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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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A Recombinant Microbial Biosensor for Cadmium and Lead Detection
Shin, Hae Ja ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 503~508
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.503
Biosensors have been used as first-step monitoring tools to detect on-site samples in a simple and cost-effective manner. Numerous recombinant microbial biosensors have been exploited for monitoring on-site toxic chemicals and biological signals. Herein, a recombinant microbial biosensor was constructed for monitoring cadmium. The cadmium responding cadC regulatory gene and it’s promoter from Staphylococcus aureus was amplified through PCR, fused with the lacZ gene, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. In the presence of cadmium, the biosensor cells express β-galactosidase showing red color development with chlorophenol red β-galactopyranoside (CPRG) as the enzymatic substrate. The biosensor cells showed the best β-galactosidase activity after 3 hr induction with cadmium at pH 5 and a detection range from 0.01 μM to 10 mM cadmium with a linearity from 0.01 to 0.1 μM cadmium (y
Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis on the Regulation of Nerve Growth Factor in Neuronal Cells
Lee, Hyun Ah ; Kim, Ji Eun ; Song, Sung Hwa ; Sung, Ji Eun ; Jung, Min Gi ; Kim, Dong Seob ; Son, Hong Joo ; Lee, Chung Yeoul ; Lee, Hee Seob ; Hwang, Dae Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 509~518
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.509
Asparagus cochinchinensis is a medical plant that has long been used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although several studies have been conducted on the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of A. cochinchinensis, the correlation between these effects and nerve growth factor (NGF) has not yet been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of A. cochinchinensis (AEAC) on the secretion and action mechanism of NGF in neuronal cells. The concentration of the NGF protein in the supernatant collected from cultured cells increased significantly in B35 cells treated with AEAC in comparison with the vehicle-treated group without any specific cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of NGF showed a very similar pattern to its protein concentration. To examine the bioactivity of NGF secreted from B35 cells, undifferentiated PC12 cells were cultured in an AEAC-conditioned medium and neuritic outgrowth was observed. The dendrite length of PC12 cells in the AEAC-treated group was significantly higher than that in the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, the level of the downstream effectors p-TrkA and p-ERK of the high-affinity NGF receptor was significantly higher in the AEAC-treated group, while the expression of the downstream effectors of the low-affinity NGF receptor was significantly lower in the same group. These results suggest that AEAC may contribute to the regulation of NGF expression and secretion in neuronal cells; it is therefore an excellent candidate for further investigation as a therapeutic drug for neurodegenerative diseases.
The Role of Plant Fatty Acids in Regulation of the Adaptation of Organisms to the Cold Climate in Cryolithic Zone of Yakutia
Petrov, Klim Alekseevich ; Dudareva, Lyubov Vissarionovna ; Nokhsorov, Vasilii Vasilevich ; Perk, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich ; Chepalov, Valentin Azotovich ; Sophronova, Valentina Egorovna ; Voinikov, Victor Kirillovich ; Zulfugarov, Ismayil S. ; Lee, Choon-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 519~530
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.519
Vegetative plants in Yakutia are naturally frozen when they are covered with snow in the fall, and they function as green cryo-fodder that is a source of biologically active substances and nutrients for herbivorous animals. We observed a considerable increase in the total fatty acid content in the leaves of Avena sativa, Elytrigia rеpens, Equisetum variegatum and Equisetum scirpoides during the fall period. However, the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids was not higher in the frozen plants covered with snow than in the summer plants, with the exception of E. scirpoides, a dwarf horsetail found in the Pole of Cold in the northern hemisphere. In the internal adipose tissue of the Yakut horse (young horse meat), 18 fatty acids were found, including 10 saturated ones. Monounsaturated oleic С18:1 (n-9) acid and polyunsaturated α-linolenic С18:3 (n-3) acid were equally prevalent among the unsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 70% of the total unsaturated fatty acids. This composition of polyenoic fatty acids in the internal adipose tissue indicates that the Yakut horse actively feeds on the fall vegetation and the wintergreen sedge-grass. We believe that the high plant-specific free fatty acid content in the tissue of Yakut horses may play an important role in the regulation of their resistance to long-term low-temperature stress.
Inhibition of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 by Dicumarol Reduces Tight Junction in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells
Hong, Ji ; Zhang, Peng ; Yoon, I Na ; Kim, Ho ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 531~536
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.531
We previously showed that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) knockout (KO) mice exhibited spontaneous inflammation with markedly increased mucosal permeability in the gut, and that NQO1 is functionally associated with regulating tight junctions in the mucosal epithelial cells that govern the mucosal barrier. Here, we confirm the role of NQO1 in the formation of tight junctions by human colonic epithelial cells (HT29). We treated HT29 cells with a chemical inhibitor of NQO1 (dicumarol; 10 μM), and examined the effect on the transepithelial resistance of epithelial cells and the protein expression levels of ZO1 and occludin (two known regulators of tight junctions between gut epithelial cells). The dicumarol-induced inhibition of NQO1 markedly reduced transepithelial resistance (a measure of tight junctions) and decreased the levels of the tested tight junction proteins. In vivo, luminal injection of dicumarol significantly increased mucosal permeability and decreased ZO1 and occludin protein expression levels in mouse guts. However, in contrast to the previous report that the epithelial cells of NQO1 KO mice showed marked down-regulations of the transcripts encoding ZO1 and occludin, these transcript levels were not affected in dicumarol-treated HT29 cells. This result suggests that the NQO1-depedent regulation of tight junction molecules may involve multiple processes, including both transcriptional regulation and protein degradation processes such as those governed by the ubiquitination/proteasomal, and/or lysosomal systems.
Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Barley Sprout Extract
Eun, Cheong-Su ; Hwang, Eun-Young ; Lee, Syng-Ook ; Yang, Seun-Ah ; Yu, Mi-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 537~544
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.537
Barley (Hardeum vulgare L.) sprout has received much attention in recent years as a functional food in many countries, especially in Korea and Japan. It has been reported that barley sprouts are comprised of 52.6% polysaccharides, 34.1% proteins, and 4.97% fats, along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols. The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extracts of barley sprouts. We examined the inhibitory effect of barley sprout extracts (BSE) on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E
) and cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. BSE contains high amounts of phenolics and flavonoids and exhibits potent anti-oxidative activity, as depicted by the DPPH radical-scavenging experiment. The concentration of total phenols was 17.55 μg/ml, and flavonoids, 13.98 μg/ml. We also investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of BSE in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and PGE
production, which had increased as a result of treatment with LPS, were significantly inhibited by BSE in a dose-dependent manner. BSE also significantly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO, and this was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the iNOS and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that barley sprouts may be a highly valuable natural product owing to its high-quality functional components as well as its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Structural Characteristics and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Chemically Sulfated-hyaluronic Acid from Streptococcus dysgalactiae
Hong, Chang-Il ; Jung, Eui-Gil ; Han, Kook-Il ; Kim, Yong Hyun ; Lee, Sung Hee ; Lee, Hong Sub ; Han, Man-Deuk ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 545~554
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.545
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an important macromolecule in medical and pharmaceutical fields. HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid. This work aimed to confirm the structural characteristics and anti-inflammatory activities of HA and its chemically sulfated-HA. HA was produced from a fed-batch fermentation process using Streptococcus dysgalactiae in a 5 l bioreactor. HA was isolated water-soluble form (HA-WS) and water-insoluble form (HA-WI) from culture medium, and was obtained chemically sulfated-derivative (S-HA) that resulted in a 90% yield from HA-WI. The structural features of the sulfated- HA (S-HA) were investigated by FT-IR and
H-NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR and NMR patterns revealed the similarity in both the FTIR spectrum as well as NMR spectrum of both reference standard and purified HA from S. dysgalactiae. The anti-inflammatory activities of HA and S-HA were examined on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. S-HA was significantly inhibited production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and PGE
and the gene levels of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and PGE
, respectively. Furthermore, S-HA also suppressed the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (<80 pg/ml) and IL-6 (<100 pg/ml) compared to that of HA-WI. The present study clearly demonstrates that HA-S exhibits anti-inflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
Induction of Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells by a Brown Algae Extract
Choo, Kang-Sik ; Lee, Hae-Nim ; Shin, Seong-Ah ; Kim, Hyeong-Jin ; Park, Young-Seok ; Kim, Sang-Ki ; Jung, Ji-Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 555~562
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.555
In this study, we investigated the effects of Undaria pinnatifida (UP), Petalonia binghamiae (PB) and Punctaria latifolia (PL) extracts on the inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric and breast cancer cells. AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml concentrations of the extracts to determine their anti-proliferative effects, using the MTT assay. The UP, PB and PL extracts inhibited proliferation of AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the PL extract was found to be the most effective. DAPI staining was also performed to determine changes in the cell nucleus. Further, the AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml of only the PL extract. DAPI staining showed increased chromatin condensation, which is indicative of apoptosis, in the 200 μg/ml group. The expression of the Bax, Bcl-2, and PARP proteins in AGS, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells treated with the PL extract was also determined by western blot analysis. The expression of Bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) and cleaved-PARP was increased, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic protein) was decreased compared with the control. These findings indicate that the PL extract may have potential as an alternative anticancer drug and nutraceutical.
Development of an Onion Vinegar Beverage Containing Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) and Its Biological Activity
Jeong, Eun-Jeong ; Cha, Yong-Jun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 563~570
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.563
Onion vinegar has an undesirable flavor and taste that results from alcohol and acetic acid production from fermentation. In this study, we have used onion vinegar to develop an onion vinegar beverage with better sensory quality. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum blending ratio by using response surface methods to produce an onion vinegar beverage containing Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka). The optimal formula for a fermented onion beverage was determined using a central composite design by the response surface methodology. The independent variables were obtained by regression analysis of the reaction surface of brown sugar, apple extracts and Yuza extracts. The optimum mixing ratio for onion vinegar:water:brown sugar:apple extracts:Yuza extracts was 6.0:77.6:4.9:9.2:2.3 (w/w). The actual overall acceptance was 7.08 under optimum conditions, which was close to the maximum predicted value of 6.96. The concentration of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and quercetin present in the onion vinegar beverage was 14.8 mg/100 g, 2.6 mg/100 g and 1.4 mg/100 g, respectively. The onion vinegar beverage showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes. It also showed antioxidant effects, with a DPPH radical inhibition rate of 18.2% and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of 11.5%. In conclusion, the onion vinegar beverage described here seems to have nutritional value and potential biological activity.
Screening of Non-Biogenic-Amine-Producing Bacillus subtilis and Medium Optimization for Improving Biomass by the Response Surface Methodology
Yang, Hee-Jong ; Jeong, Su-Ji ; Jeong, Seong-Yeop ; Heo, Ju-Hee ; Choi, Nack-Shick ; Jeong, Do-Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 571~583
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.571
Biogenic amines are produced primarily by microorganisms found in fermented foods and are often implicated in poisoning incidents in humans. In this study, 620 strains of microorganisms were isolated from traditional Korean fermented food in Sunchang in order to screen for non-biogenicamine-producing microorganisms present in these foods. One strain was identified and named Bacillus subtilis SCJ1, by using 16S rRNA sequencing and biochemical characterization. We investigated the cell growth of this organism in order to understand its potential for industrial application. To this end, we optimized the culture medium constituents by using the response surface methodology. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was used for screening of the medium constituents, such as molasses, yeast extract and peptone, for improving cell growth. In order to determine the optimal concentration of each constituent, we used a central composite design. Consequently, the optimized concentrations of molasses, yeast extract and peptone were predicted to be 27.5 g/l, 7.5 g/l and 17.5 g/l, respectively. By model verification, we confirmed that a 1.49-fold increase in dry cell weight compared to the basal medium-from 1.32 g/l, to 1.9722 g/l-was achieved.
Effect of Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-invasive of PMA-induced Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-9 Activities of Water Extract and Solvent Fractions of Saururus Chinensis
Kim, Jun-Ho ; Kim, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 584~591
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.584
Saururus chinensis is a perennial plants, its flavonoid compound is known to exhibit anti-oxidative activity. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Water Extract and Solvent Fractions of Saururus chinensis on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-invasive of Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activities. Plant samples were fractionated into hexane, CHCl
, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions, and each of these was assayed individually. The water fraction showed the highest extraction yield at 9.25%(w/w). Anti-oxidative activity was analyzed by DPPH assay. Cell viability was detected by the MTS assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was assayed by the nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. The activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human oral squamous carcinoma YD-10B cells were examined by zymography and RT-PCR. As results, MMP-2/-9 activation was increased in PMA induced YD-10B cells. In PMA-treated YD-10B cells, the increased mRNA expression and protein activation of MMP-2/-9 were significantly inhibited in the ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-oxidative activity at 73.38%. The ethyl acetate fraction at non-cytotoxic concentrations significantly exhibited the anti-inflammatory activity of Raw 264.7 cells in dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from a chinensis water extract potentiates a promising therapeutic anti-invasive agent and, therefore, as an anti-cancer drug for cancer prevention and therapy in oral cancer.
Dystrophin Degradation in Skeletal Muscles with Lipid Enrichment in Cattle
Jeon, Sung-Hwan ; Kim, Ah-Young ; Lee, Eun-Mi ; Lee, Eun-Joo ; Hong, Il-Hwa ; Hwang, Ok-Kyung ; Jeong, Kyu-Shik ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 592~602
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.592
This study investigated the muscular dystrophin levels in freely moving Australian cattle mainly fed grass, freely moving Korean cattle fed mainly a grain diet, and Korean cattle fed a grain diet but housed in a relatively limited space of a cow house. The total skeletal muscle specimens of 244 cattle were collected and immediately fixed in 10% neutral formalin. The same area was biopsied from the cattle in both countries. The findings showed that fatty infiltration is highly correlated with membrane-associated protein degradation in skeletal muscle, and that among several membrane-associated proteins, dystrophin showed the most significant reduction in expression in the cattle with fatty infiltration. Similarly, CD36 was more highly expressed in the cattle with fatty infiltration of skeletal muscle. Various breeding factors, such as oxidative stress; the presence of oxidized lipids in the diet; and environmental factors such as exercise, temperature and amount of time spent, may have critical effects on the degradation of normal cytoskeleton proteins, which are required for maintaining normal skeletal muscle architecture. Among the sarcolemma membrane-associated proteins, dystrophin is the most sensitive membrane protein that is involved muscular dystrophy and muscular degeneration. Thus, the present findings may be useful for studies on muscular dystrophy in humans or the pathogenesis of muscular diseases in animal models.
Characterization of Organic Solvent Stable Lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106
Choi, Hye Jung ; Hwang, Min Jung ; Kim, Dong Wan ; Joo, Woo Hong ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 603~607
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.603
A crude extracellular lipase from solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 was highly stable in the broad pH range of 4-10 and at temperature of 37℃. Crude lipase of BCNU 106 exhibited enhanced stability in 25% organic solvents such as xylene (121.85%), hexane (120.35%), octane (120.41 %), toluene (118.14%), chloroform (103.66%) and dodecane (102.94%) and showed excellent stability comparable with the commercial immobilized enzyme. In addition, the stability of BCNU 106 lipase retained above 110% of its enzyme activity in the presence of Cu
, whereas Fe
strongly inhibited its stability. The detergents including tween 80, triton X-100 and SDS were positive signals for lipase stability. Because of its stability in multiple organic solvents, cations and surfactants, the Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 lipase could be considered as a potential biocatalyst in the industrial chemical processes without using immobilization.
Enzymatic Synthesis of 1, 2-Hexanediol Galactoside by Whole Cells of β-Galactosidase-containing Recombinant Escherichia coli
Kim, Yi-Ok ; Jung, Kyung-Hwan ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 608~613
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.608
Recently, it has been reported that some preservatives used in cosmetics lead to skin problems. Among the many cosmetic ingredients, 1, 2-hexanediol (HD) is used as both a preservative and humectant. In order to develop safer ingredients, we studied the synthesis of 1, 2-hexanediol galactoside (HD-G) by a transgalactosylation reaction using β-galactosidase (β-gal)-containing recombinant Escherichia coli cells. The transgalactosylation reaction was carried out under high-lactose conditions for 24 hr. After 12 hr had elapsed, a new spot was identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, and we presumptively designated this new spot as HD-G. Then, we carried out the purification of the presumptive HD-G spot from the reaction mixture by using silica gel chromatography, and its mass was measured by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The purified new spot on the chromatograph was identified a sodium adduct ion ([M+Na]
Par-4 Modulates Cell Migration through Inhibition of MMP-2 Activity in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells
Woo, Seon Min ; Kwon, Taeg Kyu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 614~619
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.614
The prostate-apoptosis-response-gene-4 (Par-4) protein has been identified as an effector of cell death in response to various apoptotic stimuli in prostate cancer cells. We found that overexpression of Par-4 by stable transfection inhibits cell migration and invasion in Caki cells. The expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether ectopic expression of Par-4 modulates MMP-2 expression and activity in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We found that overexpression of Par-4 markedly inhibited MMP-2 activity, but not MMP-9 activity. However, loss of the leucine zipper domain of Par-4 (Par-4 ΔLZ#1 and #2) did not inhibit MMP-2 activity. Further, knock-down of Par-4 with the corresponding siRNA resulted in increased invasion and metastasis of renal carcinoma Caki cells. Interestingly, overexpression or knock-down of Par-4 did not affect the expression levels of MMP-2 mRNA. Taken together, our findings suggest that Par-4 may inhibit MMP-2 activity through its post-transcriptional regulation in renal carcinoma Caki cells.
The Detection and Diagnosis Methods of Infectious Viroids caused Plant Diseases
Lee, Se Hee ; Kim, Yang-Hoon ; Ahn, Ji-Young ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 5, 2016, Pages 620~631
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.5.620
Viroids are about 250-400 base pair of short single strand RNA fragments have been associated with economically important plant diseases. Due to the lack of protein expression capacity associated with replication, it is very difficult to diagnosis viroid diseases in serological methods. For detecting viroid at plants, molecular-based techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), DNA-hybridization, blotting analysis and conventional RT-PCR are reliable. Real-time RT-PCR methods that grafted on RT-PCR methods with improved confirmation methods have been also utilized. However, they are still labor-intensive, time-consuming, and require personnel with expertise. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) method is a nucleic acid amplification method under the isothermal condition. The LAMP methodology has been reported to be simple, rapid, sensitive and field applicable in detecting a variety of pathogens. The results of LAMP method can be colorized by adding a visible material such as SYBR green I, Evagreen, Calcein, Berberine and Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) with simple equipment or naked eyes. The combination of LAMP method and nucleic pathogens, viroids, can be used to realize simple diagnosis platform for the genetic point-of care testing system. The aim at this review is to summary viroid-caused diseases and the simple visible approach for diagnosing viroids using Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) method.