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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Homology Modeling and Characterization of Oligoalginate Lyase from the Alginolytic Marine Bacterium Sphingomonas sp. Strain MJ-3
Kim, Hee Sook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 121~129
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.121
Alginates are found in marine brown seaweeds and in extracellular biofilms secreted by some bacteria. Previously, we reported an oligoalginate lyase from Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3 (MJ3-Oal) that had an exolytic activity and protein sequence homology with endolytic polymannuronate (polyM) lyase in the N-terminal region. In this study, the MJ3-Oal was tested for both exolytic and endolytic activity by homology modeling using the crystal structure of Alg17c from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40T. The tyrosine residue at the
position, which possibly formed a hydrogen bond with the substrate, was mutated to phenylalanine. The FPLC profiles showed that MJ3-Oal degraded alginate quickly to monomers as a final product through the oligmers, whereas the Tyr426Phe mutant showed only exolytic alginate lyase activity.
-NMR spectra also showed that MJ3-Oal degraded the endoglycosidic bond of polyM and polyMG (polymannuronate-guluronate) blocks. These results indicate that oligoalginate lyase from Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3 probably catalyzes the degradation of both exo- and endo-glycosidic bonds of alginate.
Coexpression of Alginate Lyase with Hyperthermophilic Archaea Chaperonin in E. coli
Kim, Se Won ; Kim, Gun-Do ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 130~135
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.130
When the alginate lyase gene (aly) from Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii IAM 14594 was expressed in E. coli, most of the gene product expressed was produced as aggregated insoluble particles known as inclusion bodies. In order to produce with an elevated level of a soluble and active form of alginate lyase in E. coli, the hyperthermophilic chaperonins (ApCpnA and ApCpnB) from archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 were employed as the coexpression partners. At
culture temperature, the level of alginate lyase activity was increased from 10.1 unit/g-soluble protein in aly single expression to 83.1 unit/g-soluble protein by coexpressing with ApCpnA and to 100.3 unit/g-soluble protein by coexpressing with ApCpnB. This results indicate that the coexpression of aly with ApCpnA and ApCpnB revealed a marked enhancement, about 8~10 fold, in the production of alginate lyase as a soluble and active form. Based on the results of various examinations on the expression variables, the optimal conditions for the maximal production of alginate lyase were determined as 1.0 mM IPTG for the inducer concentration,
for the culture temperature after IPTG induction, and ApCpnB for the coexpression partner. The coexpression set in the present report may be useful in the industrial production of functionally or medically important recombinant proteins in E. coli.
A LuxR-type Transcriptional Regulator, PsyR, Coordinates Regulation of Pathogenesis-related Genes in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci
Choi, Yeon Hee ; Lee, Jun Seung ; Yun, Sora ; Baik, Hyung Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 136~150
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.136
Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tabaci is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes wildfire disease in tobacco plants. In P. syringae pv. tabaci, PsyI, a LuxI-type protein, acts as an AHL synthase, while primary and secondary sequence analysis of PsyR has revealed that it is a homolog of the LuxR-type transcriptional regulator that responds to AHL molecules. In this study, using phenotypic and genetic analyses in P. syringae pv. tabaci, we show the effect of PsyR protein as a quorum-sensing (QS) transcriptional regulator. Regulatory effects of PsyR on swarming motility and production of siderophores, tabtoxin, and N-acyl homoserine lactones were examined via phenotypic assays, and confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Further qRT-PCR showed that PsyR regulates expression of these virulence genes in response to environmental signals. However, an upstream region of the gene was not bound with purified MBP-PsyR protein; rather, PsyR was only able to shift the upstream region of psyI. These results suggested that PsyR may be indirectly controlled via intermediate-regulatory systems and that auto-regulation by PsyR does not occur.
Effects of the Acute Exposure Oxytetracycline on the Behavior and Endocrine Response in Adult Zebrafish
Ko, Eun Seong ; Lee, Seungheon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 151~157
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.151
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been more widely used to study pharmacology. Oxytectracycline (OTC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and works by interfering with the ability to produce essential proteins of bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of exposure to OTC on behavioral changes or endocrine response in zebrafish. The behavioral effects of exposure to OTC (50, 100 or 200 mg/l) were characterized in several novelty-based paradigms such as the novel tank or open field test in zebrafish. Moreover, to investigate effects of exposure to OTC on endocrine response, we measured whole-body cortisol level using cortisol ELISA kit. As results of novel tank test, duration in top and immobile duration were significantly increased by the exposure to OTC in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). In addition, moving distance, highly mobile, velocity and zone transition were significantly decreased by the exposure to OTC in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). As results of open field test, the exposure to OTC increased immobile duration significantly (p<0.05). However, moving distance, mobile duration and velocity were significantly decreased by the exposure to OTC in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). Besides, the exposure to OTC elevated whole-body cortisol levels in zebrafish. These results suggest that the exposure to OTC may induce chemical stress in zebrafish.
Optimized Germination Conditions and Human p53 Expression of Rice Embryo
Pih, Kyung-Tae ; Choi, Ju-Youn ; Kim, Keun-Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 158~163
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.158
Rice embryo is more abundant than endosperms in nutrients such as proteins, lipids, and vitamin B1. In this study, we constructed p53 plasmid that could be expressed in a plant system, and investigated optimal germination conditions in a variety of media. For construction of p53 plasmid, we performed p53 amplification from pCDNA-p53, subcloned to TA cloning vector, and then reconstructed into pGEM-CaMV plant expression vector. On the other hand, we prepared a variety of imbibition buffers and complete media for efficient germination of the rice embryo. Imbibition buffers prepared with different concentrations of salt or detergent showed no significant effect on germination efficiency. We prepared further culture media, such as solid agar, liquid media, and paper towel to establish the optimal conditions. Rice embryo showed germination rates of more than 70% in the solid medium, more than 60% in the paper towel medium, but less than 25% in liquid media, although germination rate did not differ with varying concentrations of salt and sucrose in culture media. Under the optimal germination conditions, we introduced the p53 plasmid using imbibition method, and finally detected human p53 gene expression in the germinated rice embryo. This method might present a novel, practical approach for evaluating efficient gene expression utilizing imbibition method in rice embryo.
The Inhibitory Effects of Intestine-oriented Lactobacillus sp. KP-3 on the Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Sprague Dawley rats
Kim, Shin Yeon ; Kim, Hyun Pyo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 164~173
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.164
To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria on the heavy metal adsorption from internal organs and blood, lactic acid bacteria were isolated from human feces. Some strains resistant to heavy metals were selected by incubation in agar media containing each of chrome and cadmium salts. Among them, a strain named KP-3 was ultimately chosen due to its higher growth rate in selective broth medium containing the heavy metals at the concentration of 0.01%. The strain was identified as Lactobacillus sp. based on its morphological, cultural and physiological characteristics. For evaluating the ability to prevent accumulation of heavy metals by selected Lactobacillus sp. strain in vivo, Sprague Dawley rats were fed with heavy metal salts (cadmium, chrome and lead) with or without cultured whole cells for 7 days. The amounts of heavy metals accumulated in liver, kidney and blood were analyzed. As a result, chrome was accumulated to kidney mostly, and lead was frequently found in liver and kidney. Experimental group (rats fed with lactic acid bacteria) showed less accumulation of heavy metal than control group (rats fed with saline solution). The inhibition rates of heavy metal accumulation were calculated to 41.8% (Cd), 33.4% (Cr) and 44.2% (Pb). Especially, feeding lactic acid bacteria strongly reduced accumulation of cadmium in blood. The results showed that feeding Lactobacillus sp. KP-3 could prevent the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the living body.
Changes in Fat in Gouda Cheese by the Psychrotrophic Bacterium Acinetobacter Genomospecies 10
Shin, Yong Kook ; Oh, Nam Su ; Lee, Hyun Ah ; Nam, Myoung Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 174~179
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.174
The presence of psychrotrophic bacteria downgrades the quality of dairy products. This study evaluated the effect of lipolytic psychrotrophic bacteria on the chemical properties of Gouda cheese made from raw milk experimentally inoculated with a psychrotrophic bacterium (Acinetobacter genomospecies 10). Raw milk experimentally inoculated with Acinetobacter genomospecies 10 and refrigerated at
for 3 or 6 days produced a 6-week ripened Gouda cheese with a significant decrease in total solids (p<0.05) or an increased fat content (p<0.05), respectively. Raw milk inoculated with Acinetobacter genomospecies 10 and refrigerated for 3 days had higher (p<0.05) SCFFA (1.35 times), MCFFA (1.42 times), and LCFFA (1.44 times) than the control 6-week ripened Gouda cheese. The cheese manufactured from the inoculated and refrigerated raw milk had higher (p<0.05) total free fatty acids (1.68 times) compared with the control. Raw milk inoculated with Acinetobacter genomospecies 10 and refrigerated for 6 days had increased SCFFA (1.45 times), MCFFA (1.28 times), and LCFFA (1.38 times) compared with the control 6-weeks ripened Gouda cheese. The 6-week ripened Gouda cheese manufactured from this inoculated milk had higher (p<0.05) total free fatty acids (1.34 times) compared with the control. The results indicated that the production of excessive free fatty acids in dairy products by psychrotrophic bacteria can be critical in predisposing dairy products to off-flavors and in turn degrading their quality.
Purification and Characterization of the Bacteriocin Produced by Lactococcus sp. KD 28 Isolated from Kimchi
Lee, Ji-Young ; Choi, Nack-Shick ; Chun, Sung-Sik ; Moon, Ja-Young ; Kang, Dae-Ook ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 180~188
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.180
The bacterial strain isolated from Kimchi showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus IAM 1056. The selected strain was identified as Lactococcus lactis by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence analysis and named as Lactococcus sp. KD 28. The treatment of culture supernatant with proteinase K removed antibacterial activity, indicating its proteinaceous nature, a bacteriocin. This bacteriocin was sensitive to hydrolytic enzymes such as
-chymotrypsion, trypsin, proteinase K, lipase,
-amylase and subtilisin A. The bacteriocin was highly thermostable and resistant to heating at
for up to an hour but 50 % of the total activity was remained at
for 30 min. The pH range from 2.0 to 8.0 had no effect on bacteriocin activity and it was not affected by solvents such as acetonitrile, isopropanol, methanol, chloroform and acetone up to 50% concentration. The bacteriocin showed antibacterial activity against M. luteus IAM 1056, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis KCTC 1058, Enterococcus faecium KCTC 3095, Bacillus cereus KCTC 1013, B. subtilis KCTC 1023, Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii KCTC 3444, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus KCTC 1916, B. megaterium KCTC 1098 and B. sphaericus KCTC 1184. The bacteriocin was purified through ammonium sulfate concentration, SP-Sepharose chromatography and RP-HPLC. The molecular weight was estimated to be about 3.4 kDa by tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis.
Diversity and Phylogenetic Analysis of Culturable Marine Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere Soils of Suaeda japonica Makino in Suncheon Bay
You, Young-Hyun ; Park, Jong Myong ; Nam, Yoon-Jong ; Kim, Hyun ; Lee, Myung-Chul ; Kim, Jong-Guk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 189~196
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.189
Bacterial diversity was studied in the rhizosphere of Suaeda japonica Makino, which is native to Suncheon Bay in South Korea. Soil samples from several sites were diluted serially, and pure isolation was performed by subculture using marine agar and tryptic soy agar media. Genomic DNA was extracted from 29 pure, isolated bacterial strains, after which their 16S rDNA sequences were amplified and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to confirm their genetic relationship. The 29 bacterial strains were classified into five groups: phylum Firmicutes (44.8%), Gamma proteobacteria group (27.6%), Alpha proteobacteria group (10.3%), phylum Bacteriodetes (10.3%), and phylum Actinobacteria (6.8%). The most widely distributed genera were Bacillus (phylum Firmicutes), and Marinobacterium, Halomonas, and Vibrio (Gamma proteobacteria group). To confirm the bacterial diversity in rhizospheres of S. japonica, the diversity index was used at the genus level. The results show that bacterial diversity differed at each of the sampling sites. These 29 bacterial strains are thought to play a major role in material cycling at Suncheon Bay, in overcoming the sea/mud flat-specific environmental stress. Furthermore, some strains are assumed to be involved in a positive interaction with the halophyte S. japonica, as rhizospheric flora, with induction of growth promotion and plant defense mechanism.
Biological Activity and Chemical Characteristics of Cordyceps militaris Powder Fermented by Several Microscopic Organisms
Ahn, Hee-Young ; Park, Kyu-Rim ; Yoon, Kyoung-Hoon ; Lee, Jae-Yun ; Cho, Young-Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 197~205
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.197
The comparative effects of the fibrinolytic action, antioxidative activity, and tyrosinase inhibition of Cordyceps militaris powder and fermented Cordyceps militaris powders were investigated using several microscopic organisms. The nutritional components such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and minerals were also measured. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoid concentrations were highest in the Cordyceps militaris powder fermented by Aspergillus oryzae. Major minerals were K, Ca, Mg, and Zn. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) analysis of the total protein patterns of Cordyceps militaris powder and fermented Cordyceps militaris powders revealed slight varietal differences. Fibrinolytic activity was highest in the Cordyceps militaris powder fermented by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus kawachii. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was slightly stronger in the powder fermented by Monascus purpureus; however, these samples all exhibited a relatively low activity when compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Tyrosinase inhibition activity was stronger in the powder fermented by Aspergillus oryzae than in unfermented powder. These results may provide basic data for understanding the biological activities and chemical characteristics of Cordyceps militaris powder fermented by several microscopic organisms for the development of functional foods.
Manufacturing Sunsik Smoothie with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Germinated Grain Enzyme and Its Characteristics
Choi, Sung-Rak ; Shin, Jiyoung ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Kim, Jin-Hee ; Yang, Ji-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 206~213
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.206
Sunsik has been popular as well-being and healthy food to some Asian people, but it still has a limit to other foreigners because of its taste and appearance. This study tried to modify Sunsik into smoothie type for foreigners and investigate its physicochemical characteristics. Germinated black and brown rice was prepared. The germination condition of two cereals was steeping for 24 hr at room temperature, and then germinating for 24 hr at
. After germination, the
-amylase activity of germinated grains was 13~15 times higher than before germination. The enzyme activity of brown rice was 9.16 CU/g, but germinated brown rice was 152.63 CU/g. In case of black rice, enzyme activity before germination was 7.47 CU/g, and enzyme activity after germination was 97.96 CU/g. The lactic acid bacteria was grown in 50 g germinated brown rice powder with 100 ml malt solution, 30 g tomato juice, and 1.5 g rice bran. After manufacturing beverage using milk and Sunsik and the cell count of lactic acid bacteria was
enough to use starter. According to sensory test, the optimal concentration of Sunsik smoothie was 30 g Sunsik in 200 ml of milk. The viscosity was
centipoise. The color of Sunsik beverage was evaluated as L value :
, a value:
, and b value:
A Potent Tissue Destructive Activity of Secreted Proteins of Aeromonas hydrophila
Kim, Kyu Lee ; Choe, Yunjeong ; Kang, Ho Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 214~222
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.214
Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common water fish pathogen and cause diseases such as hemorrhagic septicemia, dropsy, ulceration and asymptomatic septicemia. A. hydrophila secretes many extracellular products (ECPs) which contribute to effective infection, wide distribution and great adaptability to environmental changes. Crude ECPs of A. hydrophila CK257, a strain used in this study, exhibits a toxic activity to the animals including mouse, rabbit and fish. Toxic symptoms were indicated by tissue damage and skin injuries in animal. When ECPs were subcutaneously injected to animals, skin damages were observed, appearing like necrosis. Preliminary research demonstrated that the active factors are protein component. The crude ECPs were collected after ammonium sulfate precipitation of cell-free culture supernatant. ECPs were fractionated with the use gel filtration chromatography. Five ECP fractions were obtained, of which one fraction was found to be toxic to goldfish. MALDI-TOF analyses provided two interesting proteases called M35 and M28. Both M35 and M28 are known as metalloprotease. Accordingly, proteins in an active fraction exhibited caseinolytic activity. These proteins were difference of caseinolytic activity under different metallic ions. Also active fraction has elastolytic activity. These results suggested that peptidase M28 and M35 may be a candidate factor for tissue necrosis activity about infection with A. hydrophila.
Relationship between the Regulator of Calcineurin 1-4 Isoform and In Vitro Osteoclast Differentiation
Park, Kyeong-Lok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 223~230
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.223
Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diseases related to the calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling pathway. The RCAN1-4 isoform is subject to NFATc1-dependent regulation. During receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis, the calcineurin-NFATc1 pathway is critical. Because there is little information available on the role of RCAN1 in osteoclast differentiation, this study investigated whether changes in RCAN1 expression are related to the calcineurin-NFATc1 pathway and osteoclast differentiation. Mouse bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) were treated with 50 ng/ml of RANKL and M-CSF. Expression levels of NFATc1, calcineurin, and RCAN1 isoforms were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Osteoclast differentiation was examined using tartrate-resistent acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. To evaluate the effect of RCAN1 overexpression on osteoclastogenesis, cells were transfected with a mouse RCAN1-4 cDNA plasmid. After RANKL stimulation of BMMs, expression of NFATc1 and RCAN1 was increased at the mRNA and protein level, while calcineurin expression was unchanged. When the RCAN1-4 gene construct was transfected, the expression of RCAN1 protein was not increased despite several-fold increases in RCAN1-4 mRNA expression. Regardless of RANKL stimulation, over-expression of RCAN1-4 tended to reduce NFATc1 expression and knock-down of RCAN1 increase it. While BMMs transfected with the RCAN1-4 vector were differentiated into distinct osteoclasts, their phenotypes did not vary from those of mock controls. These results suggest that RCAN1 has a limited effect on the calcineurin-NFATc1 pathway during RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation.
Angiotensin II-Induced Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Is Regulated by a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/L-Type Calcium Channel Signaling Pathway
Jin, Seo Yeon ; Ha, Jung Min ; Kim, Young Whan ; Lee, Hye Sun ; Bae, Sun Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 231~236
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.231
Angiotensin II (AngII) is an essential hormone that affects vascular physiology. For example, stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) rapidly induces vasoconstriction and results in the up-regulation of blood pressure. Chronic stimulation of VSMCs with AngII also results in hypertrophy. In this study, we confirmed an involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent calcium mobilization in AngII-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Stimulation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) with AngII significantly induced the generation of ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AngII-induced generation of ROS was completely abolished by pharmacological inhibition of PI3K (with LY294002), but inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway had no effect. AngII-induced calcium mobilization was completely blocked by inhibition of PI3K, whereas inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway by PD98059 was ineffective. Depletion of extracellular calcium or inhibition of the L-type calcium channel by nifedipine completely blocked AngII-induced calcium mobilization. Depletion of extracellular calcium by EGTA and incubation of RASMCs with calcium-free medium both significantly blocked AngII-induced ROS generation. Inhibition of the L-type calcium channel also significantly blocked AngII-induced ROS generation. These results suggest that AngII-induced ROS generation is regulated by calcium mobilization, which, in turn, is modulated by a PI3K/L-type calcium channel signaling pathway.
Assessment of Bio-corrosive Effect and Determination of Controlling Targets among Microflora for Application of Multi-functional CFB on Cement Structure
Park, Jong-Myong ; Park, Sung-Jin ; Ghim, Sa-Youl ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 237~242
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.237
The use of calcite-forming bacteria (CFB) in crack remediation and durability improvements in construction materials creates a permanent and environmentally-friendly material. Therefore, research into this type of application is stimulating interdisciplinary studies between microbiology and architectural engineering. However, the mechanisms giving rise to these materials are dependent on calcite precipitation by the metabolism of the CFB, which raises concerns about possible hazards to cement-based construction due to microbial metabolic acid production. The aim of this study was to determine target microorganisms that possibly can have bio-corrosive effects on cement mortar and to assess multi-functional CFBs for their safe application to cement structures. The chalky test was first used to evaluate the
solubilization feature of construction sites by fungi, yeast, bacterial strains. Not all bacterial strains are able to solubilize
, but C. sphaerospermum KNUC253 or P. prolifica KNUC263 showed
solubilization activity. Therefore, these two strains were identified as target microorganisms that require control in cement structures. The registered patented strains Bacillus aryabhatti KNUC205, Arthrobacter nicotianae KNUC2100, B. thuringiensis KNUC2103 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KNUC2106, reported as multifunctional CFB (fungal growth inhibition, crack remediation, and water permeability reduction of cement surfaces) and isolated from Dokdo or construction site were unable to solubilize
. Notably, B. aryabhatti KNUC205 and A. nicotianae KNUC2100 could not hydrolyze cellulose or protein, which can be the major constituent macromolecules of internal materials for buildings. These results show that several reported multi-functional CFB can be applied to cement structures or diverse building environments without corrosive or bio-deteriorative risks.
Genetic Relationship of Some Cirsium Plants of Korea
Bae, Young-Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 243~248
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.243
Cirsium chanroenicum, Cirsium nipponicum, and Cirsium schantarense plants were collected from Changwon, Ulleungdo, and Dooryoon Mountain, respectively. Cirsium japonicum plants were also collected from various locations in Korea. Genomic DNA was prepared from the collected plants and used for amplification of the 18S rDNA, ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2, and part of 28S rDNA. The ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the PCR products and from other Cirsium plants reported previously were aligned and compared. Cirsium chanroenicum, Cirsium nipponicum, and Cirsium setidens formed distinct branches on the neighbor-joining tree. Cirsium japonicum and Cirsium pendulum appeared to be close to one another, but Cirsium pendulum plants were clearly clustered in an independent clade. Cirsium shantarense was clustered with the other Cirsium japonicum plants. The most important characteristic that distinguished these two species was the direction of the flowers. All Cirsium japonicum flowers point upward, but Cirsium shantarense flowers point downward. Other than this feature, these two species are almost indistinguishable morphologically. Cirsium chanroenicum is indistinguishable morphologically from Cirsium setidens, but it still formed a distinct group on the neighbor-joining tree based on ITS sequences, suggesting that this species is worth considering as an independent species. Silymarin production of the collected plants was analyzed and appeared to be quite high, indicating that the ability to synthesize silymarin is common to all Cirsium plants analyzed so far.
Apoptotic Cell Death of Human Leukemia U937 Cells by Essential Oil purified from Schisandrae Semen
Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 2, 2015, Pages 249~255
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.2.249
Schisandrae fructus [Schizandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baillon] is a medicinal herb widely used for treating various inflammatory and immune diseases in East Asian countries. The Schisandrae Semen essential oil (SSeo) from this plant has pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumoral activities. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying molecular mechanisms of the potential anti-cancer effects of this oil remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential inhibition of apoptosis signaling pathways by SSeo in human leukemia U937 cells and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanism. Exposure to SSeo resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition due to apoptosis, which was verified by DNA fragmentation, the presence of apoptotic bodies, and an increase in the sub-G1 ratio. Induction of apoptotic cell death by SSeo was correlated with the down-regulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family (including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), cIAP-1, and surviving) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and with up-regulation of death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5, depending on dosage. SSeo treatment also induced Bid truncation, mitochondrial dysfunction, proteolytic activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, and concomitant degradation of activated caspase-3 target proteins such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Taken together, these findings suggest that SSeo may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the control of human leukemia cells. Further studies are needed to identify its active compounds.