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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Plant Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Plant Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
Korea Brassica Genome Project: Current Status and Prospective
Choi, Su-Ryun ; Park, Jee-Yong ; Park, Beom-Seok ; Kim, Ho-Il ; Lim, Yong-Pyo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 153~160
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2006.33.3.153
Brassica rape is an important species used as a vegetable, oil, and fodder worldwide. It is related phylogenically to Arabidopsis thaliana, which has already been fully sequenced as a model plant. The `Multinational Brassica Genome Project (MBGP)`was launched by the international Brassica community with the aim of sequencing the whole genome of B. rapa in 2003 on account of its value and the fact that it has the smallest genome among the diploid Brassica. The genome study was carried out not only to know the structure of genome but also to understand the function and the evolution of the genes comprehensively. There are two mapping populations, over 1,000 molecular markers and a genetic map, 2 BAC libraries, physical map, a 22 cDHA libraries as suitable genomic materials for examining the genome of B. rapa ssp. pekinensis Chinese cabbage. As the first step for whole genome analysis, 220,000 BAC-end sequences of the KBrH and KBrB BAC library are achieved by cooperation of six countries. The results of BAC-end sequence analysis will provide a clue in understanding the structure of the genome of Brassica rapa by analyzing the gene sequence, annotation and abundant repetitive DHA. The second stage involves sequencing of the genetically mapped seed BACs and identifying the overlapping BACs for complete genome sequencing. Currently, the second stage is comprises of process genetic anchoring using communal populations and maps to identify more than 1,000 seed BACs based on a BAC-to-BAC strategy. For the initial sequencing, 629 seed BACs corresponding to the minimum tiling path onto Arabidopsis genome were selected and fully sequenced. These BACs are now anchoring to the genetic map using the development of SSR markers. This information will be useful for identifying near BAC clones with the seed BAC on a genome map. From the BAC sequences, it is revealed that the Brassica rapa genome has extensive triplication of the DNA segment coupled with variable gene losses and rearrangements within the segments. This article introduces the current status and prospective of Korea Brassica Genome Project and the bioinformatics tools possessed in each national team. In the near future, data of the genome will contribute to improving Brassicas for their economic use as well as in understanding the evolutional process.
Advances in Plant Metabolomics
Kim, Suk-Won ; Chung, Hoe-Il ; Liu, Jang-R. ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 161~169
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2006.33.3.161
Plant metabolomics is a plant biology field for identifying all of the metabolites found in a certain plant cell, tissue, organ, or whole plant in a given time and conditions and for studying changes in metabolic profiling as time goes or conditions change. Metabolomics is one of the most recently developed omics for holistic approach to biology and is a kind of systems biology. For holistic approach, metabolomics frequently uses chemometrics or multivariate statistical analysis of metabolic profillings. In plant biology, metabolomics is useful to determine functions of genes often in combination with DHA microarrays by analyzing tagged mutants of the model plants Arabidopsis and rice. This review paper attempted to introduce basic concepts of metabolomics and practical uses of multivariate statistical analysis of metabolic profiling obtained by
H HMR and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.
Current Status and Perspective and Future Task in Korea of Crop Genetic Transformation
Harn, Chee-Hark ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 171~184
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2006.33.3.171
According to ISAAA report, the global area of genetically modified (GM) crops increased more than 50 fold during the ten-year period from 1996 to 2005 with a sustained double-digit growth rate of 10%. This biotechnology adoption is one of the highest rates of technology adoption in agriculture history and this phenomenon indicates that the industrial value of the GM crops is highly perspective. In addition, the year 2010, 60% of cereal seeds in the global market would be GM or biotechnology related seeds so that the GM crop regards as the second green revolution that could provide a huge impact to food and agriculture. Nevertheless, there has not been any GM variety ever successfully commercialized in Korea and even none of the GM crops has ever been approved for safety testing by risk assessment. This seems that Korean agriculture industry might be indeed lost in the war of future seed market. However, lots of evidence show that Korean scientists have established advanced technologies and protocols to develop GM crops for last 20 years. Actually there have been many cases of successful transformation of crops that were previously known very difficult in transforming. Therefore, Korean agbiotechnology arena firmly holds an infrastructure for developing GM crops with a superior technology. Then what were the problems? Why has even a single GM crop not been commercialized in Korea? The tardiness shown by business in adopting the GM crop is caused by many factors: academical weakness, poor research funding, short knowledge of risk assessment, public concern, no successful experience, lack of professional leaders on GM variety development, lack of systems toward industrialization and inappropriate target transgenes from the beginning. In order to catch up in the race for the new green industry, each one of us in private sectors alongside academia and national research institutes needs to focus altogether on what can be done best in terms of choosing crops, investing fund and establishing a road map for commercialization of GM crops.
Chloroplast Genetic Transformation in Higher Plants: An Encounter Between Prokaryote and Eukaryote
Chung, Hwa-Jee ; Suh, Young-Bae ; Jeong, Won-Joong ; Min, Sung-Ran ; Liu, Jang-R. ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 185~194
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2006.33.3.185
Chloroplasts are believed to be descended from certain cyanobacteria, which were taken up by phagocytosis into a host cell and lived there in a symbiotic relationship. In contrast to the current static concept on the chloroplast genome, its dynamism has been recently demonstrated: the chloroplast genome is active in intramolecular homolgous recombination, producing subgenomic circles when it obtains homolgous sequences via genetic transformation. Chloroplast tranformation in higher plants provides many advantages over nuclear transformation that include higher expression levels of transgenes, polycistronic expression of transgenes, and maternal transmission of transgenes. Tobacco has been used as a model for chloroplast genetic transformation. However, it is recently possible to transform the chloroplasts of other major food and economic crops including rice, soybean, and cotton. Chloroplast-transformed crops will be able to replace bioreactors using microorganisms for production of value-added proteins in future.
Recent Advancement in the Stem Cell Biology
Harn, Chang-Yawl ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 195~207
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2006.33.3.195
Stem cells are the primordial, initial cells which usually divide asymmetrically giving rise to on the one hand self-renewals and on the other hand progenitor cells with potential for differentiation. Zygote (fertilized egg), with totipotency, deserves the top-ranking stem cell - he totipotent stem cell (TSC). Both the ICM (inner cell mass) taken from the 6 days-old human blastocyst and ESC (embryonic stem cell) derived from the in vitro cultured ICM have slightly less potency for differentiation than the zygote, and are termed pluripotent stem cells. Stem cells in the tissues and organs of fetus, infant, and adult have highly reduced potency and committed to produce only progenitor cells for particular tissues. These tissue-specific stem cells are called multipotent stem cells. These tissue-specific/committed multipotent stem cells, when placed in altered environment other than their original niche, can yield cells characteristic of the altered environment. These findings are certainly of potential interest from the clinical, therapeutic perspective. The controversial terminology `somatic stem cell plasticity` coined by the stem cell community seems to have been proved true. Followings are some of the recent knowledges related to the stem cell. Just as the tissues of our body have their own multipotent stem cells, cancerous tumor has undifferentiated cells known as cancer stem cell (CSC). Each time CSC cleaves, it makes two daughter cells with different fate. One is endowed with immortality, the remarkable ability to divide indefinitely, while the other progeny cell divides occasionally but lives forever. In the cancer tumor, CSC is minority being as few as 3-5% of the tumor mass but it is the culprit behind the tumor-malignancy, metastasis, and recurrence of cancer. CSC is like a master print. As long as the original exists, copies can be made and the disease can persist. If the CSC is destroyed, cancer tumor can`t grow. In the decades-long cancer therapy, efforts were focused on the reducing of the bulk of cancerous growth. How cancer therapy is changing to destroy the origin of tumor, the CSC. The next generation of treatments should be to recognize and target the root cause of cancerous growth, the CSC, rather than the reducing of the bulk of tumor, Now the strategy is to find a way to identify and isolate the stem cells. The surfaces of normal as well as the cancer stem cells are studded with proteins. In leukaemia stem cell, for example, protein CD 34 is identified. In the new treatment of cancer disease it is needed to look for protein unique to the CSC. Blocking the stem cell`s source of nutrients might be another effective strategy. The mystery of sternness of stem cells has begun to be deciphered. ESC can replicate indefinitely and yet retains the potential to turn into any kind of differentiated cells. Polycomb group protein such as Suz 12 repress most of the regulatory genes which, activated, are turned to be developmental genes. These protein molecules keep the ESC in an undifferentiated state. Many of the regulator genes silenced by polycomb proteins are also occupied by such ESC transcription factors as Oct 4, Sox 2, and Nanog. Both polycomb and transcription factor proteins seem to cooperate to keep the ESC in an undifferentiated state, pluripotent, and self-renewable. A normal prion protein (PrP) is found throughout the body from blood to the brain. Prion diseases such as mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) are caused when a normal prion protein misfolds to give rise to PrP
and assault brain tissue. Why has human body kept such a deadly and enigmatic protein? Although our body has preserved the prion protein, prion diseases are of rare occurrence. Deadly prion diseases have been intensively studied, but normal prion problems are not. Very few facts on the benefit of prion proteins have been known so far. It was found that PrP was hugely expressed on the stem cell surface of bone marrow and on the cells of neural progenitor, PrP seems to have some function in cell maturation and facilitate the division of stem cells and their self-renewal. PrP also might help guide the decision of neural progenitor cell to become a neuron.
Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics
Kim, Jung-Eun ; Paik, Hyo-Jung ; Kim, Young-Cheol ; Hur, Cheol-Goo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 209~222
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2006.33.3.209
The whole genome sequence was completed in arabidopsis and rice. Large amounts of EST data have been available from many other plants. Also, vast quantities of diverse biological data have been generated by various `-omics` technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Bioinformatics plays an essential role in extracting useful information from these tremendous amounts of biological data. In this review we introduced experimental methods to generate massive data, applications to plant science such as plant disease resistance and molecular breeding and bioinformatics tools and web sites available in plant biotechnology R&D. We concluded that new experimental methods and bioinfomation analysis techniques have made major contributions to the development of plant biotechnology and that bioinformatics has become a critical factor in plant biotechnology R&D.
Nanobiotechnology, Today and Tomorrow
Lee, Chang-Soo ; Park, Hyun-Kyu ; Kim, Moon-Il ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 33, issue 3, 2006, Pages 223~231
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2006.33.3.223
Nanobiotechnology, the interdisciplinary area at the crossroad of biotechnology and nanoscience, combines contributions from molecular and cell biology, chemisty, material science, and physics in an attempt to understand the behavior of nanobiomaterials, their development and applications. At present, nanobiotechnology is believed to hold great promise for improving health and prolonging life, faciliating biomarker discovery, molecular diagnostics, discovery of novel drugs and drug delivery, which are important basic components of biomedical science. In the recent trend of nanobiotechnology, this review is intended to provide a better understanding of nanobiotechnology in its applications and perspectives, separating this integration technology into three parts such as nanobiochip/sensor, nanobiomaterials, and nanobioanalysis in order to hopefully gain insights into why size matters, how nano-materials and -devices can be engineered.