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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Extract from Eucheuma cottonii Induces Apoptotic Cell Death on Human Osteosarcoma Saos-2 Cells via Caspase Cascade Apoptosis Pathway
Kang, Chang-Won ; Kang, Min-Jae ; Kim, Kyong Rok ; Kim, Nan-Hee ; Seo, Yong Bae ; Kang, Keon-Hee ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Gun-Do ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 147~154
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.147
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common and malignant bone tumors. Although many types of resection surgery and experimental agents were developed, median survival and clinical prognosis are poorly investigated. Recently, several researches have reported that Eucheuma cottonii has potent as protective effects of coal dust-induced lung damage via inhibition of malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidative stress in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). However, anti-cancer effects and specific molecular mechanism of extract from Eucheuma cottonii (EE) has not been clearly studied yet. This study evaluated that anti-cancer potential of EE in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells. EE indicated cytotoxicity on Saos-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological degradation and nucleic condensation were also observed under the EE treatment. However, it did not significantly affect on non-cancerous kidney HEK-293 cells under the same concentration which is shown cytotoxicity on Saos-2 cells. The phosphorylation of Fas-Associated Death Domain (FADD) and expression of cleaved caspase-8, -7 and -3 were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner. In immunofluorescence staining, expression level of Fas and cleaved PARP were upregulated by EE treatment. Furthermore, treatment of EE induces upregulation of sub G1 phase by flow cytometry analysis. The results demonstrated that EE has a therapeutic potential against osteosarcoma via FADD mediated caspase cascade apoptosis signal pathway.
Metabolism of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Tissues from Ldh-C Expressed Fish at Starved State
Yum, Jung Joo ; Kim, Gyu Dong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 155~163
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.155
Metabolism of lactate dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11, LDH) was studied to identify the function of LDH-C. Tissues of LDH liver-specific Ldh-C expressed Carassius auratus and eye-specific Ldh-C expressed Lepomis macrochirus after starvation were studied. LDH activity in liver tissue from C. auratus was increased after starvation. And LDH specific activity (units/mg) and LDH/CS were increased in tissues. It means the anaerobic metabolism was taking place in C. auratus after starvation. LDH B
isozyme was decreased in skeletal muscle and increased in heart tissue. LDH C
isozymes those showed in eye and brain tissues were identified as liver-specific C
isozymes and disappeared after starvation. And C hybrid in eye, A
isozyme in brain, and both C hybrid and C
isozyme in liver tissue were increased, respectively. In L. macrochirus, the level of variation of LDH activities was low but greatly increased especially in eye tissue and LDH A
and AC hybrid were increased in brain tissue. The LDH activities in tissues from C. auratus and L. macrochirus remained 30.30-18.64% and 25-18.75%, respectively, as a result of the inhibition by 10 mM of pyruvate. The Km
values of LDH in C. auratus were increased. As a result, LDH liver-specific C
isozyme was expressed in liver, brain and eye tissues during starvation. It seems metabolism of lactate was predominant in brain tissue. After starvation, the liver-specific LDH-C was affected more than eye-specific LDH-C.
Investigation of the Gene Encoding Isotocin and its Expression in Cinnamon Clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus
Noh, Gyeong Eon ; Choi, Mi-Jin ; Min, Byung Hwa ; Rho, Sum ; Kim, Jong-Myoung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 164~173
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.164
Isotocin (IT), a nonapeptide homolog of oxytocin in mammals, has been suggested to be involved in physiological processes including social behaviors, stress responses, and osmoregulation in teleost fish. To study its structure and function, the gene encoding the IT precursor was cloned from the genomic DNA and brain cDNA of the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. The IT precursor gene consists of three exons separated by two introns, and encodes an open reading frame of 156 amino acid (aa) residues, comprising a putative signal peptide of 19 aa, a mature IT protein of 9 aa, a proteolytic processing site of 3 aa, and 125 aa of neurophysin. Tissue-specific analysis of the IT precursor transcript indicated its expression in the brain and gonads of A. melanopus. To examine its osmoregulatory effects, the salinity of the seawater (34 ppt) used for rearing A. melanopus was lowered to 15 ppt. Histological analysis of the gills indicated the apparent disappearance of an apical crypt on the surface of the gill lamella of A. melanopus, as pavement cells covered the surface upon acclimation to the lower salinity. The level of Na
ATPase activity in the gills was increased during the initial stage of acclimation, followed by a decrease to its normal level, suggesting its involvement in osmoregulation and homeostasis. The only slight increase in the level of IT precursor transcript in the A. melanopus brain upon low-salinity acclimation suggested that IT played a minor role, if any, in the process of osmoregulation.
Dicumarol Inhibits PMA-Induced MMP-9 Expression through NQO1-independent manner in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells
Park, Eun Jung ; Kwon, Taeg Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 174~180
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.174
Dicumarol is a coumarin derivative isolated from sweet clover (Melilotus alba), and has anti-coagulant activity with the inhibitory activity of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1). NQO1 catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones. Dicumarol competes with NAD(P)H for binding to NQO1, resulting in the inhibition of NQO1 enzymatic activity. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The expression of MMPs is regulated by cytokines and signal transduction pathways, including those activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, the effects of dicumarol on metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression and activity are not investigated here. This study investigated whether dicumarol inhibits MMP-9 expression and activity in PMA-treated human renal carcinoma Caki cells. Dicumarol markedly inhibited the PMA-induced MMP-9 mRNA expression and MMP-9 activity. NF-κB and AP1 promoter activity, which is important in MMP-9 expression, also decreased in dicumarol-treated cells. Furthermore, dicumarol markedly suppressed the ability of PMA-mediated migration in Caki cells. When the relevance of NQO1 in the dicumarol-mediated inhibitory effect on PMA-induced MMP9 activity was elucidated, knock-down of NQO1 with siRNA was found to have no effect on PMA-induced MMP9 activity, suggesting that the stimulating effect of dicumarol on PMA-induced MMP9 activity is independent of NQO1 activity. Taken together, the present studies suggested that dicumarol may inhibit PMA-induced migration via down-regulation of MMP-9 expression and activity.
Exposure to Dithiopyr Alters Swimming Performance Parameters in Zebrafish
Oh, Junyoung ; Park, Eun-Jin ; Kang, Seongeun ; Lee, Seungheon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 181~189
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.181
The aim of this study was to identify the effects of dithiopyr (DTP), a herbicide, on behavior in zebrafish. The toxicity of DTP has rarely been investigated in fish. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of DTP in the range of 10-20 μM for 48 h in a test container, in order to measure the value of median lethal concentrations (LC
). Behavioral experiments were performed, including the novel tank test (NTT) and the open field test (OFT), to assess stress responses or locomotion. After exposure to the DTP solution at a sublethal concentration of 2.5–10 μM for 6 min, the behavior of the zebrafish was observed for 6 min. In the acute toxicity test, the LC
value of DTP showed as 14.49 μM in the zebrafish. The NTT showed that the duration of immobility and the velocity were significantly increased by exposure at a concentration of 5 μM of DTP, compared with a control group (p<0.05). However, compared with the control group, DTP significantly decreased the distance moved and the frequency at the top of the tank, and significantly increased the turn angle and duration at the bottom, in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). In addition, in the OFT, exposure to DTP significantly decreased the distance moved and velocity compared with the control group (p<0.05). Exposure to DTP also significantly increased the duration of immobility, the turn angle, and the meandering movement, in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). Further, exposure to DTP at a low concentration elevated whole-body cortisol levels in the zebrafish. The results of this study thus suggest that DTP induces a toxic response and negative effects on behavior and the endocrine system in zebrafish.
Decrease of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Raw Cow’s Milk using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) System
Kim, Ki-Hwan ; Nam, Myoung Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 190~197
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.190
can be produced in cow’s milk when cows eat contaminated produce. Milk is a major source of food for infants and for children who have a weak level of immunity, and the detection of Aflatoxin M
for risk assessment is necessary in order to reduce the amount of it in milk. In this study, the Aflatoxin M
level was monitored for one year in raw milk samples obtained from Chungnam Province, Korea. The milk samples were divided into three categories: 1. milk samples from a standard general farm, 2. milk samples from a HACCP controlled farm, and 3. milk samples from the supply of Aflatoxin M
reduced fodder. The average concentrations of Aflatoxin M
in milk were 0.023±0.005 ug/l for the standard general farm, 0.017±0.004 ug/l for the HACCP controlled farm, and 0.013±0.003 ug/l for the supply of Aflatoxin M
reduction fodder. Milk collected from the supply of Aflatoxin M
reduction fodder had the lowest level of Aflatoxin M
. However, when efficiency and economic aspects are considered the most effective way of reducting Aflatoxin M
, could be taking milk from the HACCP controlled farm and implementing good feed management. Institutional support from the government, careful management of dairy farming, and a strict farm sanitation program are required in order to lower the level of Aflatoxin M
Characterization of Agarase Produced from the Isolated Marine Bacterium Marinomonas sp. SH-2
Jo, Jeong-Gwon ; Lee, Sol-Ji ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 198~203
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.198
This study aimed to isolate a novel agarase-producing marine bacterium and characterize its agarase, as agarases are known to produce biofunctional agarooligosaccharides or neo-agarooligosaccharides. A novel agar-degrading bacterium, SH-2, was isolated from the seawater of Namhae in Gyeongnam Province, Korea, and cultured in Marine agar 2216 medium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence represented 99% identity with that of the members of the Marinomonas genus; hence, the isolated bacterium was named Marinomonas sp. SH-2. The crude agarase was prepared from a culture medium of Marinomonas. sp SH-2, and exhibited maximum agarase activity at 170.2 units/l. The optimum conditions were pH 6.0 and 30℃ in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer. The agarase activity of the bacterium was highly elevated from 20℃(42% relative activity) to 30℃(100%), and 82% activity was shown at 40℃. Its relative activities were less than 40% at over 40℃ after a 0.5 hr exposure. Relative activity was 100% at pH 6.0, while it was 72% and 48% at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme from Marinomonas sp. SH-2 degraded agarose to neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose, indicating that the enzyme is β-agarase. Thus, Marinomonas sp. SH-2 and its enzyme could be practical for applications in food, cosmetic, and medical research.
Mouse Single Oral Dose Toxicity Test of Lactobacillus-fermented Araliae Continentalis Radix Aqueous Extracts (fACR)
Jung, Young-Mi ; Ku, Sae-Kwang ; Lee, Dong Sub ; Kwon, Kisang ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 204~211
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.204
The objective of this study was to obtain acute (single) oral dose toxicity information on Lactobacillus-fermented Araliae Continentalis Radix aqueous extracts (fACR) in female and male ICR mice, as compared with Araliae Continentalis Radix aqueous extracts (ACR). After administering a single oral dose of fACR, no treatment-related mortalities were observed within 14 days after the end of treatment up to 2,000 mg/kg, the maximum dosage for rodents of both sexes; moreover, no fACR treatment-related changes in the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy, and histopathological findings were detected in this experiment. In addition, no ACR 2,000 mg/kg treatment-related mortalities, clinical signs, body and organ weights, or gross and histopathological findings were observed, as compared with equal genders of vehicle control. The results obtained in this study suggest that fACR is non-toxic in mice and is, therefore, likely to be safe for clinical use. The LD
and approximate LD in female mice and male mice, respectively, were considered after a single oral dose of fACR over 2,000 mg/kg, the maximum dosage for rodents. In addition, no specific targets or clinical signs were detected in the present study. ACR 2,000 mg/kg-treated mice also did not show any treatment-related mortalities, clinical signs, changes to body and organ weights, or gross and histopathological findings, as compared with equal genders of vehicle control.
Resveratrol Induces Cell Death through ROS-dependent MAPK Activation in A172 Human Glioma Cells
Jung, Jung Suk ; Woo, Jae Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 212~219
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.212
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumor in humans. Despite intensive treatment, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, most patients die of the disease. Although the anti-cancer activity of resveratrol has been demonstrated in various cancer cell types, its underlying mechanism in glioma cells is not fully elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of resveratrol on cell viability and to determine the molecular mechanism in A172 human glioma cells. Resveratrol caused the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and resveratrol-induced cell death was prevented by antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and catalase), suggesting that an oxidative mechanism is responsible for resveratrol-induced cell death. Resveratrol-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and resveratrol-induced cell death were prevented by inhibitors of these kinases. Resveratrol-induced activation of caspase-3 and cell death were prevented by the caspase inhibitors. ERK activation and caspase-3 activation induced by resveratrol was blocked by N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol causes a caspase-dependent cell death via activation of ERK, p38, and JNK, mediated by ROS generation, in human glioma cells.
Characteristics of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci Isolates from Dental Clinic Environments in Busan, Korea
Jung, Hye-In ; Jung, So Young ; Park, Indal ; Bae, Il Kwon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 220~225
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.220
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have recently become the bacteria most frequently found in clinical infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and molecular characteristics of CNS isolates from dental clinic environments in Busan, Korea. One hundred and fifty-four samples were collected from 10 dental clinics and dental hospitals in Busan from December 2014 to January 2015. Species were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion methods. A polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect mecA, mupA gene, and SCCmec types. Of the 154 samples, 10(6.5%) isolates were identified as CNS (5 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 2 Staphylococcus capitis, 2 Staphylococcus, and 1 Staphylococcus haemolyticus). Among the 10 isolates, 6 were resistant to penicillin, 5 were resistant to gentamicin, 3 were resistant to tetracycline, and 2 were resistant to cefoxitin and erythromycin. However, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant isolates were not present. Genes encoding mecA were detected in 4 (2 S. warneri and 2 S. haemolyticus) isolates, and mupA in 1 (S. epidermidis) isolate. One methicillin-resistant CNS (S. warneri) isolate was determined as being of the SCCmec type I. It is concluded that CNS resistant to various antimicrobial agents was widely distributed in dental clinic environments in Korea.
7-Ketocholesterol Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via Akt Degradation
Seo, Kyo Won ; Kim, Chi Dae ; Lee, Won Suk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 226~233
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.226
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis has been identified in various vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty, and has been known to precipitate atherosclerotic plaque instability and rupture. Oxysterols are known as inducers of apoptosis in VSMC, and 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) is the major nonenzymically formed oxysterol in atherosclerotic lesions. The precise mechanism underlying VSMC apoptosis is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether 7KC causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in primary cultured rat aortic VSMC. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and trypan blue assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and Western blot analyses. 7KC markedly decreased the VSMC viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and increased the production of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a major end-product of lipid peroxidation, which also decreased the VSMC viability. Pretreatment with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, a well-known reagent of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, significantly restored the 7KC-decreased viability of VSMC. Furthermore, HNE, as well as 7KC, reduced the level of total Akt, a major mediator of cell survival. The 7KC-decreased level of total Akt was significantly restored by pretreatments with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and N-acetylcysteine. Lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, protected VSMC against apoptosis and Akt degradation, but did not inhibit HNE production. In the immunoprecipitation assay, 7KC increased HNE-modified Akt. From the results, it seems that, in atherosclerotic lesions, 7KC induces HNE production in VSMC, and this HNE binds to Akt, proceeding to proteasomal degradation of Akt, through which mechanism the atherosclerotic plaque instability may be facilitated.
Development of New Analytical Method Evaluating Working Memory on Y Maze
Gong, Da-Young ; Choi, Yun-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 234~240
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.234
The Y-maze is widely used to test working memory in behavioral science. For this purpose, spontaneous alternation behavior is monitored, and an increased percentage of spontaneous alternation is regarded as enhanced working memory. However, in some cases, the percentage of spontaneous alternation does not accurately reflect the extent of working memory in rodents. To complement the short-comings of this measure, we developed a new method to evaluate working memory on the Y-maze. This is done by defining all spontaneous alternation cases and P
, the probability that the rodent achieved spontaneous alternation from each alternation case. After all P
-values acquired in each animal are summarized, the result is considered as entropy. To validate the new analytical method, mice were raised under either control or an enriched environmental condition for 10 weeks, and working memory behavior on the Y-maze was monitored. The results showed that the new analytical method successfully reproduced significance. In addition, the new method turned out to be more accurate than measurement of the percentage of spontaneous alternation, meaning that, to get higher entropy, alternation should be recorded in all arms and directions. Together, these data indicate that the new analytical method is a useful supplement to the method that compares the percentage of spontaneous alternation, and thus is a good tool with which to evaluate working memory in rodents.
Anti-proliferative and Pro-apoptotic Effects by Lees Extracts of Ehwa Makgeolli Containing Oriental Herbs
Kwon, Min-Jeong ; Lee, Seung Hoon ; Chung, Chung Wook ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ; Shin, Woo-Chang ; Kim, Jong-Sik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 241~246
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.241
In the present study, ethanol extracts and their subsequent organic solvent fractions were extracted from the lees of Ehwa Makgeolli containing oriental herbs, a commercialized traditional Korean rice wine, and the prepared lees samples were designated as from KSD-E3-1 to KSD-E3-5. First, their effects on cell viability and on the expression of pro-apoptotic ATF3 and NAG-1 genes in human colorectal HCT116 cells were investigated. Among the treated lees samples, the hexane fraction (KSD-E3-2) and the ethyl acetate fraction (KSD-E3-3) of lees extracts from Ehwa Makgeolli significantly reduced cell viabilities, in a dose dependent manner. The treatment with KSD-E3-2 and KSD-E3-3 also increased the expression of pro-apoptotic NAG-1 and ATF-3 genes and their proteins, which were detected with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was detected by treatment with the fraction KSD-E3-3, indicating that KSD-E3-3 could induce apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Interestingly, this PARP cleavage was recovered by transfection of NAG-1 small interfering RNA. The results indicate that NAG-1 is one of the genes responsible for apoptosis induced by the fraction KSD-E3-3 from Ehwa Makgeolli. Overall, the findings may help in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities mediated by the lees of Ehwa Makgeolli.
Simultaneous Analysis Method for Polar and Non-polar Ginsenosides in Cultivated Wild Ginseng by Reversed-phase HPLC-CAD
Ok, Seon ; Kang, Jae Seon ; Kim, Kang Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 247~252
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.247
Cultivated wild ginseng is a widely used dietary supplement and medicinal herb. The aim of this study was to optimize the ginseng using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)- charged aerosol detection (CAD) for ginsenoside analysis. CAD measures the physical property of an analyte and responds to almost all non-volatile species, independent of their nature, spectral properties, or particle size. It has become widely employed in pharmaceutical analysis. The cultivated wild ginseng extracts were analyzed for compositions of ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, Rg1, Rf, Re, and Rh1. The optimal analysis condition was set up from an experiment using a gradient. Ten grams of cultivated wild ginseng were extracted with 95% EtOH 100 ml for 24 hr at 80℃. The contents of the 6six major ginsenosides in the cultivated wild ginseng extract were Rb1 (5.48±0.12 mg/g), Rd (5.33±0.14 mg/g), Rg1 (12.80± 0.05 mg/g), Rf (19.08±0.68 mg/g), Re (19.87±0.05 mg/g), and Rh1 (16.47±0.16 mg/g), respectively. HPLC showed that the protopanaxatriol group (Rg1, Rf, Re, Rh1) had more content than the protopanaxadiol group (Rb1, Rd) in cultivated wild ginseng extract. In summary, the ginsenosides were identified with HPLC-CAD analysis, and their presence and quantity imply the importance of quality control, as well as the pharmacological activity of the ginseng root.
Molecular Docking Affinity Comparison of Curcumin and Nano-micelled Curcumin with Natural Sea Salt on Transthyretin
Kim, Dong-Chan ; Song, Pyo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 253~258
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.253
In this study, nano-micelled curcumin was produced with natural sea salt with a view to comparing the in silico molecular binding affinity of pure curcumin compound to the active site of transthyretin. Using an optical light microscope and an electron microscope, it was found that the structure of the surface and the cross-section of nano-micelled curcumin was significantly different from natural sea salt. In particular, the crystal structure and nano-components in the nano-micelled curcumin were united, and the layer was more strongly stabilized than untreated salts. In the virtual 3D structure, in silico molecular docking study, the ligand binding affinity of nano-micelled curcumin to the transthyretin active site was found to be higher than that of pure curcumin. In addition, a nano-micelled curcumin formula interacted with more amino acid residues of transthyretin domains. The pharmacophore feature of the nano-micelled curcumin also showed more condensed and constrained features than normal curcumin. These results suggest that nano-micelled curcumin may effectively bind to and stabilize transthyretin, thereby regulating transthyretin-related physiological diseases. Collectively, the nano-micelled curcumin process suggests that normal curcumin can be modified more efficiently into the novel bio-functional chemical formula to stabilize the transthyretin structure. Therefore, the nano-micelled curcumin process can be applied to the field of the regulation of Alzheimer`s disease.
Anti-metastatic Effect of Garlic Hexane Extract on Lung Metastasis Induced by Melanoma B16F10 Cells in Mice
Ko, Min Jung ; Rajasekar, Seetharaman ; Wang, Ziyu ; Li, Mei ; Kwak, Jung Ho ; Park, Young Hoon ; Son, Beung Gu ; Kang, Jum Soon ; Choi, Young Whan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 259~264
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.259
Metastatic cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related death since they rarely respond to available treatments. There is epidemiologic evidence that high garlic consumption decreases the incidence of cancer. Recent studies of our laboratory have revealed that a garlic-extracts is effective in suppressing metastasis. For experimental metastasis, C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with melanoma B16F10 cells in the tail vein, and were orally administered various concentrations (0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) of garlic hexane extract (GHE) for 21 days. The incidence and the area of the melanoma cell colony occupied by the poorly differentiated carcinoma were significantly lower in dose-dependent in 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW GHE - treated mice compared with control mice. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that GHE administration prevents lung metastasis in C57BL/6 mice.
Bacterial Toxin-antitoxin Systems and Their Biotechnological Applications
Kim, Yoonji ; Hwang, Jihwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2016, Pages 265~274
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.265
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous genetic modules that are evolutionally conserved in bacteria and archaea. TA systems composed of an intracellular toxin and its antidote (antitoxin) are currently classified into five types. Commonly, activation of toxins under stress conditions inhibits diverse cellular processes and consequently induces cell death or reversible growth inhibition. These effects of toxins play various physiological roles in such as regulation of gene expression, growth control (stress response), programmed cell arrest, persister cells, programmed cell death, phage protection, stabilization of mobile genetic elements or postsegregational killing of plasmid-free cells. Accordingly, bacterial TA systems are commonly considered as stress-responsive genetic modules. However, molecule screening for activation of toxin in TA system is available as development of antimicrobial agents. In addition, cytotoxic effect induced by toxin is used as effective cloning method with antitoxic effect of antitoxin; consequently cells containing cloning vector inserted a target gene can survive and false-positive transformants are removed. Also, TA system is applicable to efficient single protein production in biotechnology industry because toxins that are site-specific ribonuclease inhibit protein synthesis except for target protein. Furthermore, some TA systems that induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells such as cancer cells or virus-infected cells would have a wide range of applications in eukaryotes, and it will lead to new ways of treating human disease. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on bacterial TA systems and their applications.