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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Stress Resistance of Zacco koreanus due to Exposure of Cement Powder
Shin, Myung Ja ; Lee, Jong Eun ; Seo, Eul Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 615~623
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.615
This study investigated the effects of dissolved cement powder on Zacco koreanus by analyzing morphophysiological changes. The gills exposed to dissolved cement powder developed abnormal shapes in their secondary lamellae and increased numbers of mucous cells after long-term exposure. Additionally, clubbing, edema, and exfoliation of the epithelial cells were observed in the secondary lamellae. In the kidney tissue, the space in Bowman’s capsule was widened, and in the integument tissue the arrangement of the dermis was irregular due to the thinned epidermis. These results suggest that long-term exposure to cement powder can significantly affect morphological change, resulting death. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and LDH tended to increase commensurately with the duration of cement exposure. It was concluded that up-regulated proteins were the stress proteins involved in myofibrillar-protein production and down-regulated proteins were involved in glycolysis and energy metabolism after the integument’s exposure to cement. According to these results dissolved cement powder is a serious threat to the survival of fish because it causes morphological changes and weakens physiological activity in Z. koreanus tissues.
Studies on Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic relationships of Chikso (Korea Native Brindle Cattle) Using the Microsatellite Marker
Choy, Yun Ho ; Seo, Joo Hee ; Park, Byungho ; Lee, Seung Soo ; Choi, Jae Won ; Jung, Kyoung-sub ; Kong, Hong Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 624~630
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.624
This study examined the genetic distance among Chikso (Korea native brindle cattle) in nine regional areas using allele frequencies and a genetic diversity analysis with microsatellite markers. The analysis of the genetic diversity and genetic relationships of 2068 Chikso (383 KW, 180 GG, 52 KN, 129 KB, 332 UL, 24 JN, 198 JB, 148 CN, 622 CB) was carried out using 11 microsatellite markers. The number of alleles, observed heterozygostiy (H
), expected heterozygosity (H
), and polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 11 microsatellite markers were 8–24, 0.672–0.834, 0.687–0.886, and 0.638–0.876, respectively. The expected probability of identity values in random individuals (PI), random half-sib (PI
), and random sibs (PI
) were estimated to be 5.24×10
, and 2.63× 10
, respectively, indicating that these markers can be used for traceability systems in Chikso cattle. The results of a phylogenetic tree (neighbor-joining tree), principle component analysis (PCA), and factorial component analysis (FCA) revealed genetic distance among nine Chikso populations. In conclusion, this study provides useful basic data that can be utilized in Chikso breeding and development. In addition, we will have to manage and conserve as a valuable genetic resource, without losing diversity of Chikso.
Functional Expression of Soluble Streptavidin in Escherichia coli
Han, Seung Hee ; Kim, Hyeong Min ; Lim, Myeong Woon ; Kim, Jin-Kyoo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 631~637
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.631
Streptavidin, a protein produced by Streptomyces avidinii, strongly binds up to four molecules of vitamin H, d-biotin exhibiting the dissociation constant of about 10
M. This strong binding affinity has been applied for detection and characterization of numerous biological molecules suggesting expression and purification of functional streptavidin should be very useful for the application of this streptavidin-biotin interaction. To express a soluble streptavidin in Escherichia coli, We synthesized streptavidin genes and cloned into pET-22b plasmid, which uses T7 RNA polymerase/T7 promoter expression systems containing pelB leader for secretion into periplasmic space and six polyhistidine tags at C-terminus for purification of expressed proteins. Although streptavidin is toxic to Escherichia coli due to strong biotin binding property, streptavidin was expressed very sufficiently in a range of 10-20 mg/ml. In SDS-PAGE, the size of purified protein was shown as 17 kDa in denatured condition (boiling) and 68 kDa in native condition (without boiling) suggesting tetramerization of monomeric subunit by non-covalent association. Further analysis by size-exclusion chromatography supported streptavidin’s tetrameric structure as well. In addition, soluble streptavidin detected biotinylated proteins in westernblot indicating its functional activity to biotin. Taken these results together, it concluded that our simple expression system was able to show high yield, homotetrameric formation and biotin binding activity analogous to natural streptavidin.
Biological Activities of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Ice plant) Extract
Lee, Sang Yull ; Choi, Hyeun Deok ; Yu, Sun Nyoung ; Kim, Sang Hun ; Park, Seul Ki ; Ahn, Soon Cheol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 638~645
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.638
This study analyzed the physiological quality of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant) extract. M. crystallinum is a succulent plant found in Africa, southern Europe, North America, South America, and Australia. It has known antidiabetic, antioxidant, and activation of lipid metabolism effects. Extracts from M. crystallinum were prepared with methanol (MCM), ethanol (MCE), hot water (MCHW), and methanol after hot water (MCHM) extractions. The yields of MCM, MCE, MCHW, and MCHM were 0.37, 0.33, 0.50, and 0.07%, respectively. To determine the biological activities of the extracts, mushroom tyrosinase, pancreatic lipase, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) production, and α-glucosidase assays were conducted. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the MCHW extract was 62.9% at a concentration of 400 μg/ml, which was the highest of all the extracts. The MCM extract showed the highest inhibition activity of α-glucosidase and NO production (56.6 and 57.2%, respectively). The pancreatic lipase inhibition of the MCE extract was similar to that of the MCM extract, with significant inhibition of 90%. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition of all the extracts was very low (approximately 30%). These results suggest that extracts from M. crystallinum have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and antidiabetic activities. Thus, it may have potential as a functional food product and therapeutic potential as an antidiabetic or antiobesity agent.
Syntaxonomical and Synecological Research of Forest Vegetation on Mt. Byeokbang
Choi, Byoung-Ki ; Huh, Man-Kyu ; Kim, Seong-Yeol ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 646~655
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.646
A phytosociological survey carried out using the Z.-M. School’s methodology and system of numerical-classification analyses, this study sought to classify the syntaxa of forest vegetation on Mt. Byeokbang and to collect basic data on the transitional zones of the southern Korean peninsula’s coastal region. The syntaxa were classified into three physiognomic types and nine communities, including (1) evergreen coniferous forests (Eurya japonica-Pinus thunbergii community and Ardisia japonica-Pinus densiflora community), (2) summer-green, broad-leaved forests (Chloranthus japonicus-Quercus serrate community, Syneilesis palmata-Quercus mongolica community, Quercus acutissima community, Carpinus turczaninovii var. coreana community, Fraxinus siebolidiana-Quercus dentate community, and Deutzia glabrata-Lindera erythrocarpa community), and (3) artificial afforestation (Alnus firma afforestation). The Chloranthus japonicus-Quercus serrata community, Syneilesis palmata-Quercus mongolica community, Fraxinus siebolidiana-Quercus dentata community, Carpinus turczaninovii var. coreana, community and Deutzia glabrata-Lindera erythrocarpa community were closely evaluated for national vegetation naturalness. It was confirmed that the Carpinus turczaninovii var. coreana community was endemic to Korea. Most syntaxa were defined as a secondary forestation due to various human activities (e.g., forest fires, logging, digging, climbing, etc.). The results of a canonical-correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that human activities, altitude, humus depth, rock cover ratio, slope, etc. were the main ecological factors determining the classified plant communities’ distribution patterns.
A Screen for Dual-protection Molecules from a Natural Product Library against Neuronal Cell Death and Microglial Cell Activation
Min, Ju-Sik ; Lee, Dong-Seok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 656~662
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.656
Natural products and natural product structures play a general and highly significant role in drug discovery and development process because it has various merits and potentials for new drug source that have extensive clinical experience, development time contraction, excellent stability and safety. In several neurological disorders, neuronal death and excessive activation of microglia (neuro-inflammation) are observed. A number of drug discovery-related neuronal cell death and neuro-inflammation was studied from natural products, respectively. However, until now, it has not been possible to study dual-protection molecules recorded in the Natural Product library. In the present study, using the natural product-derived library of the Institute for Korea Traditional Medical Industry, we investigated dual-protective molecules against glutamate (a classical excitatory neurotransmitter)-induced oxidative stress mediated neuronal cell death and LPS-induced excessive activated microglial cells (immune cells of the brain). Chrysophanol, extracted from Rheum palmatum, had dual-protective effects against both glutamate-induced neuronal cell death and LPS-induced NO production, triggering proinflammatory cytokines and microglia activation and resulting in neuroinflammation. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed that chrysophanol had a scavenger effect, scavenging glutamate- and LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by neuronal and microglial cells, respectively. Based on the present study, chrysophanol may have an important protective role against neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation in the brain. The results may be helpful for studying drug development candidates for treating central nervous system disorders.
Effect of Garlic Enzymatic Hydrolysates and Natural Color Resource Composites on Lipid Metabolism in Rat Fed a High Fat Diet
Hwang, Cho-Rong ; Kang, Jae-Ran ; Shim, Hye-Jin ; Kang, Min-Jung ; Shin, Jung-Hye ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 663~672
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.663
The study was performed to investigate the effects of enzyme treated garlic (EG) and its natural resources composites on lipid levels in serum and liver of rats fed a high fat diet. Four different types of EG-composite extracts prepared: EG and EG + grape peel (EGG), EG + Persimmon (EGP) and EG + Catechu (EGC) by mixed 9.5:0.5, 9:1 and 8:2 (w/w) ratios, respectively. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity in vitro, show the highest in EG + Catechu (EGC) composite by mixed 8:2 (w/w). EG and EG-composites extracts (8:2, w/w) were administered orally to SD-male rats at a concentration of 2.5 g/kg/day for 5 weeks. Total lipid and cholesterol contents in serum were significantly lower in EGC group than control group, and triglyceride content was the lowest in EGP group by 54.29 mg/dL. HDL-cholesterol contents were significantly higher in EGP and EGC groups. LDL-cholesterol content was lower in EG group than EG-composite groups, and VLDL cholesterol content was the lowest in EGP group. GOT, GPT and ALP activity was significantly lower in EGP group. Total lipid, cholesterol and triglyceride contents in liver were significantly lower in EGP and EGC group than control group. Antioxidant activity in serum was the highest in EGC groups by 50.86%, in liver was the highest in EGP groups. TBARS content in serum and liver was the lowest in EGP group. In these results, we suggest that EGP composites could have hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects in rats fed a high fat diet.
Optimizing Culture Conditions to Maximize the Production of Laccase from Pholiota highlandensis
Choi, Hye-Ju ; Moon, Soo-Jung ; Jeon, Sung-Jong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 673~679
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.673
The culture conditions needed to maximize the production of laccase from Pholiota highlandensis mycelia were investigated. Among the tested media for laccase production, Coriolus versicolor medium (CVM; 2% dextrose, 0.4% peptone, 0.6% yeast extract, 0.046% KH
, 0.1% K
, 0.05% MgSO
O) showed the highest activity for the enzyme. Then, to optimize culture conditions for laccase activity, the influences of various carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and inorganic salt sources in CVM were investigated. The optimum culture medium was 2% fructose, 0.4% peptone with 0.6% yeast extract, 0.05% NaH
, and 0.05% MgSO
O as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and inorganic salt sources, respectively. Several aromatic compounds in the medium enhanced laccase activity to varying degrees. Guaiacol induced maximum laccase production, yielding 114.1 U/ml laccase activity after cultivation for 11 days at 25℃. The optimum pH and temperature for laccase production were 8.0 and 35℃, respectively. Native polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by laccase-activity staining with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as the substrate was performed to identify the presence of laccase under the optimum conditions studied. Zymogram analysis of the supernatant culture showed an enzymatic band with a molecular mass of about 90 kDa.
Optimization of a Medium for the Production of Cellulase by Bacillus subtilis NC1 Using Response Surface Methodology
Yang, Hee-Jong ; Park, Chang-Su ; Yang, Ho-Yeon ; Jeong, Su-Ji ; Jeong, Seong-Yeop ; Jeong, Do-Youn ; Kang, Dae-Ook ; Moon, Ja-Young ; Choi, Nack-Shick ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 680~685
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.680
Previously, cellulase and xylanase producing microorganism, Bacillus subtilis NC1, was isolated from soil. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and API 50 CHL test the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis, and named as B. subtilis NC1. We cloned and sequenced the genes for cellulase and xylanase. Plus, the deduced amino acid sequences from the genes of cellulase and xylanase were determined and were also identified as glycosyl hydrolases family (GH) 5 and 30, respectively. In this study to optimize the medium parameters for cellulase production by B. subtilis NC1 the RSM (response surface methodology) based on CCD (central composite design) model was performed. Three factors, tryptone, yeast extract, and NaCl, for N or C source were investigated. The cellulase activity was measured with a carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) plate and the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) methods. The coefficient of determination (R
) for the model was 0.960, and the probability value (p
The Distribution of CD8- and Foxp3-positive T Cells in Skin Squamous Cell Tumors and Basal Cell Carcinomas
Jang, Tae Jung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 686~692
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.686
Cancer is subject to dynamic interactions between contrary immune reactions that drive both tumor growth and suppression. Forkhead box p3 positive T cells (Foxp3 positive T cells) might support tumor promotion, while CD8 positive T cells might protect the host. The present study examined the distributions of CD8- and Foxp3-positive T cells and CD8 positive T cells/ Foxp3 positive T cells ratio in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precancerous lesions; it also compared this with data for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Iimmunohistochemical staining for CD8 and Foxp3 was conducted in 20 cases of SCC, Bowen`s disease (BD), actinic keratosis (AK) and BCC. The BD and SCC cases exhibited significantly increased numbers of both CD8- and Foxp3-positive T cells in their advancing regions compared with the AK and BCC cases, and the BD cases exhibited significantly lower CD8 positive T cells / Foxp3 positive T cells ratio in these regions than did the AK and BCC cases. There was no significant difference in both T cells and the ratio between BD and SCC. The degree of both T cells infiltration differed between the advancing and central areas in SCC and BCC. Immune micro-environments differ between cutaneous squamous cell tumors and BCC and differ as well among tumor compartments.
The Anti-angiogenic Potential of a Phellodendron amurense Hot Water Extract in Vitro and ex Vivo
Kim, Eok-Cheon ; Kim, Seo Ho ; Bae, Kiho ; Kim, Han Sung ; Gelinsky, Michael ; Kim, Tack-Joong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 693~702
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.693
Blocking new blood-vessel formation (angiogenesis) is now recognized as a useful approach to the therapeutic treatment of many solid tumors. The best validated approach to date is to target the vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF) pathway, a key regulator of angiogenesis. Many natural products and extracts that contain a variety of chemopreventive compounds have been shown to suppress the development of malignancies through their anti-angiogenic properties. Phellodendron amurense, which is widely used in Korean traditional medicine, has been shown to possess antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties, among others. The present study investigated the effects of P. amurense hot-water extract (PAHWE) on angiogenesis, a key process in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. To investigate PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties, this study’s authors performed an analysis of angiogenesis and endothelial-cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as zymogram assays and the rat aortic ring-sprouting assay. PAHWE inhibited cell growth, mobility, and vessel formation in response to VEGF in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, it reduced VEGF-induced intracellular signaling events, such as the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9. These results indicate that PAHWE’s anti-angiogenic properties might lead to the development of potential drugs for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases such as cancer.
Histone Methylation Regulates Retinoic Acid-induced
Gene Expression in F9 EC Cells
Min, Hyehyun ; Kim, Myoung Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 703~708
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.703
Hox genes encode a highly conserved family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors controlling vertebrate pattern formation along the anteroposterior body axis during embryogenesis. Retinoic acid (RA) is a key morphogen in embryogenesis and a critical regulator of both adult and embryonic cellular activity. Specifically, RA regulates Hox gene expression in mouse- or human-derived embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells. Histone modification has been reported to play a pivotal role in the process of RA-induced gene expression and cell differentiation. As histone modification is thought to play an essential role in RA-induced Hox gene expression, we examined RA-induced initiation of collinear expression of Hox genes and the corresponding histone modifications in F9 murine embryonic teratocarcinoma (EC) cells. Hox expression patterns and histone modifications were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, RNA-sequencing, and chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP)-PCR analyses. The Hoxc4 gene (D0) was initiated earlier than the Hoxc5 to –c10 genes (D3) upon RA treatment (day 0 [D0], day 1 [D1], and day 3 [D3]). The Hox nonexpressing D0 sample had a strong repressive marker, H3K27me3, than the D1 and D3 samples. In the D1 and D3 samples, reduced enrichment of the H3K27me3 marker was observed in the whole cluster. The active H3K4me3 marker was closely associated with the collinear expression of Hoxc genes. Thus, the Hoxc4 gene (D1) and all Hoxc genes (D3) expressed H3K4me3 upon transcription activation. In conclusion, these data indicated that removing H3K27me3 and acquiring H3K4me3 regulated RA-induced Hoxc gene collinearity in F9 cells.
The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Probiotic-produced Exopolysaccharide
Lee, Seung Hoon ; Kwon, Min-Jeong ; Kang, Hyung-Taek ; Chung, Chung Wook ; Kim, Byung Oh ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 709~714
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.709
The present study isolated seven different kinds of probiotics from various food sources and identified them with Bacillus sp. and Lactobacillus sp. by 16S rDNA sequencing. Their supernatants were prepared after a 24 hr culture, and their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. Among the treated samples, the culture supernatants of two strains (Bacillus sp. FG-1 and Lactobacillus sp. FG-6) significantly decreased NO production in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, they dramatically reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α. To examine whether exopolysaccharide (EPS) is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics, EPS was purified from the culture supernatants of Bacillus sp. FG-1 and Lactobacillus sp. FG-6 strains. The EPS treatment produced by FG-1 and FG-6 strains decreased NO production in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells without affecting cell viability, while also reducing pro-inflammatory gene expression. Overall, these results suggest that EPS might be one of the key molecules responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics.
Mode of Action of Antimicrobial Peptides Identified from Insects
Lee, Heejeong ; Lee, Dong Gun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 715~723
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.715
Insects represent the largest class within the animal kingdom in terms of species number. Humans had been utilized insect in the broad area, including food, agriculture, industry, pharmaceuticals and so on. At present, insects are emerging as a leading group for identifying and extracting novel bioactive substances due to enormous number and a high nutritional value. Insects rely on a suite of systemic response to resist infection such as immune cells, hemocytes, activation of enzymes cascades, and antimicrobial peptide/protein. Among the substances, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are main components of potent antimircrobial innate defense system into the insect hemolymph. AMPs raise influential candidate as avenue to resolve the development of antibiotic-resistant microbial organism. Insect AMPs are classified into four main classes: cecropins, insect defensins, glycine/proline-rich peptides. Insect AMPs have been purified, over 150. In this review, AMPs derived from several insects were summarized including honey bee, dung beetle, butterfly and longicorn beetle. These peptides almost exhibited potent antimicrobial activities against human microbial pathogens without causing remarkable hemolysis to erythrocytes excluding melittin, and their mode of action(s) are based on disruption of the plasma membrane or fungal apoptosis. Therefore, study of insect AMPs is expected to be useful for designing novel therapeutic antimicrobial applications.
Epigenomic Alteration in Replicative Senescent-mesenchymal Stem Cells
Oh, Youn Seo ; Cho, Goang-Won ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 6, 2015, Pages 724~731
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.6.724
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized by their multipotency capacity, which allows them to differentiate into diverse cell types (bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, and neuron-like cells) and secrete a variety of trophic factors (ANG, FGF-2, HGF, IGF-1, PIGF, SDF-1α, TGF-β, and VEGF). MSCs can be easily isolated from human bone-marrow, fat, and umbilical-cord tissues. These features indicate that MSCs might be of use in stem-cell therapy. However, MSCs undergo cellular senescence during long-term expansion, and this is accompanied by functional declines in stem-cell potency. In the human body, because of their senescence and declines in their microenvironmental niches stem cells fail to maintain tissue homeostasis, and as a result, senescent cells accumulate in tissues. This can lead to age-related diseases, including degenerative disorders and cancers. Recent studies suggest that the number of histone modifications to stem cells’ genomes and aberrant alterations to their DNA methylation increase as stem cells progress into senescence. These epigenetic alterations have been partly reversed with treatments in which DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are introduced into replicative senescent-MSCs. This review focuses on epigenetic alteration in replicative senescent-MSCs and explains how epigenetic modifications are widely associated with stem-cell senescences such as differentiation, proliferation, migration, calcium signaling, and apoptosis.