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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 12 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 11 - Nov 2015
Volume 25, Issue 10 - Oct 2015
Volume 25, Issue 9 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 8 - Aug 2015
Volume 25, Issue 7 - Jul 2015
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Development of Axenic Culture and Astaxanthin Production in Microalgae
Son, Min Chang ; Lee, Dong-Jun ; Park, Sejin ; Kim, Min Sung ; Lee, Chul Won ; An, Won Gun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 733~739
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.733
Microalgae are a renewable natural resource that requires only sunlight, carbon dioxide, phosphorus, and nitrogen for rapid growth. They produce a broad variety of basic chemical substances―such as vitamins, fatty acids and carotenoids―that have high added value potential for the pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this study was to develop axenic culture and to establish a cell growth assay for microalgae. A further experiment was carried out to determine the yield of astaxanthin derived from microalgae. The axenic culture was developed using a mixture of antibiotics [ampicillin (100
), streptomycin (10
), chloramphenicol (10
), penicillin (10
), neomycin (50
), gentamycin (50
), kanamycin (10
), and nystatin (1.5
)] and then used to extract a variety of useful components from the microalgae. The optimal concentration for the antibiotic mixture was 1-3 percent. A spectrophotometric cell growth assay was also established. Astaxanthin was extracted from Haematococus lacustris with a yield of
per 1 ml of culture medium. In conclusion, the axenic culture method developed here allows extraction of high-quality astaxanthin and other useful components from microalgae.
Changes of Meat Quality and Antioxidation Activity in the Loin and Ham of Korean Native Black Pigs during Frozen Storage
Gil, Juae ; Kim, Dongwook ; Kim, Hee-Jin ; Yoon, Ji-Yeol ; Pak, Jae-In ; Park, Beom-Young ; Ham, Jun-Sang ; Jang, Aera ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 740~747
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.740
This study was carried out to evaluate changes in the meat quality and antioxidation activity in the loin and ham of Korean Native Black Pigs (KNBP) during frozen storage at −18℃ for 150 days. The pH value of the loin was decreased as storage days progressed, while the pH value of the ham showed no consistent changes with storage days. The lightness (L*) of the loin did not show any significant reduction until day 120, whereas L* of the ham was significantly declined throughout the storage period (p<0.05). The redness (a*) values of the loin and ham were significantly decreased as storage progressed. The water holding capacity of the loin was decreased by day 30 and that value was maintained until the end of storage. The initial total numbers of microorganisms in the loin and ham were 4.88 and 5.16 Log CFU/g, respectively and these numbers were significantly decreased by day 30 (p<0.05). The levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (a measurement of lipid oxidation) in the loin and ham ranged from 0.057-0.069 and 0.052-0.087 mg MDA/kg meat, respectively, until storage day 150. Volatile basic nitrogen values of the loin and ham ranged from 15.13-16.55 and 16.05-16.23 mg%. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities and carnosine contents of the loin and ham were significantly decreased during frozen storage for 3 months (p<0.05). In summary, the meat quality of the loin and ham from KNBP was somewhat decreased during frozen storage. However, the levels of antioxidants and dipeptides with antioxidant activity were significantly decreased in pork loin and ham during frozen storage.
The effect of Coptidis rhizoma, Chinese Galls and Phytoncide in Malassezia furfur
Kim, Joung-Hee ; Kwack, Seung Jun ; Cho, Yong-Kwon ; Kim, Byung-Kwan ; Kim, Jong Guk ; Lee, Eunkyung ; Cho, Hye-Kyung ; Kim, Keuk-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 748~756
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.748
The report explores the possibility that the single extract of natural substances and the mixture of single extracts of natural substances create a synergy effect to increase the antimicrobial activity. It also compares the previous researches to find out if the natural medicinal herbs’ extract has antimicrobial activity on dandruff causative organism, Malassezia furfur. For the experiment on the mixture of single extracts of natural substances, the results are like following: 1. Staphylococcus aures’s antibacterial activity is resistant to mixture of three natural substances. 2. Escherichia coil’s antibacterial activity is resistant to mixture with Coptidis rhizoma. 3. Candida albicans’ antifungal activity is resistant to mixture with Chinese galls, which means the different results may be expected when tested with each germ. 4. On the other hand, Malassezia furfur has no antifungal activity on the single extract of natural substances and shows weak antifungal activity, whose diameter is 3.20 mm when tested with the mixture of 50% of Coptidis rhizoma and 50% of Phytoncide. The result is totally different from the one on the same eumycetes, C. albicans. That is because M. furfur has more lipophilic chemicaled cell walls than C. albicans does and it also consists of lamella layer, inner plasma membrane and intermediate multiple layers.
Anti-microbial, Anti-oxidant, and Anti-thrombosis Activities of the Lees of Bokbunja Wine (Rubus coreanus Miquel)
Kim, Mi-Sun ; Kang, Dong-Kyoon ; Shin, Woo-Chang ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 757~764
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.757
The immature fruit of Rubus coreanus Miquel (bokbunja in Korean) is mainly consumed as a fruit wine due to its sour taste and low sugar content. The lees (LBW) remaining after the production of bokbunja wine are discarded as they have no specific usage. The aim of this study was to develop high-value-added biomaterials for functional foods and beauty/health products by investigating the anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-thrombosis activities of LBW using ethanol and hot water extracts and their subsequent organic solvent fractions. The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of LBW extracts has a high polyphenol content (413–459 mg/g), and showed strong anti-microbial activity against gram-positive bacteria. The EA fraction also showed excellent radical-scavenging activity against DPPH anion, ABTS cation, and nitrite, with strong reducing power. The polyphenol-enriched EA fraction strongly inhibited thrombin, prothrombin, and blood coagulation factors. The butanol fraction showed a specific inhibition of coagulation factors, as measured in activated partial thromboplastin time assay, which is linked to intrinsic blood coagulation. The butanol fraction also showed strong inhibition of platelet aggregation, at levels comparable to aspirin. The residue of the hot-water extract, which is produced by sequential solvent fractionation of the LBW extract, showed superior inhibition against platelet aggregation when compared to aspirin. Our results suggest that the LBW, which are currently discarded, are a promising source of novel functional foods and beauty/health products.
Recovery from the Two-generation Reproductive Toxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats by Treatment with Decursin and Decursinol Angelate
Kim, Kang Min ; Ok, Seon ; Go, Youn Suk ; Kang, Jae Seon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 765~772
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.765
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA) against bisphenol A (BPA) toxicity in a rat two-generation study. Adult rats were divided into the following three groups: (1) control, (2) BPA, and (3) BPA+D/DA. The D and DA treatment of F0 parents increased the terminal body weight and relative adult organ weights (testes, kidneys, spleen, and liver) when compared with the BPA group. A significant decrease in sperm count was found in the BPA+D/DA (7.69%) and BPA (64.70%, p<0.01) groups, when compared with the sperm count in the control group. No offspring were obtained in the F1 generation of the BPA (50 mg/kg/day) group, but the addition of D/DA in the BPA+D/DA group significantly restored fertility (55.78%) and gestation indices (98.87%) in the F1 generation. No significant differences were found in the fertility index between the control (75.02%) and the BPA+D/DA (78.11%) groups in the two-generation study, when compared with the one-generation study. The viability ratio during lactation in the D/DA group was also similar to that of the control group. These data indicate that D/DA (50 mg/kg/day) administered over two generations causes significant positive changes in reproductive or developmental parameters.
Anti-adipogenic, Anti-inflammatory, and Anti-proliferative Activities of Extracts from Lees and Nuruk
Son, Jung-Bin ; Lee, Seung Hoon ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ; Shin, Woo-Chang ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 773~779
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.773
This study examined extracts from five different kinds of lees and nuruk and their organic solvent fractions in terms of several biological functions, such as anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. The anti-adipogenic activity was investigated by treating mouse pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with one extract (YE) and four organic solvent fractions (YAc, PAc, RAc, and WPAc) during adipogenesis. Among the treated samples, the ethyl acetate fraction of W-Ju lees (WPAc) showed the strongest anti-adipogenic effect, which was confirmed with oil red O staining and down-regulation of pro-adipogenic genes such as PPAR-gamma and SCD-1. Treatment with WPAc also reduced the expression of PPAR-gamma in a time-dependent manner. The effects of five different extracts were examined on nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW 264.7 cells to determine anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate fraction of B-Ju lees (PAc) significantly decreased NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and it also inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The PAc fraction also dramatically decreased the viability of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PAc increased the expression of NAG-1 and ATF3 genes in a dose dependent manner. Overall, these results indicate that lees and nuruk have several biological functions, including anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities.
Dietary Intake and Accumulation of Phlorotannins in Abalone after Feeding the Phaeophyte Ecklonia stolonifera
Bangoura, Issa ; Hong, Yong-Ki ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 780~785
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.780
Dietary intake and bioavailability of phorotannins in abalone was investigated after feeding with the phlorotannin-rich brown seaweed Ecklonia stolonifera after 4 days starvation. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) affords isolation and quantification of the major phlorotannins of 7-phloroeckol and eckol, which were identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Abalone growth and feed consumption rates were similar when fed either with the E. stolonifera or the common feed seaweed Saccharina japonica for 20 days. Throughout the feeding period, 7-phloroeckolol was accumulated in the abalone flesh tissue up to an average of 0.58±0.13 mg/g dry weight after 6 days. Eckol was reached to 0.25±0.05 mg/g dry tissue after 6 days, and maintained the level until end of feeding period. By feeding S. japonica as a control, no phlorotannins were detected in the abalone tissues. Both of the abalone, fed with E. stolonifera or S. japonica, had enzymes that decomposed 7-phloroeckol and eckol in muscle tissues, with similar degradation rates of −0.05 or less and −0.05 mg/ml/hr, respectively. Phlorotannins were reduced by constitutive enzymes in abalone tissues. Therefore, value-added abalone containing bioactive phlorotannins can be produced by simply changing the feed to the phlorotannin-rich brown seaweed E. stolonifera 6 days before harvest.
Antioxidative Effect and Neuraminidase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols Isolated from a New Korean Red Waxy Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. cv. Hwanggeumchalsusu)
Ra, Ji-Eun ; Seo, Kyung Hye ; Ko, Jee Yeon ; Lee, Mi-Ja ; Kang, Hyeon Jung ; Kim, Sun Lim ; Chung, Ill-Min ; Seo, Woo Duck ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 786~794
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.786
To identify nutritional and therapeutic properties of the new Korean red waxy sorghum cultivar ‘Hwanggeumchalsusu (HGC)’, we assayed the antioxidative effects and neuraminidase inhibitory activity. A methanol and 70% ethanol extract of HGC exhibited strong antioxidative effects (IC
values of 83.2±2.7 for DPPH) and 85.6±2.4 μg/ml for ABTS) and neuraminidase (ND) inhibitory activity (IC
values of 1.8±0.1 from extracted with methanol and 3.4±0.1 μg/ml from extracted with 70% ethanol) compared with that of the control, noncolored sorghum cultivar ‘Huinchalsusu (HC)’ (IC
> 200 μg/ml). We isolated nine polyphenols, Gallic acid (1), Protocatecuic acid (2), p-Hydroxy benzoic acid (3), Vanillic acid (4), Caffeic acid (5), Ferulic acid (6), Luteolinidin (7), Apigeninidin (8), Luteolin (9), from the HGC - methanol extract, to determine whether they were the active components Luteolinidin of one kind of polyphenols from the HGC, exhibited significant antioxidative effects (IC
values of 10.9±0.5 μM for DPPH and 8.6 0.6 μM for ABTS) and neuraminidase (ND) inhibitory activity (IC
values of 26.3±0.6) showed noncompetitive inhibition model. The binding affinity of the ND inhibitors in molecular docking experiments correlated with their ND inhibitory activities. These results suggest that HGC may be utilized to serve as a potential effective antioxidant and inhibitor of ND.
Optimization of Hydrolysis Using Oyster and Oyster Cooking Drip
Ryu, Tae-hyun ; Kim, Jin-hee ; Shin, Jiyoung ; Kim, Sung-hoon ; Yang, Ji-young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 795~800
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.795
Oyster is a nutritionally good food ingredient. Also, oyster is used to make source for taste and flavor. This study tried to investigate optimal condition of hydrolysis of oyster and oyster cooking drip for better amino acid content to make good taste and flavor. And then this study characterized hydrolysate of oyster and oyster cooking drip. Enzymes are Acalase, Flavourzyme, Neutrase, and Protamax. The optimal condition for the highest enzyme activity is given by the company. Under the best condition of each enzymes, they react with the homogenized oyster and oyster cooking drip for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 4, 6 hr. The degree of oysters’ hydrolysis is 13.2±0.1%. But, in the case of using enzyme, the rate of hydrolysis sharply increased as time went on during 2 hr. After 8 hr, the rate is 36.9~40.5%. Protamax showed 27.4±0.4% of hydrolysis rate in 2 hr. And the degree of oyster cooking drop hydrolysis is 42.7±0.1%. The highest of hydrolysate concentration is 72.1±0.1% using protamax. In the case of oyster, it has a similar tendency of all enzymes. Otherwise, the hydrolysate of oyster cooking drip had a difference among the enzymes. Composition of free amino acid of hydrolysate using protamax was investigated how much time showed highest rate of hydrolysis to find best amino acid composition. Hydrolysis using Protamax during 6 hr is selected for best condition.
Extract from Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. Fruit Prevents LPS-induced Homotypic Aggregation of Monocytic THP-1 Cells via Suppression of Nitric Oxide Production and NF-κB Activation
Lee, Hye-Rim ; Park, Youngsook ; Kim, Hyun Jeong ; Lee, Aram ; Choi, Jihea ; Pyee, Jaeho ; Park, Heonyong ; Kim, Jongmin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 801~809
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.801
Homotypic cell adhesion (homotypic aggregation) in activated monocytes plays a central role in physiological and pathological processes including inflammatory responses, differentiation and migration. The extract of the Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. fruit (Maesil) has potential benefits to human health; such as anti-viral, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer activities. Indeed, Maesil extract may modulate inflammatory responses via interference with homotypic aggregation in monocytes. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the therapeutic efficacy of Maesil extract in inflammatory diseases were investigated. It was found that Maesil extract inhibited homotypic aggregation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated monocytes. This was mediated by reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, partly via inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in LPS-activated THP-1 cells. It was confirmed that NO inhibition is a key mechanism in Maesil induced blockade of monocyte aggregation through identification of reversal of this inhibitory effect by the NO-producing agent S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP). In addition, Maesil extract significantly attenuated LPS-induced IκB-α phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. In conclusion, Maesil extract exerts anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of homotypic aggregation of LPS-activated monocytes through mechanisms involving the suppression of NO production and NF-κB activity, suggesting Maesil extract as a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Double-culture Method Enhances the in Vitro Inhibition of Atopy-inducing Factors by Lactococcus lactis
Jo, Yu Ran ; Kang, Sang Mo ; Kim, Hyun Pyo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 810~818
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.810
We analyzed whether lactic acid bacteria could control the expression of IL-4 and IL-13 in activated mast cells and whether these bacteria could inhibit the activity of transcription factors such as GATA-1, GATA-2, NF-AT1, NF-AT2, and NF-κB p65. We previously described a technique for identification of lactic acid bacteria with anti-atopy functionality by confirming increased expression of CD4+/CD25+/foxp3+ in T cells. We also confirmed that a double-culture method increased the antibacterial activity of these lactic acid bacteria against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In the present study, we characterized the effect of lactic acid bacteria cultured by this double-culture method on inhibition of allergic inflammatory reactions of RBL-2H3 mast cells, a cellular model of atopic dermatitis. The strongest anti-allergic effects of the lactic acid bacteria were seen in the following order: Lactococcus lactis broth cultured with medium containing Lactobacillus plantarum culture supernatant > Lc. lactis > Lc. lactis broth cultured with medium containing Lb. plantarum culture supernatant > Lb. plantarum. Thus, Lc. lactis cultured in medium containing Lb. plantarum culture supernatant had the strongest inhibitory effect on the differentiation of mast cells during allergic reactions, which may be mediated through the selective regulation of expression of relevant genes.
Effects of Fructose-containing Drinks on Cardiopulmonary Function, Lactate Levels, and Inflammatory Markers during Maximal Exercise Testing
Park, Sung-Mo ; Kim, Byung-Woo ; Kwak, Yi-Sub ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 819~825
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.819
The use of fructose-containing sports beverage drinks has increased in recent years, especially at sport events, because of their reported ergogenic effects. However, the ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fructose beverage supplementation on cardiopulmonary function, blood lactate levels, and inflammatory reactions. We recruited 8 young adult subjects from D university and measured their cardiopulmonary functions before and after supplementation with sports beverage drinks. We also measured blood lactate and inflammatory reactions after a 20 min recovery period. Exercise time, maximal oxygen uptake (V0
max), and AT HRmax were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the period of before and after sports beverage supplementation. However, no significant differences were observed in RPE, AT RER, V0
max RER, AT V0
max, and maximum heart rate (HRmax). Lactate levels also significantly decreased after 20 min recovery with sports beverage supplementation. Sports beverage supplementation therefore may enhance maximal V0
max and increase the exercise duration time. These drinks may also be helpful in promoting rapid recovery of fatigue variables and increasing exercise performance time.
Development of a Simple and Reproducible Method for Removal of Contaminants from Ginseng Protein Samples Prior to Proteomics Analysis
Gupta, Ravi ; Kim, So Wun ; Min, Chul Woo ; Sung, Gi-Ho ; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar ; Rakwal, Randeep ; Jo, Ick Hyun ; Bang, Kyong Hwan ; Kim, Young-Chang ; Kim, Kee-Hong ; Kim, Sun Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 826~832
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.826
This study describes the effects of activated charcoal on the removal of salts, detergents, and pigments from protein extracts of ginseng leaves and roots. Incubation of protein extracts with 5% (w/v) activated charcoal (100-400 mesh) for 30 min at 4℃ almost removed the salts and detergents including NP-40 as can be observed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, analysis of chlorophyll content showed significant depletion of chlorophyll (~33%) after activated charcoal treatment, suggesting potential effect of activated charcoal on removal of pigments too along with the salts and detergents. 2-DE analysis of activated charcoal treated protein samples showed better resolution of proteins, further indicating the efficacy of activated charcoal in clearing of protein samples. In case of root proteins, although not major differences were observed on SDS-PAGE, 2-DE gels showed better resolution of spots after charcoal treatment. In addition, both Hierarchical clustering (HCL) and Principle component analysis (PCA) clearly separated acetone sample from rest of the samples. Phenol and AC-phenol samples almost overlapped each other suggesting no major differences between these samples. Overall, these results showed that activated charcoal can be used in a simple manner to remove the salts, detergents and pigments from the protein extracts of various plant tissues.
Classification of Antimicrobial Peptides among the Innate Immune Modulators
Lee, Jong-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 833~838
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.833
Multidrug-resistant super bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threaten pathogens. However, to overcome the present healthcare situation, among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are abundantly produced via various species in nature. AMPs, small host defense proteins, are in charge of the innate immunity for the protection of multicellular organisms such as fish, amphibian, reptile, plants and animals from infection. The number of AMPs identified per year has increased steadily since the 1980s. Over 2,000 natural AMPs from bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals have been listed into the antimicrobial peptide database (APD). The majority of these AMPs (>86%) possess 11–50 amino acids with a net charge from 0 to +7 and hydrophobic percentages between 31–70%. This report classified AMP into several categories including biological source, biological functions, peptide properties, covalent bonding pattern, and 3D structure. AMP functions not only antimicrobial activity but facilitates cell biological activity such as chemotatic activity. In addition, fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) originated from mouse lymph node stroma induced the expression of AMP in inflammatory condition. AMP induced from FRC contained whey acidic protein (WAP) domain. It suggests that the classification of AMP will be done by protein domain.
An Overview for Molecular Markers in Plants
Huh, Man Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 25, issue 7, 2015, Pages 839~848
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.7.839
A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism or other matter. The development of molecular techniques for genetic analysis has led to a great contribution to our knowledge of plant genetics and our understanding of the structure and behavior of various genomes in plants. Recently, functional molecular markers have been developed to detect the presence of major genes from the analysis of pedigreed data in absence of molecular information. DNA markers have developed into many systems based on different polymorphism-detecting techniques or methods such as RFLP, AFLP, RAPD, SSR, SNP, etc. A new class of very useful DNA markers called genic molecular markers utilizing the ever-increasing archives of gene sequence information being accumulated under the EST sequencing projects on a large number of plant species. Functional markers are derived from polymorphic sequences, and are more likely to be involved in phenotypic trait variation. Based on this conceptual framework, the marker systems discussed below are all (gene)-targeted markers, which have the potential to become functional. These markers being part of the cDNA/EST-sequences, are expected to represent the functional component of the genome i.e., gene(s), in contrast to all other random DNA based markers that are developed/generated from the anonymous genomic DNA sequences/domains irrespective of their genic content/information. Especially I sited Poczai et al’ reviews, advances in plant gene-targeted and functional markers. Their reviews may be some useful information to study molecular markers in plants.