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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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A Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of the Leptin Receptor Gene Associated with Backfat Thickness in Duroc Pigs
Lee, Kyung-Tai ; Lee, Hae-Young ; Choi, Bong-Hwan ; Kim, Jong-Joo ; Kim, Tae-Hun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.1
Fatness is one of the most important economic traits in pigs. The leptin receptor (LEPR) gene may be a potential candidate for the fatness quantitative trait locus (QTL) on porcine chromosome 6, due to its position and physiological role. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the associations between structural variants in the LEPR gene and economic traits in pigs. We obtained an approximately 114-kb sequence containing the complete genomic DNA of the porcine LEPR gene, using shotgun sequencing of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone. We report the complete genomic structure of the porcine LEPR gene. Dozens of transcription factor-binding sites were found in the 1.2 kb upstream region from the transcription start point. An association study was performed with 550 Duroc pigs for 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 6 SNPs within exons and 18 SNPs within the putative 5‘ regulatory region of the porcine LEPR gene. Among them, one SNP (−790C/G) was significantly associated with backfat thickness and lean meat percentage, whereas the others, including two SNPs with missense polymorphisms, had no effect on any phenotype. These results suggest that SNP −790C/G may be a useful marker for genetic improvements of fatness and leanness in Duroc pigs.
Role of Nox4 in Neuronal Differentiation of Mouse Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cells
Park, Ki-Youb ; Na, Yerin ; Kim, Man Su ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 8~16
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.8
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), at appropriate concentrations, mediate various normal cellular functions, including defense against pathogens, signal transduction, cellular growth, and gene expression. A recent study demonstrated that ROS and ROS-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox) are important in self-renewal and neuronal differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells in adult mouse brains. In this study, we found that endogenous ROS were detected in SVZ neural stem cells cultured from postnatal mouse brains. Nox4 was predominantly expressed in cultured cells, while the levels of the Nox1 and Nox2 transcripts were very low. In addition, the Nox4 gene was highly upregulated (by up to 10-fold) during neuronal differentiation. Immunocytochemical analysis detected the Nox4 protein mainly in neurons positive for the neuronal specific tubulin Tuj1. After differentiation, endogenous ROS were detected exclusively in neuron-like cells with processes. In addition, perturbation of the cellular redox state with N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, during neuronal differentiation greatly inhibited neurogenesis. Lastly, knockdown of Nox4 using short hairpin RNA decreased neurogenesis. These findings suggest that Nox4 may be a major ROS-generating enzyme in postnatal SVZ neural stem cells, and Nox4-mediated ROS generation may be important in their neuronal differentiation.
Investigation into the Ethanol Tolerance Mechanism by Regulation of Gene Expression
Jung, Hoe-Myung ; Choi, Ho-Jung ; Nam, Soo-Wan ; Jeon, Sung-Jong ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 17~22
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.17
Ethanol is a very valuable material, however, it is also a source of stress, as the accumulation of ethanol in a medium inhibits cell viability and decreases productivity of the target product. Therefore, the ethanol tolerance of yeast, which is closely related to ethanol productivity, is an important factor in industrial ethanol production. In this study, the YDJ1 and PEP5 genes were selected as target genes for elucidating ethanol-tolerant mechanisms by analyzing the expression regulation of these genes. The pA-YDJ1 and pA-PEP5 plasmids containing YDJ1 and PEP5 genes under an ADH1 promoter, respectively, were constructed and transformed into BY4742 (host strain), BY4742△ydj1, and BY4742△pep5 strains. The ethanol tolerance in the BY4742△ydj1/ pA-YDJ1 and BY4742△pep5/pA-PEP5 transformants was restored by overexpression of the YDJ1 and PEP5 genes to the host strain level. The YDJ1 and PEP5 genes were also introduced into the double gene disruptant (BY4742△ydj1△pep5) to investigate the expression regulation of the YDJ1 and PEP5 genes. The simultaneous overexpression of the YDJ1 and PEP5 genes restored ethanol tolerance to the 90% level of the BY4742 strain under 8% ethanol stress. The YDJ1 gene induced more overexpression of the PEP5 gene in the BY4742△ydj1 △pep5/pA-YDJ1, pA-PEP5 strain, suggesting that the YDJ1 gene partially regulates the expression of the PEP5 gene as an upstream regulator.
Effect of NaCl on the Stability of Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus
Kim, Seong-Geun ; Ran, Gui Shao ; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan ; Hwang, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 23~33
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.23
Pexa-Vec (JX-594) is a specific cancer-targeted oncolytic and immunotherapeutic vaccinia virus. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to maximize the stability of Pexa-Vec. In short-term instability testing, viral activity was rapidly decreased both at 4℃ and at room temperature (RT), but it was completely restored after sonication followed by vortex. Long-term stability testing of Pexa-Vec in the following liquid formulations was performed: (A) 30 mM Tris/pH 7.6, (B) 30 mM Tris/pH 8.6, (C) 30 mM Tris/pH 7.6, 150 mM NaCl, 15% sucrose, (D) 30 mM Tris/pH 7.6, 15% sucrose, and (E) 30 mM Tris/pH 8.6, 15% sucrose. Viral activity decreased less than 2 log10 at 4℃, and RT was observed in 3 days in B, while viral activity was not decreased even after 4–8 weeks at 4℃ and at 1 week in RT in A, suggesting that neutral pH may be essential to maintain virus stability. The addition of 15% sucrose into A (D) significantly increased viral stability at −20℃, 4℃, or RT, and it was also observed at pH 8.6 (E). The addition of 150 mM NaCl into D (C) significantly increased viral stability in addition to the sucrose effect at 4℃ or RT. Accordingly, the viral activity in formulation C was maintained for 1.5 years at 4℃, and for 1-2 weeks in RT. In conclusion, we propose that formulation C can provide the most adequate condition for the proper storage of vaccinia oncolytic virus.
Mechanisms for Anti-wrinkle Activities from Fractions of Black Chokeberries
Choi, Eun-Young ; Kim, Eun-Hee ; Lee, Jae-Bong ; Do, Eun-Ju ; Kim, Sang-Jin ; Kim, Se-Hyeon ; Park, Jeong-Yeol ; Lee, Jin-Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 34~41
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.34
Black chokeberries (scientific name Aronia melanocarpa) have been reported to have major effects due to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer capabilities. In this study, we investigated the anti- wrinkle effects of A. melanocarpa, including collagenase inhibition effects and their molecular biological mechanisms, such as oxidative stress-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and activator protein (AP)-1 expression and/or phosphorylation. In collagenase inhibition activity, the ethyl acetate fraction of black chokeberry (AE) was 77.2% at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which was a significant result compared to that of Epigallocatechin gallate (positive control, 83.9% in 500 μg/ml). In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, the AE produced 78% of ROS in 10 μg/ml and 70% of ROS in 75 μg/ml, which was a much lower percentage than the ROS production of H
-induced CCRF S-180II cells. In the MTT assay, cell viability was increased dose-dependently with AE in H
-induced cells. In protein expression by western blot assay, the AE suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of MMPs (MMP-1, -3, -9), MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38), and AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun), and expressed the pro-collagen type I in H
-induced cells. These results suggest that black chokeberries have anti-wrinkle and collagen-production effects, and they may be used in applications for material development in the functional food and cosmetic industries.
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Bovine CYP26A1 Promoter
Kwak, Inseok ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 42~49
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.42
The retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the growth and development of many cells, and bioactive RA concentration is regulated by several enzymes, including CYP26A1. The expression of the CYP26A1 gene is regulated by RA, and the CYP26A1 gene is one of the candidates for RA-responsive genes. Although CYP26A1 genes are cloned from several animals, cloning of the CYP26A1 gene from cows has not been reported yet. The promoter region of CYP26A1 from cows was cloned by PCR and analyzed by sequence alignment with human and mouse CYP26A1. The RA-responsive element (RARE), DR-5 (ttggg), was located in this region and was perfectly conserved. The promoter region of bovine CYP26A1, which contains DR-5, was ligated to the luciferase reporter gene on transient transfection assays. The expression of CYP26A1-Luc promoter was activated by ATRA treatment in lung-derived mtCC cells. Co-transfection with RAR-α or -β with ATRA significantly activates the expression of CYP26A1-Luc promoter; however, it was less effective with either RAR-γ or RXR-γ. In addition, the endogenous gene expressions measured by Q-RT-PCR in mtCC cells were not significantly affected by ATRA treatment for 2 days; however, the expression of the endogenous CYP26A1 gene was diminished sharply at day 3 with ATRA treatment. In conclusion, the promoter region of bovine CYP26A1 contains conserved DR-5 RARE, which functions as a binding site for RAR-α or -β, and it is involved in the regulation of CYP26A1 gene expression and the control of RA signaling in mtCC cells.
Immunomodulatory Activity of Water Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa in Macrophages
Kwon, Da Hye ; Kang, Hye-Joo ; Choi, Yung Hyun ; Chung, Kyung Tae ; Lee, Jong Hwan ; Kang, Kyung Hwa ; Hyun, Sook Kyung ; Kim, Byung Woo ; Hwang, Hye Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 50~58
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.50
The root bark of Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as edema, infection and inflammation. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. In this study, as part of our ongoing screening program to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of new compounds from traditional medicinal resources, we investigated the effects of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) on immune modulation in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model. As immune response parameters, the productions of as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 were evaluated. Although the release of IL-1β remained unchanged in UME-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, the productions of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased, along with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL-10 expression at concentrations with no cytotoxicity. UME treatment also induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) indicating that UME activated macrophages through the activation of NF-κB, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, pre-treatment with UME significantly attenuated the production of NO, but not TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells suggesting that UME may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. These findings suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of UME may be attributed partly to its ability to modulate immune functions in macrophages.
Effect of Fermented Platycodon grandiflorum Extract on Cell Proliferation and Migration in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells
Choi, Woosoung ; Song, Jina ; Park, Mi-Hyeon ; Yu, Heui Jong ; Park, Heonyong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.59
Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle (Korean name, ‘Doraji’) is a perennial plant containing various triterpenoid saponins. The roots of this plant have traditionally been used as a food material in Korea. Here, we prepared a fermented P. grandiflorum extract (PG). Although it was previously reported that P. grandiflorum A. extract has a variety of physiological functionalities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, little is known about its vascular functions. In this study, we executed a series of experiments to identify the effect of PG on endothelial cells. PG at a high concentration (100 μg/ml) was found to induce cell detachment, whereas PG at a low concentration (0.1 μg/ml) appeared to promote cell proliferation and migration in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The cell detachment induced by the high concentration was not associated with cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. In addition, we found that PG at the high concentration formed a small vesicular structure called an endothelial microparticle (EMP). The EMP was prepared by centrifugal fractionation and determined with flow cytometry and a microscope. Interestingly, PG-induced cell detachment was found to be mediated by EMP. We furthermore determined that PG at the low concentration activated Akt, a crucial cell-signaling molecule, and then controlled cell proliferation and migration. Overall, our findings suggest that PG at low doses maintains vascular stability by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, and enhances the efficacy of wound healing by cell proliferation and migration activity.
Analysis of a Sulfur-oxidizing Perchlorate-degrading Microbial Community
Kim, Young-Hwa ; Han, Kyoung-Rim ; Hwang, Heejae ; Kwon, Hyukjun ; Kim, Yerim ; Kim, Kwonwoo ; Kim, Heejoo ; Son, Myunghwa ; Choi, Young-Ik ; Sung, Nak-Chang ; Ahn, Yeonghee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 68~74
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.68
) is an emerging pollutant detected in surface water, soil, and groundwater. Previous studies provided experimental evidence of autotrophic ClO
removal with elemental sulfur (S
) particles and activated sludge, which are inexpensive and easily available, respectively. In addition, ClO
removal efficiency was shown to increase when an enrichment culture was used as an inoculum instead of activated sludge. PCR-DGGE was employed in the present study to investigate the microbial community in the enrichment culture that removed ClO
autotrophically. Microorganisms in the enrichment culture showed 99.71% or more ClO
removal efficiency after a 7-day incubation when the initial concentration was approximately 120 mg ClO
/l. Genomic DNA was isolated from the enriched culture and its inoculum (activated sludge), and used for PCR-DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Microbial compositions of the enrichment culture and the activated sludge were different, as determined by their different DGGE profiles. The difference in DGGE banding patterns suggests that environmental conditions of the enrichment culture caused a change in the microbial community composition of the inoculated activated sludge. Dominant DGGE bands in the enrichment culture sample were affiliated with the classes β-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Spirochaetes. Further investigation is warranted to reveal the metabolic roles of the dominant populations in the ClO
degradation process, along with their isolation.
Identification and Molecular Characterization of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Pseudomonas rhodesiae KK1 Capable of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation
Lee, Dong-Heon ; Oh, Kye-Heon ; Kim, Seung Il ; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 75~82
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.75
Pseudomonas rhodesiae KK1 has been reported to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as anthracene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene, which are considered major environmental contaminants. Interestingly, antioxidant genes, including superoxide dismutase, are known to be expressed at different levels in response to environmental contaminants. This study was performed to identify the superoxide dismutase gene in strain KK1, which may be indirectly involved with degradation of PAHs, as well as to investigate the expression pattern of the superoxide dismutase gene in cells grown on different PAHs. Two types of superoxide dismutase genes responsible for the antioxidant defense mechanism, Mn-superoxide dismutase (sodA) and Fe-superoxide dismutase (sodB), were identified in P. rhodesiae KK1. The sodA gene in strain KK1 shared 95% similarity, based on 141 amino acids, with the Mn-sod of P. fluorescens Pf-5. The sodB strain, based on 135 amino acids, shared 99% similarity with the Fe-sod of P. fluorescens Pf-5. Southern hybridization using the sod gene fragment as a probe showed that at least two copies of superoxide dismutase genes exist in strain KK1. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the sodA and sodB genes were more strongly expressed in response to naphthalene and phenanthrene than to anthracene. Interestingly, sodA and sodB activities were revealed to be maintained in cells grown on all of the tested substrates, including glucose.
Effect of Ledebouriella seseloides Extracts on Lipid Parameters in Ovariectomized Rats
Jeon, Myeong-Jeong ; Kim, Mihyang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 83~90
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.83
This study was investigated the improvement effects of Ledebouriella seseloides (LS) ethanol extracts on lipid parameters in an ovariectomized animal model. Sixty, nine-week old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups as follows: sham-operated rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats (OVX-CON) and ovariectomized rats that were treated with LS ethanol extracts (50 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively). The diets were fed to the rats for six weeks after their operation. The total-cholesterol and triglyceride contents on serum increased in the OVX-CON group compared to the SHAM group, but supplementation with the LS extract caused these factors to decrease. Notably, the serum LDL-cholesterol concentration in the supplemented 200 mg/kg/day LS ethanol extract group was significantly more reduced than the OVX-CON group. In addition, the platelet aggregation ability was lower in groups treated with LS than in the OVX-CON group. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was lower in the LS extract group compared to the OVX-CON group. Collagen content, in bone and cartilage, were reduced by ovariectomy, but the supplemented LS extract groups exhibited higher concentrations in their bones. According to these results, the improvement effects of LS extract on serum lipid parameters and osteogenesis in ovariectomized rats were illuminated.
Hot Water Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis Inhibits Migration, Invasion and Tube Formation in a Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Model and a Rat Aortic Ring Sprouting Model
Kim, Eok-Cheon ; Bae, Kiho ; Kim, Han Sung ; Yoo, Yeong-Min ; Gelinsky, Michael ; Kim, Tack-Joong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 91~100
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.91
Angiogenesis is essential for the pathophysiological processes of embryogenesis, tissue growth, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis, wound healing, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and tumor growth. Inhibition of angiogenesis represents an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of angiogenic diseases such as cancer. However, uncontrolled angiogenesis is also necessary for tumor development and metastasis. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, a critical factor in the induction of angiogenesis, cause robust and rapid changes in blood vessels of tumors and therefore VEGF constitutes a target for such anti-angiogenic therapy. Recently, since natural compounds pose significantly less risk of deleterious side effects than synthetic compounds, a great many natural resources have been assessed for useful substance for anti-angiogenic treatment. Here we evaluated the anti-angiogenic effects of a hot water extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (SBHWE) using in vitro assays and ex vivo animal experiments. Our results show that SBHWE dose-dependently abrogated vascular endothelial responses by inhibiting VEGF-stimulated migration and invasion as well as tube formation in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) model, without cytotoxicity, as determined by a cell viability assay. Further study revealed that SBHWE prevented VEGF-induced neo-vascularization in a rat aortic ring sprouting model. Taken together, our findings reveal an anti-angiogenic activity of Scutellaria baicalensis and suggest that SBHWE is a novel candidate inhibitor of VEGF-induced angiogenesis.
Correlation between Clinicopathology and Expression of HSP70, BAG1 and Raf-1 in Human Diffuse Type Gastric Carcinoma
Jung, Sang Bong ; Lee, Hyoun Wook ; Chung, Kyung Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 101~108
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.101
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the expression of Heat shock protein70 (HSP70), Raf-1 and Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG1) protein in diffuse type gastric carcinoma and examine association of HSP70, Raf-1 and BAG1 expression with various clinic-pathological factors and survival. Heat shock protein70 is induced in the cells in response to various stress conditions, including carcinogens. Overexpression of heat shock protein 70 has been observed in many types of cancer. The proto-oncoprotein Raf is pivotal for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and its aberrant activation has been implicated in multiple human cancers. Overexpression of BAG1 protein has been documented in some type of human cancer. BAG1 has been reported to interact with protein involved with a variety of signal pathway, and regulation of cell differentiation, survival and apoptosis. These interaction partners include HSP70 and Raf-1. The percentage of tumors exhibiting HSP70 positivity was significantly in cases of positive lymph node metastasis (64.9%) compared to cases without lymph node metastasis (35.1%, p
Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Water Extract Improved Splenocytes Survival and NK Cell Cytotoxicity
Lee, Sung Do ; Kim, Deok Won ; Lee, Inhwan ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ; Hyun, Sook Kyung ; Kang, Kyung-Hwa ; Hwang, HyeJin ; Kim, CheolMin ; Kim, Byoung Woo ; Chung, Kyung Tae ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 109~116
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.109
Ulmi cortex is the elm bark or root bark of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and has been used as an ingredient of traditional medicine for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-cancer and wound healing on both the East and the West. This study investigated whether the Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Water extract (UMWE) has the in vivo and in vitro immune activating effect. Animals were orally administrated for 14 days as follows: no treat group with distilled water, cyclophosphamide (CY) group with 120 mg/kg of CY, UMWE 100+CY group with 100 mg/kg of UMWE and 120 mg/kg of CY, UMWE 200+CY group with 200 mg/kg of UMWE and 120 mg/kg of CY, UMWE 100 group with 100 mg/kg of UMWE and UMWE 200 group with 200 mg/kg of UMWE. The immunosuppressive drug CY was intraperitoneally injected to induce immune suppression. Spleen indices showed small changes in CY injected groups but splenocyte indices showed greater decrease in the same groups. However, UMWE appeared to relieve CY’s immunosuppression. UMWE also delayed in vitro splenocyte death increasing its longevity. These data obtained by MTT assay and 7-amino-actinomycin D which stains preferentially dead than live cells. UMWE alone did not show cytotoxicity based on its apoptototic effect on splenocytes in vitro and in vivo. Splenic NK cell activity was maintained by UMWE under the presence of CY in vitro. The data indicated that UMWE protects splenocytes from the immunosuppressive drug CY under in vitro and in vivo conditions.
Suppressive Effects of Lees from Sweet Potato Soju on LPS-induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Cells
Lee, Seung-Hoon ; Kwon, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Soon Young ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ; Shin, Woo-Chang ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 117~122
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.117
In the current study, the ethanol extracts and their subsequent organic solvent fractions from lees of sweet potato soju were prepared and the prepared samples were designated as from KSD-E8-1 to KSD-E8-5. Their effects on cell viability and nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction (KSD-E8-3) of lees extracts from sweet potato soju significantly decreased nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells, whereas they did not affect cell viabilities. The fraction KSD-E8-3 reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as COX-2, iNOS and TNF-alpha and also decreased protein expression of iNOS in a dose dependent manner, which were detected with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, we detected the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 and their phosphorylated forms. The results indicated that the treatment of the fraction KSD-E8-3 did inhibit phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 MAPKs, indicating that the fraction KSD-E8-3 regulates LPS-induced inflammatory response via suppressing MAPK signaling pathway. Overall, these results may contribute to understand the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects by the ethyl acetate fraction of lees extracts from sweet potato soju.
Pharmacokinetics Interaction between Cardiotonic Pills and Cilostazol in Rats
Kim, Ekyune ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 123~128
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.123
The object of this study was to obtain accurate information about the co-administration effects of cardiotonic pills on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol were observed as a process of the comprehensive and integrative medicine. Cilostazol is a synthetic anti-platelet and vasodilator agent developed for the treatment of intermittent claudication resulting from peripheral arterial disease. By increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cilostazol induces the activation of protein kinase A, which activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In order to evaluate the effect of a single or repeated cardiotonic pill dose on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol, a single dose of pure_distilled water or a colloidal suspension of distilled water and cardiotonic pills were administered to the control and test groups, respectively. After 30 min, both groups were administered cilostazol. Plasma was collected 30min before administration, and 0.25, 0.5, 0.45, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after the end of cilostazol treatment. We then evaluated the pharmacokinetic changes observed with cilostazol between the control and test groups. No statistically significant differences were observed. These findings demonstrated that a single dose of cardiotonic pills did not affect the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol. The results obtained in this study suggest that co-administration of cardiotonic pills and cilostazol may not affect the bioavailability of cilostazol as a potential drug interaction.
Exercise and Neuroplasticity: Benefits of High Intensity Interval Exercise
Hwang, Ji Sun ; Kim, Tae Young ; Hwang, Moon-Hyon ; Lee, Won Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 129~139
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.129
Exercise increases the expression and interaction of major neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at both central and peripheral tissues, which contributes to improved brain and neural plasticity and cognitive function. Previous findings have been to understand the effect of light or moderate intensity aerobic exercise on neurotrophic factors and cognitive function, not that of high intensity aerobic exercise. However, recent findings suggest that high intensity interval training is a safe, less time-consuming, efficient way to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and weight control, thus American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM)’s guidelines for exercise prescription for various adult populations also recommend the application of high intensity interval training to promote their overall health. High intensity interval training also enhances the expression of BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF at the brain and peripheral tissues, which improves cognitive function. Increased frequency of intermittent hypoxia and increased usage of lactate as a supplementary metabolic resource at the brain and neural components are considered a putative physiological mechanism by which high intensity interval training improves neurotrophic factors and cognitive function. Therefore, future studies are required to understand how increased hypoxia and lactate usage leads to the improvement of neurotrophic factors and what the related biological mechanisms are. In addition, by comparing with the iso-caloric moderate continuous exercise, the superiority of high intensity interval training on the expression of neurotrophic factors and cognitive function should be demonstrated by associated future studies.
Transcriptional Regulation of Genes by Enhancer RNAs
Kim, Yea Woon ; Kim, AeRi ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 1, 2016, Pages 140~145
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.140
Genes in multicellular organisms are transcribed in development, differentiation, or tissue-specific manners. The transcription of genes is activated by enhancers, which are transcription regulatory elements located at long distances from the genes. Recent studies have reported that noncoding RNAs are transcribed from active enhancers by RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II); these are called enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). eRNAs are transcribed bi-directionally from the enhancer core, and are capped on the 5’ end but not spliced or polyadenylated on the 3’ end. The transcription of eRNAs requires the binding of transcription activators on the enhancer and associates positively with the transcription of the target gene. The transcriptional inhibition of eRNAs or the removal of eRNA transcripts results in the transcriptional repression of the coding gene. The transcriptional procedure of eRNAs causes enhancer- specific histone modifications, such as histone H3K4me1/2. eRNA transcripts directly interact with Mediator and Rad21, a cohesin subunit, generating a chromatin loop structure between the enhancer and the promoter of the target gene. The recruitment of RNA Pol II into the promoter and its elongation through the coding region are facilitated by eRNAs. Here, we will review the features of eRNAs, and discuss the mechanism of eRNA transcription and the roles of eRNAs in the transcriptional activation of target genes.