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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Life Science
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Life Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 9, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
Selecting the target year
Differences of the Honeydew Excretion in Growing Characteristics of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal, Biotypes on Different Cultivars of Rice with Various Resistance Genes
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 121~126
Some attempts were made to investigate the honeydew excretion of the brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal, biotypes in terms of instal nymph, days after emergence, macropterous and brachypterous mated and unmated female, and macropterous female with different sources fed on 60-day-old rice cultivars with different resistance genes. The feeding amount of the BPH biotypes was measured by using the honeydew excretion test. The feeding amount of fifth instar on Miryang 23 with no resistance gene was higher than that of Cheon-gcheongbyeo with Bph-1 gene by two times. Macropterous and brachypterous females showed low feeding amount at first day after emergence, but they showed high feeding amount from second days after emergence. Also the feeding amount of brachypterous female was higher than that of macropterous female. In addition, the feeding amount of BPH was in the order of nymph
Germinability, Morphological Development during Germination and Anatomical Observation Gentiana scabra Bunge var. buergeri Max.
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 127~135
Gentiana scabra Bunge var buergeri Max, can be widely used such as cut-flower, ornamental and medicinal plant among the native plants. Microscopic and Scanning electron microscopic observation plant were carried out to estimates the characteristics correlated with germinability and germination process, and the results were as follows. The seeds were germinated just after harvest, and it means that there is no or little dormancy of the seeds. Matured seeds showed higher germinability than those of immatured. As the storage period was longer, immatured seeds showed shorter longevity than those of matured. The average longevity was about 190 days. According to the observation results of morphological changes during the germination, seed coat was expanded with water absorption immediately after seeding, and radicals were observed 2 days after seeding. Root hairs were formed behind the growing tip of the root on 4 days after seeding and cotyledon were unfolded on 6 days after seeding. In the microscopic observation of leaf tissues, it could be easily distinguished between midrib, and leaf blade, and also observed upper epidermis, palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma consisted as a sing1e layer. Palisade parenchyma was consisted of a single layer of cell. Stomata were restricted lower surface, arranged as anamocytic type, and surrounded by guard cells. In the microscopic anatomy of stem were consisted of cortical layer, forming a single layer of epidermis and parenchyma, and vascular bundle which was consisted of continuous cylinder of vascular tissues.
Hearing Loss in the Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents and Noise
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 136~145
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic slovents and noise on hearing loss. We selected organic solvents exposed group of 32 cases, noise exposed group of 31 cases, both noise and solvent exposed group of 31 cases, and control group of 53 cases and studied the relation between exposure level of noise and organic solvents and degree of hearing loss. The results were as follows. The subjects under investigation were exposed to noise and organic solvents under threshold limit values and the amount of urinary hippuric acid excretion were also under biological exposure indices. In case of noise, both noise and organic solvents exposed group and noise exposed group were more exposed than organic solvents exposed group(p<0.05). When urinary hippuric acid excretion were concerned, both noise iud organic solvents exposed group and organic solvents exposed group showed higher values than noise exposed group(p<0.05). In comparison of mean auditory threshold values by frequency, on the air conduction test, both noise and organic solvents exposed group showed significantly higher hearing loss than noise exposed group in 500Hz of right ear, 500 and 2000Hz of left ear(p<0.05). Forty-three cases among 147 subjects were regarded as hearing loss group and average age(42.6years) of hearing loss group was higher than normal groups average age of 38.0 years. Urinary hippuric acid excretions of hearing loss group were significantly higher than normal group(p<0.05). Thirty-eight percent(12cases) of noise exposed group, 40.6
(13cases) of organic solvents exposed group, 51.6
(16cases) of both noise and organic solvents exposed group, and 3.8
(2cases) of unexposed group were regarded as hearing losers. Exposed groups showed higher incidence of hearing loss than unexposed group but there were no significant differences among the exposed groups. The variables showing significant correlation with hearing loss were age and the amount of hippuric acid in urinary excretion. When age were adjusted for the purpose of seeing the effects of hearing losses due to organic solvent, urinary excretion of hippuric acids was the only variable with significant correlation with hearing loss (p<0.05). When odds ratio to hearing loss between control and exposed groups was considered, noise exposed group showed 6.1 times (95
CI: 3.3-8.7), organic solvents exposed group showed 7.4 times (95
CI: 3.5-14.6) and both noise and organic solvents exposed group showed 17.2 times(95% CI: 5.6-31.8) higher values than unexposed group(p<0.01). Above results suggest that health screening test of hearing loss is also needed in organic solvents exposed workers.
Effect of Substituted Residue 24 on Folding of Tryptophan Synthase
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 146~152
In order to elucidate a role of residue 24 in the folding of tryptophan synthase
subunit, mutant proteins in which Thr 24 was replaced by Met, Ala, Ser, Leu or Lys were overexpressed in E. coli, and the extents of accumulated proteins as soluble or aggregated forms were examined. The mutant proteins with Met or Leu at residue 24 were predominantly accumulated as soluble forms as the native protein. On the other hand, mutant proteins with Ser, Ala or Lys at residue 24 were expressed as aggregated forms as well. This result suggests that residue 24 of tryptophan synthase
subunit may be implicated in the folding of this protein.
Expression of Inulinase Gene by Yeast Constitutive Promoters
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 153~159
To express constitutively the inulinase gene (INUl) of Kluyveromyces marxianus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three yeast promoters such as GAPDH, ADH1 and ENO1 were connected upstream of INUl. The resulting plasmids, pYIGP, pADHl-INU, and pENO-INU were introduced to S. cerevisiae SEY2102 host strain, respectively, and then each transformants were selected by staining of colonies on sucrose-agar plate. When the yeast transformants were cultivated on 2
dextrose media, the total expression levels of inulinase reached to 1.11 unit/mL, 0.88 unit/mL, and 0.69 unit/mL for respective GAPDH, ADH1, and ENO1 promoter systems. On 4% dextrose media, however, the inulinase activities were observed at 2.00 unit/mL for pYIGP, 0.71 unit/mL for pADH1-INU, and 1.40 unit/mL for pENO-INU. This result indicates that the constitutive expression of INUl was significantly affected by the initial concentration of dextrose and the promoter strength was in the order GAPDH, ENO1, and ADH1 promoter at high dextrose concentration. Taking into account the plasmid stability, however, it is suggested that the ENO1 promoter system is more suitable for the INU1 expression on high dextrose medium or in the fed-batch cultivation accumulating ethanol at high level.
Effects of Sodium Butyrate on the Biosynthesis of Sphingolipids in HT29, a Human Colon Cancer Cell Line
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 160~168
Butyrate is one of the short-chain fatty acids that are present in the colon of mammals in millimolar concentration as a result of microbial anaerobic fermentation of dietary fiber, undigested starch, and proteins. In this study, sodium butyrate was examined in HT29 cell, human colonic cancer cell line, on cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, PLC-
1 expression and complex sphingolipid biosynthesis. Treatment with butyrate showed that the decrease of cell adhesion and viability was time-dependent. Sodium butyrate also induced to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase which is a differentiation marker enzyme and decrease the expression of PLC-
1. Biosynthesis of sphingomyelin and galactosylceramide by butyrate treatment were decreased so fast but ceramide was increased 680dpm/mg protein% more than untreated group on first day and then decreased fast. In addition, acid ceramidase and neutral ceramidase activity were inhibited early stage by sodium butyrate. These results suggest that sodium butyrate causes cell differentiation or cell growth arrest of HT29 cell accompanied by early increase of ceramide content and alkaline phosphatase activity and decrease of galactosylceramide content and PLC-r1 expression.
Anaerobic Acid Tolerance Response in Salmonella typhimurium
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 169~175
Salmonella typhimurium can encounter a wide variety of environments during its life cycle. In nature, S. typhimurium can experience and survive dramatic acid stresses that occur in diverse ecological niches ranging from pond water to phagolysosomes. These survival mechanism is aquired by the Acid Tolerance Response(ATR) in Salmonella. The ATR of S. typhimurium is a complex inducible phenomenon in which exposures to slight or moderate low pH will produce a stress response capable of protecting the organism against more severe acid challenges. ATR in Salmonella has two different systems that are called RpoS dependent and independent. We found that ATR in anaerobic was showed RpoS independent because rpoS
AP had ATR as S. typhimurium UK1. Using the P22 MudJ(Km, lacZ) operon fusion technique and a lethal selection procedure combining low pH(pH4.5) and sodium acetate(10mM, pH4.5), we isolated LF487 aatA::MudJ which showed acid sensitive in anaerobic condition. aatA locus was determined at 12 min on Salmonella Genetic Map. The survival rate of aatA mutant was showed significantly diminished at pH4.3 than virulent wild type Salmonella in anaerobic condition(5%
, 5% H
). Therefore isolated gene was confirmed important gene for anaerobic ATR system.
Molecular Phylogenetics of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Based on Mariner-Like Elements (MLEs)
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 176~181
In order to understand molecular phylogenetics of silkworm (Bombyx mori), we analyzed the sequences of BmoMAR isolated from Bomhyx mori that is partial coding gene of transposase of mariner-like element(MLE). By pairwise comparing nucleotide sequences of BmoMAR with ten previously reported insect MLEs accessed in GeneBank, the average genetic distance was estimated to be 0.4840. The phylogenetics tree constructed from nine insect species except for human MLE(Hsmarl) by UPGMA method indicated that MLEs are divided into three clusters, and Drosophila mariutiana was independently subgrouped. Bombyx mori(BmoMAR) was subgrouped with microcaddishfly (Orthotrichia cristata), webworm(Atteva punctella), almond moth(Ephestia cautella), Hyalopora cecropia which we lepidoptera. Phylogenetics tree according to UPGMA principle, on the basis of informative nucleotide sequences of nine insect MLEs, indicated that Bombyx mori was more closely related to microcaddishfly(Orthotrichia cristata) and webworm (Atteva punctella) of lepidoptera. We suggest that insect MLEs are a useful key for studying molecular phylogenetics among intra species of insects.
Studies of SAMP6 as an Animal Model for Human Osteoporosis
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 182~193
In order to establish basic data of SAMP6 as an animal model for osteoporosis, present study has been designed to concentrate on the various biological aspects of SAMP6 such as growth index, hematology, blood biochemistry, biochemical characteristics, and bone and cortical thickness. Investigation period was for 15 months (3 months to 18 months of age) and biological characteristics have been examined throughout the study period. The results were summarized as follows : Decreased body weight of male SAMP6 was noticed from 7 months of age compared to from 18 months of age in female. Although there were no significant differences in organ weights, generally those of male mice were greater than those of females, especially in liver, kidney and lung. According to the analysis of blood biochemistry and hematology, the number of leukocytes in male mice was greater than that of female mice. There was a decrease in bone thickness in both male and female mice starting around from 7 months of age. Peak cortical thickness index was noticed at 5 months of age in both sexes. In femur, the highest
content for both sexes was noticed at 5 months of age, whereas the highest P
content was noted at the age of 5 and 7 months in male and female mice, respectively. The contents of both elements were gradually decreased with age after peaks for both sexes. In summary, SAMP6 mice in KRICT colony show osteoporotic characteristics starting from 5 to 7 months of age, suggesting that at least 5 months of old animals should be used for studying the mechanism of osteoporosis or screening anti-osteoporosis drugs. This study also suggests that the cortical index thickness,
contents, and alkaline phosphatase activities can be used as indexes for drug screening.ing.ing.
Effect of Grinding on Solubility and Particle Size of Pefioxacin by Planetary Ball-Mill
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 194~200
Grinding aid is a necessary unit operation when the raw materials are handled in solid form, and the purpose is to improve the bioavailability by reducing the particle size. For the particle design of pefloxacin, the dry planetary ball-mill was used. With the drying process, 330 g of zirconia ball with its size of 2 mm in diameter and 10 g of pefloxacin were transferred to the pot and mixed well. The mixture was ground at 112 rpm (60 Hz) for 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively. The most satisfactory grinding products were generated at 15 min of grinding time for their particle size. The volume mean diameter
of the grinding products was 2.97
m. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and infrared spectroscopy (IR) patterns were relatively unchanged before pulverizing pefloxacin and in the progress of grinding. Thus, these results suggest that this pulverizing method can be used for grinding products without evident effect on stability of the drug pefloxacin. Dissolution test was carried out to set up the optimal detective condition against residual antibacteria of fish by HPLC. The grinding pefloxacin for 15 min is most effective in dissolution test.
Production of Nitric Oxide and Erythropoietin in Serum of Newborn
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 201~206
Nitric oxide(NO) is a potent and selective pulmonary artery vasodilator. Erythropoietin(EPO) is produced in the kidney in response to reduced oxygen availability. In this study, blood samples were collected for determination of NO and EPO concentrations in 18 normal newborns and 16 newborns with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS). Serum was measured by Ding's method for NO concentration and by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for EPO concentration. Nitric ion concentration in serum was 14.9
M in normal control group and 12.8
M in RDS group. EPO concentration in serum was 16.2
3.4 mU/ml in normal control group and 21.2
5.4 mU/ml in RDS group. These results show the decrease of NO and increase of EPO in RDS newborn patients in comparison with normal newborns. Such imbalances may contribute to the development of several clinical symptoms.
Studies on Chemical Structure Determination of Polygonatum sibiricum Extracts(I)
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 207~211
Biologically active compounds in Polygonatum sibiricum were extracted using organic solvents as hexane, CHCl
, n-butanol corresponding each component. Compound I was purified from hexane layer and the chemical structure of compound I was characterized using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT135, COSY, HMQC, HMBC spectrum and MS-spectrum. Consequently, the chemical structure of compound I was determined as 9,12-(9E,l2E)-octade cadienoic acid.
Studies on Chemical Structure Determination of Polygonatum sibiricum Extracts(II)
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 212~215
Biologically active compounds in Polygonatum sibiricum were extracted using organic solvents as hexane, CHC1
, n-butanol corresponding each component. Compound II was purified from hexane layer and the chemical structure of compound II was characterized using IH-nmr, 13C-nmr, DEPT135, COSY, HMQC, HMBC spectrum and MS-spectrum. Consequently, the chemical structure of compound II was determined as 2-Hydroxy-3-(9,12-(9E,12E)-Octadecadienoyloxy) propanoic acid.
The Effect of Aloe on the Bioactivity of Ovariectomized Rats
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 216~221
In order to observe the bioactivity of ovariectomized rats, ovariectomized group (Ovx), nonovariectomized group(Sham) and ovariectomized aloe-treat group(Ovx＋Aloe) were made. Lipidperoxides of liver and kidney, serum AST.ALT, BUN, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were investigated as follows. Lipidoxides of the liver and the kidney in Ovx group were 1.74 times and 1.38 times increased compared to Sham group respectively. But they were significantly decreased in Ovx+Aloe group compared to Ovx group. Serum AST and ALT in Ovx group were increased 1.49 times and 1.65 times respectively compared to Sham group respectively. But they were decreased compared to Ovx group. Serum total cholesterol in Ovx group was increased 1.48 times compared to Sham group. While it was increased 50% in Ovx＋Aloe group. Serum HDL-cholesterol in Ovx group was decreasd 23
compared to Sham group. While it was increasd 58% in Ovx＋Aloe group compared to Ovx group. Serum BUN in Ovx group was increased slightly compared to Sham group. In Ovx＋Aloe serum BUN had no change compared to Ovx group.
Exercise Prescription and Dietary Modification for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Degenerative Disease I. On Obesity and Diabetes
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 222~230
Obesity is an excessive increased state of total body fat, and diabetes is a disease lack or defect of insulin which controls blood sugar. The reason of obesity and diabetes are history, lack of exercise, overeating, stress and so forth. The principle of dietary modification in the obesity and diabetes are controling total calorie control, and taking orderly meals, and restricting high calorie food. General exercise guidance will recommend to take precedence over the medical diagnosis, case history test before the exercise begins, and the beginning of exercise. It start with light excercise, and gradually enhance intensity The fundamental and effective cure of obesity and diabetes is aerobic exercise (as jogging, swimming, playing tennis, aerobic dancing). It is reasonable for exercise intensity to be 60~80
max) and for the duration to be 15~60minutes a day and frequency to be 3~6 times a week. Especially the exercise intensity may be changeable according to the, pattern of diabetes. The snack that contains carbohydrate during exercise will discontinue the exercise when insulin activity is reached on high peak, and it is a proper way taking 15~20g's carbohydrate contained food against possibility of the low blood sugar occurance after exercise, At last, it is much effective the exercise therapy is combined with the diet therapy for best diabetes treatment.
Exercise Prescription and Dietary Modification for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Degenerative Disease II. On Arteriosclerosis and Hypertension
Journal of Life Science, volume 9, issue 2, 1999, Pages 231~240
Regular exercise is effective in preventing coronary disease such as angina pectoris and infarction, inside it can lower the blood pressure and aids in weight control and release of stress. Risk factors of arteriosclerosis is hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity and excessive smoking. Arteriosclerosis begins at young age worsens with age, particulary in male. For people with risk factors of arteriosclerosis, it is important to prevent arteriosclerosis-related disease with dietary, living pattern and exercise prescription. Dietary fibers promote exercise of the digestive tract and shortens the time food remains inside the digestive tract. It can prevent obesity, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis and colin cancer by blocking the absorption of cholesterol. Various vegetables and sea foods are lichen unsaturated fats and prevent the absorption of cholesterol inside the digestive tract. Essential fatty acids and unsaturated fats which are contained in vegetable oils, promotes metabolism while preventing absorption. In fruits, pectin water-soluble fiber, is present and lowers the level of cholesterol. By consuming foods that low in cholesterol and saturated fats, and rich in unsaturated fats, aliomentotherapy alone can reduce the plasma cholesterol by 10~l5
. For ideal exercise, it should be aerobic with intensity of 60~80
HRmax, duration of 15~60min/day. The frequancy of 3~6/week is desirable the better exercise prescription is endurance aerobic exercise. To get more effect exercise, exercise consistency is very important.