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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Plant Biotechnology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Plant Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
A review of forest trees micropropagation and its current status in Korea
Moon, Heung-Kyu ; Kim, Yong-Wook ; Park, So-Young ; Han, Mu-Seok ; Yi, Jae-Seon ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 343~356
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.343
Plant micropropagation techniques include bud cultures using apical or axillary buds, organogenesis through callus culture or adventitious bud induction, and somatic embryogenesis. In Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), the first tissue culture trial in woody plant was initiated from the bud culture of hybrid poplars (Populus alba x P. glandulosa) in 1978. Since then several mass propagation techniques have developed from conifer and hardwood species, resulting in allowing practical application to Poplars, Birches and some oak species. In addition, useful micropropagation and genetic resources conservation techniques were established in some rare and endangered tree species including Abeliophyllum distichum. Among various in vitro propagation techniques, somatic embryogenesis is known to be the most efficient plant regeneration system. Since the first somatic embryo induction was reported in Tilia amurensis by KFRI in 1986, various protocols for direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis systems have developed in conifer and hardwood species including Larix leptolepis, Pinus rigida x P. taeda F1, Kalopanax septemlobus and Liliodendron tulipifera, etc. However, most of these technologies have been developed using juvenile tissues, i.e. immature zygotic embryos or mature embryos. Therefore it has been difficult to directly application to tree breeding program due to their unproven genetic background. Recently remarkable progresses and new approaches have been achieved in mature tree somatic embryogenesis. In this article we reviewed several micropropagation techniques, which have been mainly developed by KFRI and recent international progresses.
Review on breeding, tissue culture and genetic transformation systems in Cymbidium
Lee, Yu-Mi ; Kim, Mi-Seon ; Lee, Sang-Il ; Kim, Jong-Bo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 357~369
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.357
Cymbidium is horticulturally important and has been one of the most commercially successful orchid plants as well as cut flowers around the world including Korea. Up to now, a huge number of elite Cymbidium cultivars have been released on the commercial market via cross-hybridization, mutation and polyploidization breeding techniques. To investigate on breeding system in Cymbidium, we inquired the brief history and techniques of breeding and the current status on Cymbidium breeding in Korea. Also, the general propagation process of elite Cymbidium lines via tissue culture should be presented. However, the slow process of conventional breeding and the lack of useful genes in Cymbidium species delays the introduction of new cultivars to the commercial market. To solve these limitations, efficient regeneration and genetic transformation systems should be established in the improvement of Cymbidium breeding program. During the last several decades, some progress has been made in tissue culture and genetic transformation in Cymbidium species. We review the recent status of tissue culture and genetic transformation systems in Cymbidium plants.
Review on the development of virus resistant plants in Alstroemeria
Park, Tae-Ho ; Han, In-Song ; Kim, Jong-Bo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 370~378
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.370
This review describes the stratagies of development of virus-resistant Alstroemeria plants using the genetic modification system. Despite of increasing of its importance in cut flower market, improvements of some horticultuirally important traits such as fragrance, long vase-life, virus resistance and tolerance against abiotic stresses are lack of the breeding program in Alstroemeria. Of these traits, virus-resistance is quite difficult to develop in Alstroemeria plants due to the limitations of genetic variation in the existed germplasm. To extend the genetic variation, plant biotechnological techniques such as genetic transformation and tissue culture should be combined to develop virus-resistant line in Alstroemeria. In this review, several strategies for the generation of virus-resistance by using natural resistance genes, pathogen-derived genes and other sources including pathogen-derived proteins, virus-specific antibodies and ribosome-inactivating proteins are presented. Also, brief histories of breeding, tissue culture, and transformation system in Alstroemeria plants are described to inderstand of the application of transgenic approach for the development of virus-resistance in Alstroemeria species.
Current status of tissue culture and genetic transformation systems in oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus L.)
Lee, Sang-Il ; Kim, Yun-Hye ; Lee, Dong-Hee ; Lee, Yu-Mi ; Park, Seo-Jun ; Kim, Jong-Bo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 379~387
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.379
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important crop due to its high oil content in the seed. Recently, the demand for the improvement of crop for biodisel energy source is increased as oil prices in the world has increased dramatically. Until now, oilseed rape breeding was carried out by cross-hybridization between different varieties and related germplasms. However, like as many other crops, the application of tissue culture and gene transformation systems has been introduced into oilseed rape breeding program including the development of transgenic canola plants. In this study, we reviewed a history of tissue culture and genetic transformation research in oilseed rape plants and indicated some important aspects for the production of transgenic oilseed rape plants.
Development of transgenic potato with high content of functional carotenoids by using metabolic engineering
Ahn, Mi-Jeong ; Bae, Jung-Myung ; Lee, Shin-Woo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 388~393
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.388
Recently, a number of successful research reports are accumulated to increase the carotenoid level in potato tuber such as
-carotene, precursor of vitamin A and keto-carotenoid like astaxanthin in which is not synthesized in most plants tissue since it does not contain a specific enzyme to add keto-ring in carotenoid molecule. In particular, keto-carotenoids are more interested due to their strong antioxidant activity. Currently, the content of
-carotene was increased up to 3,600-fold (
dry weight) when compared to the control potato tuber, parental cultivar for genetic modification. In addition, astaxanthin, one of the major keto-carotenoid was accumulated up to
dry weight in potato tuber with red color by over expressing the gene encoding
-carotene ketolase isolated from marine microorganisms. In this article, we summarized carotenogenesis-related genes that have been used for metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in potato. Furthermore, strategies for the accumulation of carotenoids and ketocarotenoids in specific potato tuber, bottle necks, and future works are discussed.
Current status on the development of GM plants based on the published articles and patents in Korea
Lee, Shin-Woo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 394~399
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.394
During the last three years (2007 to 2009), 1,212 articles of SCI journals, 451 articles of non-SCI journals, and 348 items of registered patents were reported by the research scientists involved in the BioGreen 21 Project, Rural Development Administration and Crop Functional Genomics Center (CFGC), The 21st century Frontier Program, in Korea. Out of these, the percentages of articles or patents directly related to the development of GM plants were 6.0% (SCI), 10.2% (non-SCI) and 12.6% (patents) from BioGreen 21 Project while 15.7% (SCI), 21.1% (non-SCI) and 81.6% (patents) from CFGC, respectively. It was observed that rice and pepper were major host crops for genetic modification mainly to provide the resistance or tolerance activities against to biotic as well as abiotic stresses. Very low cases were reported for the field test of GM plants regarding to the commercialization (less than 15 articles). These observations indicates that more research grants needs to be invested for the risk assessment of GM plants under early developmental stage to commercialize in Korea.
Recent developments in biotechnological improvement of Zoysia japonica Steud.
Sun, Hyeon-Jin ; Song, In-Ja ; Bae, Tae-Woong ; Lee, Hyo-Yeon ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 400~407
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.400
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), also called Korean or Japanese lawngrass, is the most popular warm-season turfgrass in Korea and is widely used for home lawns, parks, roadsides, golf courses and athletic fields. Its use is rapidly expanding in Korea and the other countries, due to its excellent characteristics which include tolerance to heat, drought and salinity. As the utilization area of this turfgrass increases, there is an increase in the demand for improved cultivars with disease and insect tolerance or with herbicide-tolerance or with extended greening periods. Conventional breeding methods have been used to improve the traits described above with limited success. However, with the advances in biotechnology, genetic transformation can be utilized for turfgrass improvement. In this paper, we review recent progress in biotechnological improvement of zoysiagrass and discuss future molecular breeding of this species.
Current status and outlook on genetic transformation of fruit trees in Korea
Kim, Jeong-Hee ; Song, Kwan-Jeong ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 408~413
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.408
The paper reviewed research status and outlook of genetic transformation in fruit trees in Korea. Genetic transformation has been long considered as an alternative technique overcoming limitation of conventional breeding and conducted since early 1990`s. An efficient genetic transformation was established with major cultivars of apple, even in Fuji and Gamhong, and some transgenic apple plants have been transferred into the greenhouse for further analysis of gene expression. A few successes of genetic transformation have been reported and application to a variety of cultivars tried in citrus and kiwifruit. Successful genetic transformation has not been reported in the other fruit trees including grapevine, yet and it is considered being at the level of research. Those factors including replacement of antibiotics as a selective agent, use of transgenic rootstocks and manipulation of gene expression at proper parts and developmental stages have been prerequisites for the rapid commercialization of transgenic fruit plants.
Recent advances in development of commercial rose by molecular breeding
Oh, Myung-Jin ; Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Ahn, Myung-Suk ; Liu, Jang-R. ; Kim, Suk-Weon ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 414~424
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.414
This report describes recent advances in tissue culture, genetic transformation of commercial rose (Rosa hybrida) and in development of new rose cultivars by molecular breeding. Rose is one of major cut-flowers in global horticulture industry. Successful progresses were made in development of new cultivars for pathogen resistant, environmental stress resistant and petal color modification by molecular breeding. New cultivars, however, has not reported yet in korea, although lots of progresses were achieved in each field of conventional breeding, tissue culture and genetic transformation. Cooperation in these research fields will promote screening of useful genes to have specific traits on rose and exploiting of processes to improve in the efficiency of tissue culture and genetic transformation of rose, therefore, we hopefully expect that new rose cultivars by molecular breeding will be released in the near future.
Advances in the molecular breeding of forage crops for abiotic stress tolerance
Alam, Iftekhar ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Sharmin, Shamima Akhtar ; Kim, Yong-Goo ; Lee, Byung-Hyun ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 425~441
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.425
Forages are the backbone of sustainable agriculture. They includes a wide variety of plant species ranging from grasses, such as tall fescue and bermudagrass, to herbaceous legumes, such as alfalfa and white clover. Abiotic stresses, especially salinity, drought, temperature extremes, high photon irradiance, and levels of inorganic solutes, are the limiting factors in the growth and productivity of major cultivated forage crops. Given the great complexity of forage species and the associated difficulties encountered in traditional breeding methods, the potential from molecular breeding in improving forage crops has been recognized. Plant engineering strategies for abiotic stress tolerance largely rely on the gene expression for enzymes involved in pathways leading to the synthesis of functional and structural metabolites, proteins that confer stress tolerance, or proteins in signaling and regulatory pathways. Genetic engineering allows researchers to control timing, tissue-specificity, and expression level for optimal function of the introduced genes. Thus, the use of either a constitutive or stress-inducible promoter may be useful in certain cases. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made towards the development of transgenic forage plants with improved tolerance to abiotic stresses.
Trend and direction for plant factory system
Kim, Jae-Whune ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 442~455
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.442
Plant factory is the fruit of the most advanced modern agricultural technology. This is a crop-producing technology that controls systematically sowing, cultivating, and harvesting crops within an indoor factory. Growing crops in a factory has advantages over traditional farming because it produces safer crops all year around due to clean environment and it is easier to hire workers at the factory. Developed countries has invested actively in this field for several decades because its economical and industrial impact are predicted to be enormous. Recently, Korea also begins to investigate this field actively to develop a system that may be competitive at global market, using technologies and human resources that Korea already has. The plant factory technology is currently less competitive than traditional farming because it requires a large initial investment and management cost and lacks cultivation technologies for various crops. However, I believe in solving these problems if plant biotechnologists participate in developing the plant factory system. If this technology is developed well in Korea, then it will play a great role in solving food and environmental issues.
Recent advances in the applications of tissue culture and genetic transformation in potato
Cho, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Young-Eun ; Park, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 456~464
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.456
Potato is one of the most important crops in the world. Due to vegetative propagation of this crop, techniques of plant tissue culture and genetic transformation are often applied for potato researches and a lot of progress has been made in the breeding programs using these techniques during the last decades. In potato, there have been several trials to introduce GM potato varieties to the world market, but they so far failed due to the changed legislation and unwillingness of large processors to process GM potatoes. These issues are highly associated with the general acceptances of the public and other political decisions. In addition to these, there are still obstacles to overcome to achieve the development of commercial potato variety and several factors to improve horticulturally important traits. In this study, therefore, we reviewed recent advances and research status on tissue culture and genetic transformation in potato and discussed future perspective.
Growth regulation of cow1 rice mutant seedlings by blue light
Goh, Chang-Hyo ; Ko, Suk-Min ; Park, Hee-Yeon ; Kim, Yeon-Ki ; Kim, Yong-Woo ; Kim, Young-Joo ; Sun, Hyeon-Jin ; Moon, Yong-Hwan ; Lee, Hyo-Yeon ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 465~471
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.465
We assessed whether the cow1 mutant defects are associated with growth of Tos17 and T-DNA insertional rice in blue light (BL). Growth of oscow1 mutants which encoded a member of the YUCCA protein family was retarded in BL. Root to shoot ratios of the mutants were reduced about 2 times lower in the absence of NAA and about 2.5 times lower in the presence of NAA; the shoot growth was not significantly changed by NAA addition. Photosynthetic activity of the mutants was however inhibited in high light. Pigment analysis showed significant difference between wild-type (Chl a:b
Analysis of the Oxidative Stress-Related Transcriptome from Capsicum annuum L.
Lee, Hyoung-Seok ; Lee, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Ho-Bang ; Lee, Nam-Houn ; An, Chung-Sun ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 472~482
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.472
For the massive screening of the genes related to oxidative stress, a cDNA library was constructed from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Nockkwang) leaves treated with methyl viologen. From this library, 1,589 cDNA clones were sequenced from their 5` ends. The sequences were clustered into 1,252 unigenes comprised of 152 contigs and 1,100 singletons. Similarity search against NCBI protein database identified 1,005 ESTs (80.3%) as Known, 197 ESTs (15.7%) as Unknown, and 50 ESTs (3.99%) as No hit. In the ESTs, oxidative stress-related genes such as ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and osmotin precursor were highly expressed. The cDNA microarray containing 1,252 unigenes was constructed and used to analyze their expression upon methyl viologen treatment. Analyses of the hybridization revealed that various stress-related genes such as peroxidase, tyrosine aminotransferase, and omega-6 fatty acid desaturase, were induced and some metabolism related genes such as aldolase and ketol-acid reductoisomerase, were repressed by methyl viologen treatment, respectively. The information from this study will be used for further study on the functional roles of oxidative stress-related genes and signaling network of oxidative stress in hot pepper.
Expression analysis and characterization of rice oligopeptide transport gene (OsOPT10) that contributes to salt stress tolerance
Jung, Yu-Jin ; Lee, In-Hye ; Han, Kyung-Hee ; Son, Cho-Yee ; Cho, Yong-Gu ; Lee, Myung-Chul ; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 483~493
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.483
Knock-out of a gene by insertional mutagenesis is a direct way to address its function through the mutant phenotype. Among ca. 15,000 gene-trapped Ds insertion lines of rice, we identified one line from selected sensitive lines in highly salt stress. We conducted gene tagging by TAIL-PCR, and DNA gel blot analysis from salt sensitive mutant. A gene encoding an oligopeptide transporter (OPT family) homologue was disrupted by the insertion of a Ds transposon into the OsOPT10 gene that was located shot arm of chromosome 8. The OsOPT10 gene (NP_001062118.) has 6 exons and encodes a protein (752 aa) containing the OPT family domain. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of OsOPT10 gene was rapidly and strongly induced by stresses such as high-salinity (250 mM), osmotic, drought,
ABA. The subcellular localization assay indicated that OsOPT10 was localized specifically in the plasma membrane. Overexpression of OsOPT10 in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice conferred tolerance of transgenic plants to salt stress. Further we found expression levels of some stress related genes were inhibited in OsOPT10 transgenic plants. These results suggested that OsOPT10 might play crucial but differential roles in plant responses to various abiotic stresses.
The effect of medium change after pretreating microspores, medium addition, and volume of under solid medium in double layer culture on the production of embryos in isolated microspore culture of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Park, Eun-Joon ; Lee, Jong-Suk ; An, Dong-Joo ; Kim, Moon-Za ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 494~504
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.494
The effect of the addition of the fresh medium, volume of under solid medium in double layer culture as well as the medium change after pretreating microspores on the production of embryos in microspore culture of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has been studied. When cultured after heat pre-treatment, changing pretreatment media with fresh culture media proved to be more effective for embryo production rather than supplementing additional culture media. Heat-pretreating for 3 days turned out more effective for embryo production than pretreating for 1 or 2 days. In the case of anther pretreatment, the addition of fresh medium after culture was not effective for embryo production. In pretreating microspores, however, supplementing additional fresh culture media greatly improved embryo yield and quality. The best time point of media addition was 4 days after culture commenced, and the most effective number of times of media addition was one time addition. Moreover, the effective volume of added medium in double layer culture for embryo production was 1.5 ml. The addition of media more than 1.5 ml reduced both embryo yield and quality. Double layer medium was more effective for embryo development than liquid medium. When the volume of under solid medium increased ranging from 3 ml to 7 ml, more cotyledonary embryos were produced in either 5 ml or 7 ml compared to 3 ml, even though the total number of embryos were highest in 3 ml. These results can be used as an important data for establishing an efficient microspore culture system for producing high frequency of normal embryos in hot pepper.
In vitro micropropagation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Suh, Eun-Jung ; Park, Byoung-Mo ; Han, Bong-Hee ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 505~510
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.505
This study was conducted to refine a micropropagation method of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in vitro. When young shoots were cultured on media with various concentrations of BA or TDZ alone, LS medium containing
BA was found favorable for shoot proliferation from young shoots with a mean of 4.2 shoots. Using BA together with IAA, more shoots were obtained on LS medium containing
IAA with a mean of 5.7 shoots. In liquid medium, number of shoots and fresh weight per explant increased significantly. The best shoot proliferation and increasing of fresh weight were achieved on LS liquid medium containing
IAA with 6.9 shoots and more than 4,000 mg fresh weight. Of the different concentrations of LS salt, double strength of LS medium provided the highest shoot proliferation with 7.3 shoots, and fresh weight with 5,539 mg per explant. Shoot proliferation on LS medium containing
sucrose had better results with 8.7 shoots and 5,979 mg per explant in fresh weight than other conditions. In conclusion, the optimal level for shoot proliferation and biomass increase of water hyacinth was attained with the application of the double strength of LS medium containing
Acquirement of transgenic rose plants from embryogenic calluses via Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Lee, Su-Young ; Lee, Jung-Lim ; Kim, Won-Hee ; Kim, Seung-Tae ; Lee, Eun-Kyung ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 511~516
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.511
The process to acquire intron-GUS gene-expressed transformants from somatic embryos (including embryogenic calli) of Rosa hybrida cv. `Sweet Yellow` using Agrobacterium-meditated transformation method was reported in this study. Somatic embryos including embryogenic calluses were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL1 strain (O.D
Functional implications of gene expression analysis from rice tonoplast intrinsic proteins during seed germination and development
Huh, Sun-Mi ; Lee, In-Sook ; Kim, Beom-Gi ; Shin, Young-Seop ; Lee, Gang-Seop ; Kim, Dool-Yi ; Byun, Myung-Ok ; Kim, Dong-Hern ; Yoon, In-Sun ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 517~528
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.517
Rice seed maturation and germination involve drastic changes in water and nutrient transport, in which tonoplast aquaporins may play an important role. In the present study, gene expression profiles of 10 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) from rice were investigated by RT-PCR during seed development and germination. OsTIP3;1 and OsTIP3;2 were specifically expressed in mature seeds. Their transcript level rapidly decreased after onset of seed germination and gene expression was induced by ABA treatment. In contrast, expression of OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 was not seed specific as transcripts were found in vegetative tissues as well. Their respective transcript levels decreased at an early stage of seed development, whereas they increased at a later stage of seed germination and elongation of embryonic roots and shoots. When seed germination was inhibited by various stress conditions and ABA, expression of OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 was completely suppressed. In contrast, the expression level of OsTIP2;2 rapidly increased after seed imbibition and the transcript level was maintained under conditions inhibiting seed germination. These results implicate that tissue specific and developmental transcriptional regulation of OsTIPs in rice seeds depends on their specific function. In addition, OsTIPs can be discriminated by different potential phosphorylation and methylation sites in their protein structures. OsTIP3;1 and OsTIP3;2 possess unique phosphorylation signatures at their N-terminal domain, loop B and loop E, respectively. OsTIP2;1 and OsTIP4;3 have a potential methylation site at their Nterminal domain. This suggests that activity of specific tonoplast aquaporins may be regulated by post-translational modification as well as by transcriptional control.
Exogenous proline mitigates the detrimental effects of saline and alkaline stresses in Leymus chinensis (Trin.)
Sun, Yan-Lin ; Hong, Soon-Kwan ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 529~538
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.529
Proline accumulates in plants under environmental stresses including saline stress and alkaline stress. Here, we investigated the responses to two different stresses, saline stress (200 mM NaCl) and alkaline stress (100 mM
) in two Leymus chinensis (Trin.) genotypes, LcWT07 and LcJS0107, and effects of exogenous proline on the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Both saline stress and alkaline stress significantly induced the accumulation of proline in leaves of the two genotypes after 96 h, and alkaline stress caused a transient and significant increase in LcJS0107 plants at 6 h. A reduction in the activities of catalase (CAT, EC 18.104.22.168) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 22.214.171.124), but not in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 126.96.36.199), was detected in plants exposed to saline and alkaline stresses. Remarkable decrease in relative water contents (RWC) was found in 144 h stressed plants. However, lipid peroxidation estimated by malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves remained relatively stable. With the addition of exogenous proline, it did not cause changes of proline levels in two genotypes, but combined with saline or alkaline stress, the exogenous application of proline significantly induced proline accumulation after even short treatment periods. Combined with salt stress, the exogenous application also increased the activities of CAT and APX. These results indicated that exogenous proline not only increases proline levels in vivo as a osmotic adjustment under stress, but mitigates the detrimental effects of saline and alkaline stresses by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes.
Characteristics and functions of shaker like potassium channels in rice
Hwang, Hyun-Sik ; Kim, Hyun-Mi ; Jeong, Min-A ; Kim, Dong-Hern ; Byun, Myung-Ok ; Kim, Beom-Gi ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 539~548
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.539
) is one of the most abundant cations in higher plant. It comprises about 10% of plant dry weight and it plays roles in numerous functions such as osmo- and turgor regulation, charge balance of plasma membrane and control of stomata and organ movement. Several potassium transporters and potassium channels regulate
homeostasis in response to
uptake systems. In this review, we describe the biological, biochemical and physiological characteristics of shaker like potassium channels in higher plant. Especially, we searched the rice genome databases and analysized expressed genes, genome structures and protein domain characteristics of shaker like potassium channels.
Restriction of Ca
deficiency-like symptoms by co-expressing a Ca
transporter and a Ca
-binding protein in tomato
Han, Jeung-Sul ; Kang, Ho-Ju ; Kim, Chang-Kil ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 549~555
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.549
Here we focused on tip-burn and blossom-end rot (BER) symptoms in the tomato plants expressing the constitutively active form of
antiporter (sCAX1) and/or a Ca-binding protein (calreticulin, CRT) genes during their whole growth period. Conclusively we demonstrated that CRT is able to suppress the tip-burn and BER symptoms that were induced by sCAX1. Under poor nutrition condition, tomato plants overexpressing sCAX1 showed severe necrotic collapses in both roots and shoot polar tissues, which are in accordance with
deficient symptoms frequently observed in an agricultural cultivation of tomato. Reciprocal grafting trials using sCAX1 and wild type plants revealed that the tip-burn symptom by sCAX1 overexpression is not caused by hindrance of
uptake from soil. We constructed CRT overexpressing transgenic tomatoes, and crossed them with sCAX1 transgenic plants to investigate the effects of CRT on the symptoms of sCAX1 transgenic plants. Co-expression of sCAX1 and CRT significantly suppressed the
deficient symptoms of sCAX1 transgenic plants. Those results suggest the model that
homeostasis disturbed by the overexpression of sCAX1 may be suppressed by the co-expression of CRT.
Development of transgenic rice lines expressing the human lactoferrin gene
Lee, Jin-Hyoung ; Kim, Il-Gi ; Kim, Hyo-Sung ; Shin, Kong-Sik ; Suh, Seok-Cheol ; Kweon, Soon-Jong ; Rhim, Seong-Lyul ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 556~561
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.556
Lactoferrin is an 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein that is found in high concentrations in human milk. Human lactoferrin (hLF) has several beneficial biological activities including immune system modulation and antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we devolved a method of hLF expression through introducing the hLF gene construct into Oriza sativa cv. Nakdong using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. The expression of the hLF gene under the control of the rice glutelin promoter was detected in the seeds of transgenic rice plants. Transformed rice plants were selected on media containing herbicide(DL-phosphinothricin) and the integration of hLF cDNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The expression of the full length hLF protein from the grains of transgenic rice plants was verified by Western blot analysis. The lactoferrin expression levels in the transformed rice grains determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay accounted for approximately 1.5% of total soluble protein. Taken together, these data indicate that rice grains expressing hLF can be directly incorporated into infant formula and baby food.
Resistance of SOD2-transgenic petunia line to oxidative stress
Lee, Su-Young ; Han, Bong-Hee ; Kim, Yeong-Tae ; Kim, Jin-Seog ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 562~566
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.562
petunia line (A2-36-2-1-1-35) was treated with different levels of methyl viologen (MV) to determine its resistance to oxidative stress. Four (4) levels of MV (0, 100, 200, and
) were applied. The SOD2-transgenic
petunia line exhibited a very significant oxidative stress resistance at the highest MV concentration (
) treatment compared to non-transgenic plant. RNA and protein expression of SOD2 transgene and higher parenchyma cell density in the transgenic petunias exhibiting resistance to oxidative stress proves its contribution to the expression of its resistance to oxidative stress.
Suppression of tobamovirus movement toward upper leaves in the tomato plant over-expressing a maize calreticulin
Han, Jeung-Sul ;
Journal of Plant Biotechnology, volume 37, issue 4, 2010, Pages 567~573
DOI : 10.5010/JPB.2010.37.4.567
To ascertain the effect of over-expressed maize calreticulin in tomato plant on tobamovirus movement in addition to validating potentiality of the gene (ZmCRT) as a means for the virus-resistance resource, four ZmCRT-expressing homozygous lines were generated from the T0 plants as using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, nucleic acid analyses, and a conventional breeding method. Of them, a line was subjected to the bioassay for tolerances to tobacco mosaic virus-U1 (TMV-U1) and tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) followed by RT-PCR and a chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analyses. Both transgenic plants transcribing ZmCRT and wild-type plants showed no symptom by 20 days after viruses inoculation, however the photosystem II quantum yield parameter measured from the upper leaves of ToMV-inoculated plants revealed that ZmCRT transgenic plants have higher photosynthetic ability than wild-type ones at that time, which indirectly implies that over-expressed ZmCRT product acts as a barrier to the cell-to-cell and/or systemic movement of ToMV. Moreover, ZmCRT transgenic plants showed remarkably longer shoot length than wild-type ones in 40 days after TMV-U1 or ToMV inoculation each, which might be resulted from higher photosynthetic ability during the phase not yet showing any external symptoms. Collectively, over-expressed ZmCRT protein in tomato plants is able to interrupt the systemic movement of infected TMV-U1 and ToMV even though not perfect.