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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 8 - Aug 2016
Volume 26, Issue 7 - Jul 2016
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 26, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Development and Application of a Novel Mammalian Cell Culture System for the Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Polymer Films and Metal Plate Biomaterials
Kwak, Moon Hwa ; Yun, Woo Bin ; Kim, Ji Eun ; Sung, Ji Eun ; Lee, Hyun Ah ; Seo, Eun Ji ; Nam, Gug Il ; Jung, Young Jin ; Hwang, Dae Youn ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 633~639
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.633
Biomaterials including polymer, metal, ceramic, and composite have been widely applied for medical uses as medical fibers, artificial blood vessels, artificial joints, implants, soft tissue, and plastic surgery materials owing to their physicochemical properties. However, the biocompatibility and toxicity for film- and plate-form biomaterials is difficult to measure in mammalian cells because there is no appropriate incubation system. To solve these problems, we developed a novel mammalian cell culture system consisting of a silicone ring, top panel, and bottom panel and we applied two polymer films (PF) and one metal plate (MP). This system was based on the principal of sandwiching a test sample between the top panel and the bottom panel. Following the assembly of the culture system, SK-MEL-2 cells were seeded onto Styela Clava Tunic (SCT)-PF, NaHCO
-added SCT (SCTN)-PF, and magnesium MP (MMP) and incubated at 37℃ for 24 hr and 48 hr. An MTT assay revealed that cell viability was maintained at a normal level in the SCT-PF culture group at 24 or 48 hr, although it rapidly decreased in the SCTN-PF culture group at 48 hr. Furthermore, the cell viability in the MMP culture group was very similar to that of the control group after incubation for 24 hr and 48 hr. Together, these results suggest the sandwich-type mammalian culture system developed here has the potential for the evaluation of the biocompatibility and toxicity of cells against PF- and MP-form biomaterials.
Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechine Gallate (EGCG) Prevented LPS-induced BV-2 Micoglial Cell Activation
Park, Euteum ; Chun, Hong Sung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 640~645
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.640
Microglial cells are immediately activated in the central nervous system in response to a variety of neuronal environmental changes, such as injuries or inflammation. In addition to the modulation of the intrinsic immune response, a key role of microglial cells is the phagocytosis of dying cells and cellular debris. In this study, the inhibitory effects of epigallocatechine-3-gallate (EGCG), a most abundant and active polyphenol component of green tea, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation are determined. EGCG dose dependently suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in BV-2 microglial cells. EGCG are potent LPS-induced inhibitors of several pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, in microglial cells. Furthermore, EGCG generally inhibits the induction of LPS-mediated microglial activation and potently inhibits the phagocytosis of LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Although the conditioned media from LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells caused the SN4741 cell death, that from the conditioned media of EGCG pretreated BV-2 cells did not diminish the viability of SN4741 cells. These results suggest EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, could be a promising available molecule for the modulation of harmful microglial activation.
Influence of Chromosome Number on Cell Growth and Cell Aging in Yeast
Kim, Yeon-Hee ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 646~650
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.646
The influence of chromosome number on cell growth and cell aging was investigated in various yeast strains that have many artificial chromosomes constructed using a chromosome manipulation technique. Host strain FY833 and the YKY18, YKY18R, YKY24, and YKY30 strains harboring 16 natural chromosomes, 18 chromosomes, 18 chromosomes containing rDNA chromosome, 24 chromosomes, and 30 chromosomes, respectively, were used, and the specific growth rate of each strain was compared. The specific growth rates in the YKY18 and YKY24 strains were indistinguishable from that in the host strain, while those of the YKY18R and YKY30 strains were reduced to approximately 25% and 40% of the host strain level, respectively. Subsequently, the replicative life span was examined to investigate the relationship between the number of chromosomes and cell aging, and the life span was decreased to approximately 14% and 45% of the host strain level in the YKY24 and YKY30 strains, respectively. Moreover, telomere length, well known as a senescence factor, was shorter and more diversified in the strain, showing decreased life span. Therefore, these results suggest the possibility that an increase in the number of chromosomes containing artificial chromosomes caused cell aging, and we expected these observations would be applied to improve industrial strain harboring of versatile and special artificial chromosomes.
Enhanced Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Bee Pollen by Wet-grinding Technology
Choi, Yun-Sik ; Suh, Hwa-Jin ; Chung, Il Kyung ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 651~656
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.651
Bee pollen is produced by honeybees and is considered one of the most balanced and nourishing nutritional supplements available. Historically, bee pollen has been prescribed for its healing properties and consumed for its high-energy supply. Recent research has provided evidence that bee pollen has diverse biological activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and even anti-cancer effects. However, the outer membrane of the pollen grain, exine, is highly resistant to most acidic solutions, high pressure, and even digestive enzymes, and the resulting low bioavailability limits its nutritional and clinical applications. This study applied a wet-grinding method to destroy the exine effectively, and it then examined the pollen`s enhanced biological activity. First, microscopic observations provided strong evidence that wet grinding destroyed the exine time-dependently. In addition, the content of polyphenols, well-known ingredients of bee pollen and used as internal standards for the quality control of commercial pollen preparations, increased up to 11-fold with wet grinding. Further, the anti-oxidant activity demonstrated on the ABTS anti-oxidant assay, as well as the DPPH radical scavenging assay, was also dramatically increased. Together, the results presented here support a new technology by which bee pollen can be used as a resource for medical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications.
Effects of Cladosiphon okamuranus on Lipid Metabolism in High-fat-diet Rats
Bae, Gui-Jeong ; Ha, Bae-Jin ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 657~662
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.657
Cladosiphon okamuranus is edible brown algae cultured commercially and extensively on the Okinawa coast in Japan. We examined the effects of Cladosiphon okamuranus on the lipid metabolism in high-fat-diet rats. Seven-week-old female SD rats were divided into five groups and fed high-fat diets for 42 days. In addition, Cladosiphon okamuranus was administered orally for 42 days at 95 mg/kg of the body weight of the rats. The effects of lipid metabolism were evaluated by the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) levels in sera. The levels of TC, TG, LDL, GPT, and GOT were reduced in the Cladosiphon okamuranus treated group compared with the high-fat diet group. However, the levels of HDL in the Cladosiphon okamuranus treated groups were higher than in the high-fat diet groups. These results demonstrated that Cladosiphon okamuranus had positive effects on lipid metabolism, suggesting Cladosiphon okamuranus could be used as an ingredient in useful, functional products.
Apoptotic Effects and Cell Cycle Arrest Effects of Extracts from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson through Regulating Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β Signaling Pathways in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells
Lim, Eun Gyeong ; Kim, Guen Tae ; Kim, Bo Min ; Kim, Eun Ji ; Ha, Sung Ho ; Kim, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Young Min ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 663~672
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.663
The Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is an annual plant distributed in China and Korea. The fruit of C. monnieri is used as a medicinal herb that is effective for the treatment of carbuncle and pain in female genitalia. However, the anti-cancer effects of CME have not yet been reported. In this study, we assessed the apoptotic effects and cell cycle arrest effects of ethanol extracts from C. monnieri on HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results of an MTT assay and LDH assay demonstrated a decrease in cell viability and the cytotoxic effects of CME. In addition, the number of apoptotic body and the apoptotic rate were increased in a dose-dependent manner through Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-PI double staining. In addition, cell cycle arrest occurred at the G1 phase by CME. Protein kinase B (Akt) plays an important role in cancer cell survival, growth, and division. Akt down-regulates apoptosis-mediated proteins, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p53, and Glycogen Synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). CME could regulate the expression levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-GSK-3β, Bcl-2 family members, caspase-3, and PARP. Furthermore, treatment with CME, LY294002 (PI3K/Akt inhibitor), BIO (GSK-3β inhibitor), and Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) showed that apoptotic effects occurred through the regulation of the AKT/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Our results demonstrated CME could induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCT116 colon cancer cells.
Aesculetin Inhibits Cell Invasion through Inhibition of MMP-9 Activity and Antioxidant Activity
Hong, Sugyeong ; Kim, Moon-Moo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 673~679
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.673
The development of safe and effective anti-cancer compounds has been seriously required to prevent and treat development of tumor in recent years. Among them, natural compounds derived traditional medicinal stuffs have been paid to attention as an anti-cancer candidate. In this study, aesculetin is a main component of a widely known as a medicinal stuff. It was reported that aesculetin has various biological effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial, but its effect related to cell invasion was not discovered. Therefore, in this study, the effect of aesculetin on antioxidant and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) was investigated in human fibrosarcoma cells, HT1080. First of all, aesculetin showed the scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power in a dose dependent manner. As a result of cytotoxicity, the nontoxic concentration of aesculetin was below 2 μM in HT1080 cells performed by MTT assay. In addition, aesculetin displayed the inhibitory effect on MMP-9 activity related to cell invasion in experiment carried out by gelatin zymography assay. Furthermore, aesculetin increased the expression level of TIMP-1 but decreased the expression level of MMP-9 stimulated with PMA in western blot assay. Furthermore, aesculetin remarkably inhibited cell invasion related to metastasis a dose dependent manner. Above results suggest that aesculetin could exert chemopreventive effect through inhibition of activity and expression of MMP-9 related to cell invasion.
Anti-oxidant and Anti-microbial Activities of Herb-combined Remedies used in Traditional Korean Medicine for Treating Breast Cancer
Choi, Eun-Ok ; Son, Da Hee ; Kim, Min Young ; Hwang-Bo, Hyun ; Kim, Hong Jae ; Jeong, Jin-Woo ; Hong, Su Hyun ; Park, Cheol ; Choi, Yung Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 680~688
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.680
Sipyukmiryuki-eum (SYMYKE), Danjacheongpi-tang (DJCPT), Jipae-san Ⅰ (JPS Ⅰ), Jipae-san Ⅱ (JPS Ⅱ), and Chungganhaeul-tang (CGHUT) are representative herb-combined remedies used in traditional Korean medicine for treating breast cancer patients, as mentioned in "Dongeuibogam." In this study, we investigated the total phenolic contents (TPCs) and the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities of hot water and 70% ethanol extracts of these herbal prescriptions. Among the five herb-combined remedies, the extraction yields of the hot water extracts and 70% ethanol extracts were the highest in JPS Ⅱ (34.30%) and DJCPT (30.50%), respectively. The TPCs of the hot water extracts from the herb medicines were rich in the order of JPS Ⅰ < CGHUT < JPS Ⅱ < SYMYKE < DJCPT. In addition, the 70% ethanol extracts from the herb medicines were rich in the order of JPS Ⅱ < JPS Ⅰ < CGHUT < SYMYKE < DJCPT. Among them, DJCPT and SYMYKE displayed a strong anti-oxidant capability, which was determined using ferric-reducing anti-oxidant power and scavenging of 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2`-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) cationic radical activity assays. In addition, anti-microbial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were stronger in the 70% ethanol extracts than in the hot water extracts. Together, these findings reveal a positive relationship between TPCs and their anti-oxidant activities.
Characterizations of Kefir Grains in Fermented Whey and Their Effects on Inflammatory Cytokine Modulation in Human Mast Cell-1 (HMC-1)
Son, Ji Yoon ; Park, Young W. ; Renchinkhand, Gereltuya ; Han, Jung Pil ; Bum, Jin Woo ; Paik, Seung-Hee ; Lee, Jo Yoon ; Nam, Myoung Soo ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 689~697
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.689
Kefir is an acidic-alcoholic fermented milk product originating from the Caucasian mountains. Kefir has long been known for its probiotic health benefits, including its immunomodulatory effects. The objectives of this study were to investigate the properties of a fermented whey product and to examine the effects of kefir grains on the in vitro immune-modulation of human mast cell-1 (HMC-1). The results showed that the whey fermented by kefir grains contained the maximum lactic acid bacteria and yeast for 16 hr by 1.83×10
CFU/ml, respectively, and lactose and whey proteins were partially hydrolyzed. The experimental whey fermented by kefir grains exhibited an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect on the HMC-1 line for 8, 16, and 24 hr, and this effect induced the expression of interleukin (IL)-4 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, but not for 48 hr by RT-PCR in HMC-1 cells. In addition, the same phenomenon was observed for the expression of IL-8 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine by the kefir-fermented whey during the same periods of 8-48 hr under the same conditions. These cytokines resulted in the production of IL-4 at 20-25 ng in HMC-1 cells for 8, 16, and 24 hr, whereas 5 ng was produced for 48 hr by the fermented whey. In contrast, IL-8 was produced at 15-20 ng in HMC-1 cells during 4, 8, 16, and 24 hr, while 7 ng was produced at 48 hr. It was concluded that the whey fermented by kefir grains possesses a potential anti-inflammatory function, which could be used for an industrial application as an ingredient of functional foods and pharmaceutical products.
Ferritin, an Iron Storage Protein, Associates with Kinesin 1 through the Cargo-binding Region of Kinesin Heavy Chains (KHCs)
Jang, Won Hee ; Jeong, Young Joo ; Lee, Won Hee ; Kim, Mooseong ; Kim, Sang-Jin ; Urm, Sang-Hwa ; Moon, Il Soo ; Seog, Dae-Hyun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 698~704
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.698
The intracellular transport of organelles and protein complexes is mediated by kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs). The first kinesin, kinesin 1, was identified as a molecular motor protein that moves various organelles and protein complexes along the microtubule rails in cells. Kinesin 1 is a tetramer of two heavy chains (KHCs, also called KIF5s) and two kinesin light chains (KLCs). KIF5s interact with many different proteins through their tail region, but their binding proteins have not yet been fully identified. To identify the interaction proteins for KIF5A, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and found a specific interaction with ferritin heavy chain (Frt-h), which has a role in iron storage and detoxification. Frt-h bound to the amino acid residues between 800 and 940 of KIF5A and to other KIF5s in the yeast two-hybrid assay. The coiled-coil domain of Frt-h is essential for interaction with KIF5A. In addition, ferritin light chain (Frt-l) interacted with KIF5s in the yeast two-hybrid assay. In addition, these proteins showed specific interactions in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay. An antibody to KHC specifically co-immunoprecipitated Frt-h and Frt-l from mouse brain extracts. These results suggest the kinesin 1 motor protein may transport the ferritin complex in cells.
Overexpression of MicroRNA-31 as a Promising Biomarker for Prognosis and Metastasis in Human Colorectal Cancer
Hur, Keun ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 705~710
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.705
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although several diagnostic and therapeutic tools have been available, CRC remains difficult to complete cure because of insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that strongly regulate gene expression via transcriptional and translational control mechanisms. Many crucial cellular pathways are frequently disrupted in cancer development process due to dysregulation of several miRNAs. Mir-31 functions as an oncogene that modulate expression of multiple cancer related genes. Thus, we aimed to demonstrate clinical relevance of miR-31 in human CRC. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of miR-31 expression was performed in 175 CRC tissues and 16 normal colonic mucosa (NM). Next, we investigated clinical significances of miR-31 expression in various clinicopathologic features in CRC patients cohort. Mir-31 was significantly up-regulated in CRC tissues compared to NM. In CRC tissues, miR-31 expression level was significantly elevated in a stage-dependent manner, which was associated with poor survival in patients with CRC. High miR-31 levels in CRC tissues significantly correlated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio [HR]
Phylogenetic Analysis of 680 Prokaryotes by Gene Content
Lee, Dong-Geun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 711~720
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.711
To determine the degree of common genes and the phylogenetic relationships among genome-sequenced 680 prokaryotes, the similarities among 4,631 clusters of orthologous groups of protein (COGs)’ presence/ absence and gene content trees were analyzed. The number of COGs was in the range of 103–2,199 (mean 1377.1) among 680 prokaryotes. Candidatus Nasuia deltocephalinicola str. NAS-ALF, an obligate symbiont with insects, showed the minimum COG, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic pathogen, represented the maximum COG. The similarities between two prokaryotes were 49.30–99.78 % (mean 72.65%). Methanocaldococcus jannaschii DSM 2661 (hyperthermophilic and autotrophic, Euryarchaeota phylum) and Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 (mesophilic and symbiotic, alpha-Proteobacteria class) had the minimum amount of similarities. As gene content may represent the potential for an organism to adapt to each habitat, this may represent the history of prokaryotic evolution or the range of prokaryotic habitats at present on earth. COG content trees represented the following. First, two members of Chloroflexi phylum (Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9 and Dehalococcoides mccartyi 195) showed a greater relationship with Archaea than other Eubacteria. Second, members of the same phylum or class in the 16S rRNA gene were separated in the COG content tree. Finally, delta- and epsilon-Proteobacteria were in different lineages with other Proteobacteria classes in neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) trees. The results of this study would be valuable to identifying the origins of organisms, functional relationships, and useful genes.
Cloning of the Bombyx mori short neuropeptide F receptor (BsNPF-R) cDNA
Shin, Hyojung ; Kwon, Kisang ; Hong, Sun Mee ; Kim, Hong Geun ; Park, Kwan-Ho ; Choi, Ji-Young ; Kim, Seung-Whan ; Yu, Kweon ; Kwon, O-Yu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 721~726
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.721
It has already been reported that short neuropeptide F (sNPF) stimulates feeding behaviors in a wide variety of insect species. In the present study, we cloned cDNA, encoding a sNPF receptor homologue from a silkworm, Bombyx mori, named BsNPF-R. The amino acid sequence of BsNPF-R was compared with those of sNPF-R thus far reported, which is shared with humans (36%), mice (34%), zebrafish (35%), and fruit flies (51%), respectively. A BsNPF-R protein’s mass was theoretically estimated to be 42,731 Da and it is a putative plasma membrane-penetrating protein. The mRNA expression of BsNPF-R was tested; the results showed that a strong expression was detected at the midgut, post-silk gland, Malpighian, and testis; however, a weak expression was at the fat body, hemocyte, and ovary. In addition, the synthesized sNPF of a silkworm regulated the BsNPF-R mRNA expression through the cell-based functional analysis.
Allelic Gene Interaction and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis of Purple Pericarp Trait for Yield Improvement in Black Rice
Rahman, Md Mominur ; Lee, Kyung Eun ; Kang, Sang Gu ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 727~736
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.727
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major cereal crops for consumption by the world’s population. Recently, various colored rice, such as white, red, brown, green, and black rice, have caught the attention of world consumers. The commercial name ‘black rice’ contains a high amount of anthocyanins in pericarp, which increases nutritional value. Moreover, anthocyanin in black rice possesses biomedical properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects in humans. In genetics, black rice has a dominant PURPLE PERICARP (Prp) trait governed by two genes, Pb and Pp, which are involved in the synthesis of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G). Since the publication of a report by Nagai at 1921, the genetics and physiological studies of black rice driven by Prp traits are still unable to understand the relevant genes and their roles. However, with the increased demand for anthocyanin-rich black rice as a functional food for human health, it has become urgent to develop highyielding anthocyanin-rich varieties of rice. We explored many years in the genetics of purple pericarp trait, anthocyanin biosynthesis in pericarp during seed development, and, consequently, their products in relation to different physiological and agronomic traits. In this review, we summarized the anthocyanin biosynthesis in pericarp, emphasizing the inheritance pattern of the trait and functions of their products on different physiological and agronomic traits, including the yield of black rice.
Pharmaco-medical Application of Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Insect
Lee, Joon Ha ; Kim, In-Woo ; Kim, Mi-Ae ; Yun, Eun Young ; Hwang, Jae Sam ;
Journal of Life Science, volume 26, issue 6, 2016, Pages 737~748
DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.6.737
By this time, insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been characterized more than 150 peptides since purification of cecropin in the hemolymph of pupae from Hyalophora cecropia in 1980. Therefore, it is considered that insects are good sources of AMP selection. Insect AMPs are small (low molecular weight) and cationic, and amphipathic with variable length, sequence, and structure. They perform a pivotal role on humoral immunity in the insect innate immune system against invading pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Most of the insect AMPs are induced rapidly in the fat bodies and other specific tissues of insects after septic injury or immune challenge. Then the AMPs subsequently released into the hemolymph to act against microorganisms. These peptides have a broad antimicrobial spectrum against various microbes including anticancer activities. Insect AMPs could be divided into four families based on their structures and sequences. That is the α-helical peptides, cysteine-rich peptides, proline-rich peptides, and glycine-rich peptides/proteins. For instance, cecropins, insect defensins, proline-rich peptides, and attacins are common insect AMPs, but gloverins and moricins have been identified only in lepidopteran species. This review focuses on AMPs from insects and discusses current knowledge and recent progress with potential applications of insect AMPs.