, Korea where infected pine trees had been cut down and fumigated. Twenty-seven M. alternatus were captured in cross-vane panel traps made of polyethylene terephthalate bottles and acrylic sheets. The results indicate that a high dose of 2-(undecyloxy)ethanol (700 mg per trap) is the most effective for attracting M. alternatus. The aggregation pheromone could be used to monitor the effectiveness of pest control measures as well as M. alternatus populations.
Plant Biomass Degradation and Bioethanol Production Using Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii
Lee, Han-Seung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1450~1457
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1450
To overcome the depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems in future, the research and production of biofuels have attracted attention largely. Thermophilic microorganisms produce effective and robust enzymes which can hydrolyze plant biomass and survive under harsh bioprocessing conditions. Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which can degrade unpretreated plants and grow on them, is the one of the best candidates for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). C. bescii can hydrolyze pectin efficiently as well as the major plant cell wall components, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Many glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate lyases with multidomain structure play an important role in plant biomass decomposition. Recently genetic tools for metabolic engineering of C. bescii have developed and bioethanol production from unpretreated biomass is achieved in C. bescii. Here, we review the recent studies for biomass degradation by C. bescii and bioethanol production in C. bescii in order to provide information about metabolic engineering of themophilic bacteria and biofuel development.
Solvent Tolerant Bacteria and Their Potential Use
Joo, Woo Hong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 12, 2015, Pages 1458~1469
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.12.1458
Many organic solvent-tolerant bacteria have been isolated from all environments such as soil, waste-water, even deep sea after first isolation report of organic solvent-tolerant bacterium. Most organic solvent- tolerant isolates have been determined to be Gram-negative bacteria, because Gram-negative bacteria have inherent tolerance property toward hostile organic solvents more than Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanisms of organic solvent tolerance have been elucidated extensively using mainly organic solvent-tolerant Gram-negative bacteria. The solvent-tolerance mechanisms in Gram-positive bacteria can be found in comparatively recent research. Organic solvents exhibited different toxicity depending on the solvent, and the tolerance levels of organic solvent-tolerant bacteria toward organic solvents were also highly changeable among species and strains. Therefore, organic solvent-tolerant bacteria could coped with solvent toxicity and adapted to solvent stress through the multifactorial and multigenic adaptative strategies. They could be survived even in the hyper concentrations of organic solvents by mechanisms which include: changes in cell morphology and cell behaviour, cell surface modifications, cell membrane adaptations, solvent excretion pumps, chaperones and anti-oxidative response. The aim of this work is to review the representative solvent tolerant bacteria and the adaptative and tolerance strategies toward organic solvents in organic solvent-tolerant bacteria, and their potential industrial and environmental impact.